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4G

Fourth-Generation Cellular
Communication System

PREPARED BY
VEMPARALA MANOJ KUMAR
E.C.E
4th YEAR
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Agenda
•Introduction
•Evolution of Data Standards
•WiMAX
•The Road Ahead
•Closing Thoughts

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4G Definition

4G Fourth Generation Cellular


Communication (4G)

3G Ø4G is not one defined technology or standard, but


rather a collection of technologies and protocols
aimed at creating fully packet-switched networks

2G optimized for data.

Ø4G networks are projected to provide speeds of

1G 100 Mbps while moving and 1 Gbps while


stationary.

0G

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EVOLUTION OF DATA
STANDARDS

4G
Zero Generation Mobile
Systems(0G)

3G ØThe radio telephone system preceded modern cellular


mobile telephony technology (1G).
ØThe radio telephone system contained one central
2G antenna tower per region. The central antenna required
radio phones to have a powerful transmitter, capable of
transmitting up to 50 miles. The number of radio
telephones per region was limited by the number of
1G available channels.
ØUnlike closed radio systems, radio telephones were
connected to the public telephone network and were
0G typically mounted in cars, trucks, and briefcases.

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EVOLUTION OF DATA
STANDARDS

4G First Generation Cellular


Communication(1G)

3G ØThe 1G cellular telephone system divided cities


into small cells. This division allowed extensive
frequency reuse across a city, allowing millions
to use cell phones simultaneously.
2G Ø1G cell phone technology encompassed analog
standards introduced in the 1980s and continued

1G
until replaced by 2G digital cell phones.

0G

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1st Generation Analog Cellular Systems
Standard Region Frequency Channel No. of Modulation Data Rate
(MHz) Spacing Channels (kbps)
(kHz)
AMPS USA 824-849 30 832 FM 10
869-894
TACS Europe 890-915 25 1000 FM 8
935-980
ETACS UK 872-915 25 1240 FM 8
917-950
NMT 450 Europe 453-457.5 25 180 FM 1.2
463-467.5
NMT 900 Europe 890-915 12.5 1999 FM 1.2
935-960
C-450 Germany 450-455.74 10 573 FM 5.28
Portugal 460-465.74
RTMS Italy 450-455 25 200 FM -
460-465
Radiocom France 414.8-418 12.5 250 FM -
2000 424.8-428
NTT Japan 870-885 25 600 FM 0.3
JTACS / Japan 860-870 25 400 FM 8.0
NTACS 915-925
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EVOLUTION OF DATA
STANDARDS
Second Generation Cellular
4G Communication(2G)
Ø2G digital technologies can be divided into two

3G standards:

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

2G
- GSM: Originally from Europe but used
worldwide
- iDEN: Proprietary network used by Nextel in the
US
1G - PDC: Used exclusively in Japan

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)

0G - IS-95: Commonly referred to as CDMA and used


in the Americas and parts of Asia

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2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems
System IS-54 GSM IS-95 CT-2 CT-3 DECT
Country USA Europe USA Europe, DCT-90 Europe
Asia Sweden
Access TDMA / TDMA / CDMA / FDMA TDMA / TDMA /
Technology FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA
(DS)
Frequency
Band
BS(MHz) 869-894 935-960 869-894 864-868 862-866 1800-1900
MS(MHz) 824-849 890-915 824-849
Duplexing FDD FDD FDD TDD TDD TDD
RF Channel 30 200 1250 100 1000 1728
Spacing
(kHz)
Modulation Pi/4 GMSK BPSK / GFSK GFSK GFSK
DQPSK QPSK
Frequency Fixed Fixed Fixed Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
Assignment
Power
Control
MS Y Y Y N N N
BS Y Y Y N N N
Speech VSELP RPE-LTP QCELP ADPCM ADPCM ADPCM
Coding
Speech rate 8
(kbps) (variable
7.95 13 rate) 32 32 32
Channel Bit
Rate (kbps) 48.6 270.833 1228.8 72 640 1152
Channel 1/2 rate 1/2 rate 1/2 rate None CRC CRC
Coding convolution convolution forward,
1/3 rate
reverse,
CRC
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EVOLUTION OF DATA
STANDARDS
Third Generation Cellular
4G Communication(3G)
Ø3G networks provide the ability to transfer
3G voice data and non-voice data (music
downloads, emails and instant messaging)
over the same network simultaneously.

2G Ø3G networks deliver broadband capacity


and support greater numbers of voice and
data customers at lower incremental costs
than 2G.
1G ØStandards:
- W-CDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access

0G 
- EVDO: Evolution-Data Optimized

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3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards

U M T S -W C D M A C D M A 200 0

"N o' B ackw ard C om patibility B ackw ard com p atibility w ith C D M A O n e
C ell S ites n ot synchronized C e ll sites synchronized thru' G P S tim ing
E ach cell site w ith differe nt scram bling
A djacent cell site s use diffferent tim e offs
code fo r sprea ding of sa m e scram bling code for spread ing
C om plex soft H an d O v er S im ple S o ft H a nd O v er
S cra m blin g co de 38 ,400 chip s; fram eP reudo R and om (P N ) sequen ce o f leng th
15
o f 10 m s 2 - 1 c hips; period of 2 6.67 m s; diffe ren
site offset of 64 chip s
O V S F C odes W alsh C od es

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3G vs. 4G
•Less Complexity, Faster Transmission.

•Unlike the 3G networks which are a combination of circuit switched


and packet switched networks, 4G will be based on packet switching
only. This will allow low-latency data transmission.

3G 4G
Leading U.S. Carrier 3G EVDO International Carrier is testing 4G
network currently averages 400 to communication at 100 Mbps while
700 Kbps with peak rates up to 2 moving, and 1 Gbps while
Mbps. stationary.

