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Developing the

Workforce
Tools for Change
• Prepare
• Explain
• Have a Plan
• Have a Sponsor
• Motivate Direct Supervisors
• Recruit Unoffical Leaders
• Implement
• Evaluate
Organizational Process Interventions
• TQM
• Six Sigma
• TRIZ
Human Process Interventions
• Teambuilding
• Conflict Resolution
• MBO
• Emotional Intelligence
Employee Development
• Job Design
• Skills Training
• Supervisory Training
• High Potential Employees
• Mentoring
• Coaching
• Leadership & Management
Development
Employee Training Programs
• Organization
• Task
• Individual

• ADDIE Model
• Analyze
• Design
• Develop
• Implement
• Evaluate
ADDIE Model - Analyze
• Identify Goals
• Gather & Analyze Data
• Identify Performance Gap
• Identify Instructional Goals
• Propose Solutions
• Evaluate Options
• Estimate Impacts
ADDIE Model - Design
• Compile Task Inventory
• Identify Target Audience
• Develop Training Objectives
• Develop Course Content
• Develop Evaluation Criteria
ADDIE Model - Develop
• Training Material
• Leader´s guide
• Handouts
• Manuals
• Instructional Methods
• Passive
• Lecture
• Presentation
• Conference
ADDIE Model – Develop (cont)
• Active
• Facilitation
• Case studies
• Simulation
• Vestibule
• Socratic seminar
• Experiential
• Demonstration
• One-on-one
• Performance
ADDIE Model – Develop (cont)
• Program Delivery
• Classroom
• Self-study
• Programmed instruction
• E-learning
• Electronic performance support system
• CBT
• Distance learning
• Blended learning
• Online bulletin boards
ADDIE Model - Implement
• Facility

• Seating
• Theater
• Classroom
• Banquet
• Chevron
• Conference
• U-shaped
ADDIE Model - Evaluate
• Reaction
• Learning
• Behavior
• Results
Performance Appraisals
• A Performance Appraisal is...
• Elements
• Supervisor Assessment
• Employee Self-assessment
• Assessment from Others
• Goal Setting
• Development Steps

• Timing
• Anniversary Date
• Organization Focal Review
Performance Appraisal Methods
• Comparison
• Ranking
• Paired Comparison
• Forced Ranking

• Rating
• Rating Scales
• Checklist
Performance Appraisal Methods
(cont)
• Narrative
• Critical Incident
• Essay
• Field Review

• Behavioral
• Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
(BARS)
• Continuous Feedback
Training Performance Evaluators
• Before

• During

• After
Unique Employee Needs
• Diversity Initiatives

• Flexible Work Arrangements

• Repatriation
Measuring Results

• Business Impact Measures


• Production
• ROI

• Tactical Accountability
• Training Cost/Employee
• Employee Satisfaction Survey
Developing The Workforce
• Training and development
• Training - teaching lower-level employees how to perform
their present jobs
• Developing - teaching managers and professional
employees broad skills needed for their present and future
jobs
• Overview of the training process
• phase one - needs assessment
• identify the jobs, people, and departments which need training
• phase two - design the training to meet training goals
• phase three - decide what training methods to use
• phase four - evaluate the training’s effectiveness
Developing The Workforce (cont)
• Types of training
• Orientation - training designed to introduce new
employees to the company and familiarize them
with policies, procedures, culture, and the like
• benefits may include lower turnover, increased morale,
higher productivity, and lower recruiting and training
costs
• Team training - provides employees with the skills
and perspectives they need to work in collaboration
with others
• Diversity training - focuses on identifying and
reducing hidden biases against people with
differences and developing the skills needed to
effectively manage a diversified workforce
Selected Instructional Methods And
Media

100
Classroom programs -
live

80 Videotapes

Internet/WWW
Percentage using

60 Games/Simulations
(computer-based)

Videoconferencing
40 (to group)

Satellite/
Broadcast TV
20 Outdoor experiential
programs

Videoconferencing
0 Overall 100-499 500-999 1,000-2,499 2,500-9,999 10,000 (individual desktops)
or more
Number of employees
Performance Appraisal
• Performance appraisal
• the assessment of an employee’s job performance
• two basic purposes
• administrative - provides information for making salary,
promotion, and layoff decisions
• developmental - diagnoses training needs and enables
career planning
• What do you appraise?
• Trait appraisals - subjective judgments about employee
performance
• often leads to personal bias
• may not be suitable for obtaining useful feedback
Performance Appraisal (cont.)
• What do you appraise? (cont.)
• Behavioral appraisals - focus on more observable
aspects of performance
• helps ensure that all parties understand what the ratings are
really measuring
• Results appraisals - tend to be more objective
• focus on production data
• Management By Objectives (MBO) - subordinate and
supervisor agree on specific performance goals
• develop a plan for attaining the goals
• identify criteria for determining whether goals have been
reached
• useful when managers want to empower employees
• may focus on short-term achievement and ignore long-term
goals
Example Of BARS Used For
Evaluating Quality

Uses measures of quality and well-defined


Outstanding 7 processes to achieve project goals.
Defines quality from the client’s perspective.

