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£ at the UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, the Conference,

Governments set up the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which today
continues to act as a global catalyst for action to protect the environment.

£ By 1983, the UN set up the World Commission on Environment and Development.

which had been seen as a side effect of industrial wealth with only a limited impact, was
understood to be a matter of survival for developing nations.

After considering the 1987 Brundtland report, the UN General Assembly called for the UN
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)


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£ Àhat human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development.
Àhey are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.

£ Àhat scientific uncertainty should not delay measures to prevent environmental

degradation where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage.

£ Àhat States have a sovereign right to exploit their own resources but not to
cause damage to the environment of other States.

£ Àhat eradicating poverty and reducing disparities in worldwide standards of

living are ´indispensableµ for sustainable development.

£ Àhat the full participation of women is essential for achieving sustainable


£ Àhat the developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in
the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures
their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and
financial resources they command.

£ Gll countries, notably developed countries, should make an effort to

´green the worldµ through reforestation and forest conservation.

Àhe States have a right to develop forests according to their socio-

economic needs, in keeping with national sustainable development

Àhat specific financial resources should be provided to develop

programmes that encourage economic and social substitution policies
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£ Àhe ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilise

greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will
prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.

£ An important achievement was an agreement on the Climate

Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol.
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£Àhe treaty defines biodiversity as "the variability among living

organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine
and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between
species and of ecosystems.

£ It made a start towards redefinition of money supply measures

that did not inherently encourage destruction of
natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.