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x jnalog Systems with Voice Traffic
x jnalog Modulation, mostly RM
x RDMj RDD multiple access

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x Digital Systems
x Digital Modulation
x Voice Traffic
x TDMj RDD and CDMj RDD multiple access

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x Digital Systems
x Voice + Low-data rate

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x Voice + High-data rate
x Multimedia Transmission

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x Ror any data transmission event, the received signal will


consists of
x Transmitted signal, modified by the various distortions imposed
by the transmission systems
x jdditional unwanted signals that are inserted somewhere
between transmission and reception
x These unwanted signals are referred as noise
x Thermal Noise
x Intermodulation noise
x Crosstalk
x Impulse Noise
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Thermal Noise

x Thermal noise due to agitation of electrons


x Present in all electronic devices and transmission
media
x Cannot be eliminated
x Runction of temperature
x Particularly significant for satellite communication

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Noise

x Intermodulation noise ± occurs if signals with different


frequencies share the same medium
x Interference caused by a signal produced at a frequency that is the
sum or difference of two original frequencies or multiple of those
frequencies
x Crosstalk ± unwanted coupling between signal paths, can
also occur when unwanted signals are picked up by
microwave antennas
x Often dominates in ISM bands
x Impulse noise ± irregular pulses or noise spikes
x Caused by external electromagnetic disturbances, or faults and flaws
in the communications system

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Other Impairments
x jtmospheric absorption ± water vapor and
oxygen contribute to attenuation
x Multipath propagation ± obstacles reflect
signals so that multiple copies with varying
delays are received

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