6 Look for/identifies ways to continually improve the process.

Clearly communicates quality management to others.


5 Develops a plan that defines how the team will participate in quality.
Appreciates TQM as an investment.

Average 4 Has measures of quality that define tolerance levels.

Views quality as costly.


3 Legislates quality.

2 Focuses her/his concerns only on outputs and


deliverables, ignoring the underlying process.

Poor 1 Blames others for absence of quality.


Gives lip service only to quality concerns.
Guidelines For Choosing An
Appraisal System

Attend to
legal
considerations
Develop a formal Use job analysis
appeal process for performance
standards

Appraisal
Use more than Communicate
System
one rater where performance
possible standards

Document Evaluate on
the process specific
carefully behaviors
Performance Appraisal (cont.)
• Who should do the appraisal?
• managers and supervisors - traditional source of
appraisal information
• peers and team members - best at identifying
leadership potential and interpersonal skills
• subordinates - provide feedback to supervisors
• internal and external customers
• internal customers include anyone inside the organization
who depends upon an employee’s work output
• self-appraisals - increases worker’s involvement in
appraisal
• 360 degree appraisal - uses multiple sources to gain
comprehensive perspective of one’s performance
Performance Appraisal (cont.)
• How do you give employees
feedback?
• performance feedback is a stressful
task for all parties
• most difficult interviews are with
employees who are performing poorly
• no “one best way” to perform the
appraisal interview
• follow-up meetings may be necessary
KOLB’S THEORY OF EXPERIENTIAL
LEARNING

• David Kolb, a researcher and teacher


in adult education, created a model
for identifying and describing adult
learning.
• Kolb’s work can be traced back to
the famous Confucius proverb:
“Tell me, and I will forget. Show me,
and I may remember. Involve me, and I
will understand.”
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE
CONCRETE
EXPERIENCE
(Feeling)

ACTIVE REFLECTIVE
EXPERIMENTATION OBSERVATION
(Reflecting) (Action)

ABSTRACT
CONCEPTUALIZATION
(Conceptualizing)
CONCRETE EXPERIENCE
Concrete Experience Learning
initially occurs when a person
encounters a new concrete
experience and deals with it in
terms of observations, feelings,
and reactions.
ACTIVITY
• Think about a concrete experience
that you have had recently at work
or at school. Identify and describe
the environment where this
experience occurred, your role and
your actions:
• What did you do?
• When did you do it?
• Who participated?
• Why did you do it?
REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION
Reflective Observation occurs as a
person observes the new situation and
adds to or adjusts his/her perceptions
based on previous learning. This
process compels the student to reflect
on past experiences and to think about
the current experience as either fitting
into previous patterns or not.
ACTIVITY

• Reflect on this learning


experience:
• What worked?
• What didn’t work?
• What were the patterns in your
learning?
• Do you see similarities and
differences in your learning process?
ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION
• Concept Formation:
• If the experience fits a pattern then the student
forms a generalization and a set of concepts to
define the situation.
• As he/she develops these concepts and
generalizations, his/her thinking includes
imagining other concrete experiences that
invariably raise new questions.
• The answers to these questions require further
learning experimentation and the accompanying
development of new concepts.
ACTIVITY
• Identify the knowledge that you
gained and its uses:
• What generalizations can you make
related to your learning experiences?
• What are the insights, or rules or
principles you gained from reflecting
about this experience?
ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION
• When the person realizes that the
answers constructed in the Abstract
Conceptualization stage are not
necessarily complete, further testing
is required.
• He/she proposes new concrete
experiments and begins the learning
cycle again.
ACTIVITY

• Test your learning:


• What are the possible applications?
• How could you apply your leaning
in another situation or setting?
• What results could you imply and
why?
Person carries out a
particular action and
then sees the effect
of the action in this
situation.

Person understands
these effects so that if the
Person tests the
same action was taken in
implications of this
the same circumstances
general principle in
it would be possible to
new situations
anticipate the outcome.

Person understands the


general principle under
which the particular
instance falls.
Questions?
Comments?
Confessions?