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3G vs. 4G

4G
3G 100
90

2G 80
70
60

1G 50
M
p
b

40
s

30

0G 20
10
0
3G 4G
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4G Possibilities

4G •Enhanced Mobile Gaming

3G ØExperience enhanced wireless capabilities that


deliver mobile gaming interaction with latency
less than five milliseconds.

2G ØPlay online multiplayer games while traveling


at high speeds or sitting outside.

1G
0G
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4G Possibilities(Cont….)

4G Personal Media Repository

3G Create a personal media


repository that can be accessed
from home and on the road to
2G view photos, watch movies and
listen to your personal music
collection.
1G
0G
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4G Possibilities(Cont….)

4G •Virtual Presence

3G Use hologram-generating virtual reality


programs that provide an artificial
presence just about anywhere.

2G For example, decide if you want to


personally respond when someone rings
your front door while you are away from
1G home.

0G
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4G Possibilities(Cont….)

4G •Broadband Access in Remote


Locations

3G 4G networks will provide a wireless


alternative for broadband access to
residential and business customers.
2G In addition, 4G will provide the first
opportunity for broadband access in

1G remote locations without an infrastructure


to support cable or DSL access.

0G
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WiMAX
•World Interoperability for Microwave Access
•There are two main applications of WiMAX:
1) Fixed WiMAX(IEEE 802.16-2004) - Fixed WiMAX applications
are point-to-multipoint enabling the delivery of last mile
wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL
for homes and businesses.

2) Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005) - Mobile WiMAX offers


the full mobility of cellular networks at true broadband speeds.

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WiMAX
Fixed WiMAX Architecture

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WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX Architecture

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WiMAX Adoption
Fixed WiMAX Adoption
Fixed WiMAX is currently available however the adoption rate is impacted by the
high cost of equipment in comparison to cable or DSL.

Fixed WiMAX provides greater benefits for developing countries that do not
already have physical infrastructure to support wired broadband access.

Mobile WiMAX Adoption

Mobile WiMAX equipment will arrive to carriers toward the end of 2007.
However, mobile equipment testing typically takes between 12 to 18 months
before the equipment is introduced to the consumer market.

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WiMAX vs. Wi-Fi

•WiMAX / Wi-Fi Comparison


•WiMAX and Wi-Fi are somewhat independent, addressing slightly
different needs.

WiMAX uses private, licensed spectrum and provides Wi-Fi-like


service with guaranteed performance to larger public areas, similar in
coverage to cellular networks today.

Wi-Fi uses shared spectrum and operates at short distances, making it


ideal for low-cost, private networks (where usage of the network is
constrained to an office building or campus) or free public systems
(where service guarantees are not required).

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The Road Ahead Going Forward with 4G

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4G Access Options
•Embed 4G technology into
all end-user devices

•Develop mobile personal


gateways

•Develop external
interfaces with 4G
peripherals

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and the AT&T logo are trademarks of AT&T Knowledge Ventures.
© 2007 AT&T Knowledge Ventures. All rights reserved. AT&T
and the AT&T logo are trademarks of AT&T Knowledge Ventures.
Smaller footprint peripherals have a greater
potential to support multiple devices.

USB

PCMCIA

Express Card

Secure Digital

Compact Flash

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Video Digital Xbox
Laptop Desktop Camera Camera PDA 360 PSP PS3

USB                

Bluetooth                

Wi-Fi                

SD I/O Card Slot                

Firewire Port                

Ethernet Port                

PCMCIA                
ExpressCard 34
Slot                
ExpressCard 54
Slot                
Source: Availability based on direct interface or available adapters

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The lack of clarity and overuse of the term 4G could prove its
biggest opportunity, or could spell its premature demise.

As carriers begin to rollout 3G the term 4G may be rendered


meaningless by lack of definition.
However, the rollout of mobile broadband will have a profound
impact on the way we work and live.

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and the AT&T logo are trademarks of AT&T Knowledge Ventures.
CONCLUSION

•Standardization of mobile services is being developed to overcome the


challenges of streaming multimedia content in 4G mobile communication
systems.
•The streaming standard specifies protocols and codec's that address streaming
multimedia challenges such as the transmission characteristics of wireless
links and the heterogeneity of radio-access networks and mobile terminals.
•The Interactive Media streaming platform, based on the standard, provides
interfaces that application developers can use for charging and billing
functions as well as network operation and maintenance.
•Ongoing developments concentrate on optimizing mobile content
applications by supporting additional codes and offering a broader range of
interfaces for proxy management and operation.
•Eventually, the platform will include extensions for capability exchange to
allow negotiation of terminal capabilities during session setup and digital
rights management.

© 2007 AT&T Knowledge Ventures. All rights reserved. AT&T


and the AT&T logo are trademarks of AT&T Knowledge Ventures.
References

•G.J Conklin et al.,_Video coding for streaming Media Delivery


on the internet,_IEEE Trans. Circuits and systems for video
Technology,Mar.2001,pp.269-281.
•D.Wu et al.,_Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches
and Directions,_IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for video
technology,Mar.2001,pp.282-300.
•J. Vass, S. Zhuan, and X. Zhuang, _Scalable, Error-
Resilient, and High- Performance Video
Communications in Mobile Wireless Environments,_
IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,
July 2001, pp. 833-847.
•L. Boman, _Ericsson_s Service Network: A _Melting
Pot_ for Creating and Delivering Mobile Internet
Service,_ Ericsson Rev., vol. 78, no. 2, 2001, pp. 62-67.

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and the AT&T logo are trademarks of AT&T Knowledge Ventures.
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quarries ????

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