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Global Warming- A

Warning
Dr.J.Nuchin M.D.,M.B.A.,D.C.A.
Epidemiologist
Audience-Senior Medical
Officers, PUNE
Global Warming: A Deadly Threat
for Human Life
Global Warming refers to the
sustained increase in the average
temperature of the earth's
atmosphere.

A natural process but Human activity


contributes to this change through
the buildup of heat-trapping
greenhouse gases.
It is also an
increase in the
near surface
temperature of
the Earth.
Global warming has
occurred in the
distant past as a
result of natural
influences, but the
term is most often
used to refer to
the warming
predicted to occur
  Global warming is a serious issue to
our futures.  Here is some
information on the facts of global
warming,    how it occurs, and how
you can help to stop the process.
Over the last 100 years, the average
temperature of earth's atmosphere has
gone up 1° Fahrenheit.
The weather has not changed exactly the
same way in every area of the planet.
But, scientists think that the rise in
average temperature is already affecting
the earth's climate.
 The earth and its
Atmosphere
Early - Earth -
Formation

The earth and solar system


were formed 4.6 billion
years ago.

By examining the earth's


rocks and minerals,
scientists have
determined that liquid
water was probably on
the earth as early as 4.3
billion years ago.

The first evidence for the The - Themis - Asteroid


Early Earth, 4.6 billion years ago, along with the
other inner planets of the solar system. A
computer artwork
Solar system

From
outer
space,
currently
the Earth
looks
BLUE in THE
colour, BLUE PLANET
that’s
because
approxim
ately
70% of
the Earth
is
covered

Photosynthesis began
3.5-2.5 billion years
ago, which produced
oxygen and reduced
carbon dioxide and
methane, which are
greenhouse gases,
from the atmosphere.

T h e b o m b a rd m e n t o f
E a rth b y a ste ro id s 3 . 9
b illio n y e a rs a g o
m a y h a ve e n h a n ce d
That, there was
so much
carbon dioxide
(CO2) and
methane 2.7
billion Years
ago than in
our
atmosphere
that average
temperatures
on Earth were
as high as 70
degrees.
Snowball Earth Period
- 650 million years
ago
But bacteria and plants slowly
turned CO2 into oxygen.

During the past 4.6 billion years,


the Earth has gone through
climate changes over and over.

The Earth, a magma ocean at


the beginning of its history, has
alternately experienced ice
ages (Snowball Earth) and
warm periods.

It is currently in the slow-paced


warming period that started
20,000 years ago. (40,000
years ago modern man was
Evolution
Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere
• The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases
surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by
Earth's gravity.

• The atmosphere protects life on Earth by


absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming
the surface through heat retention (greenhouse
effect- a natural process), and reducing
temperature extremes between day and night.

• Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78%
nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038%
carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other
gases.
Chemicals Percent by
volume
Nitrogen 78%

Oxygen 20.6%

Argon < 1%

Water 0.4%
vapor
Carbon 0.036%
dioxide
Traces Ne, He, Kr, H,
gases O3
Methane ,
Nitrous
Oxide

• The Earth's atmosphere is about 300 miles
(480 km) thick, but most of the
atmosphere (about 80%) is within 10 miles
(16 km) of the surface of the Earth.
• There is no exact place where the
atmosphere ends; it just gets thinner and
thinner, until it merges with outer space.
• Air Pressure:
At sea level, the air pressure is about 14.7
pounds per square inch.
• As your altitude increases (for example, if
you climb a mountain), the air pressure
decreases.
• At an altitude of 10,000 feet, the air
pressure is 10 pound per square inch (and
there is less oxygen to breathe).
Atmospheric
Pressure
Decreases
With Height
Above 99 %
Most of the
energy is
captured
close to the Above 90 %
surface
Above 50 %
That energy
drives climate
and weather
Pressure ( mb )

50 percent of mass of the atmosphere is within 6 km of the s


Layers of earth atmosphere
Layers of earth atmosphere-Contd..

1.The
Troposphere:
Ø The troposphere is the lowest region in the
Earth's (or any planet's) atmosphere.


Ø On the Earth, it goes from ground (or
water) level up to about 11 miles (17
kilometers) high.


Ø The weather and clouds occur in the
troposphere. In the troposphere, the
temperature generally decreases as
altitude increases.
Ø

 2.The
Tropopause
Ø The tropopause is the boundary zone
(buffer zone or transition layer)
between the troposphere and the
stratosphere.

Ø The tropopause is characterized by little



3.The
Stratosphere
and Ozone
Layer
Ø Above the
troposphere is the
stratosphere,
where air flow is
mostly horizontal.

Ø The stratosphere is
characterized by a
slight temperature
Ø The
stratosp
here
extends
betwee From first layer to last layer
n 11
and 31
miles 1.Tropopause
(17 to 2.Stratosphere
50 3.Stratopause
kilomet
ers) 4.Mesosphere
above 5.Troposphere
the
earth's 6.Mesopause
surface. 7.Thermosphere
Ø The 8.Exosphere
earth's
Ø Ozone, a form of oxygen, is crucial to our
survival; this layer absorbs a lot of
ultraviolet solar energy.
Ø
Ø Only the highest clouds (cirrus,
cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus) are in
the lower stratosphere.
Ø
Ø The thin ozone layer in the upper
stratosphere has a high concentration
of ozone, a particularly reactive form of
oxygen.
Ø
Ø The formation of this layer is a delicate
matter, since only when oxygen is
produced in the atmosphere can an
ozone layer form and prevent an
intense flux of ultraviolet radiation
from reaching the surface, where it is
quite hazardous to the evolution of
life.

Ø There is considerable recent concern


that manmade fluorocarbon
compounds may be depleting the
ozone layer, with dire future
consequences for life on the Earth.

4.The Mesosphere
Ø The mesosphere is characterized by
temperatures that quickly decrease as height
increases.
Ø
Ø The mesosphere extends from between 31 and
50 miles (17 to 80 kilometers) above the
earth's surface.


5.Ionosphere:
Ø Above the mesosphere is the ionosphere
Ø The ionosphere starts at about 43-50 miles (70-
80 km) high and continues for hundreds of
miles (about 400 miles = 640 km).

Ø Auroras occur in the ionosphere.

Ø The ionosphere is very thin, but it is


where aurora(a glow in the sky seen at
polar latitudes) take place, and is also
responsible for absorbing the most
energetic photons from the Sun, and
for reflecting radio waves, thereby
making long-distance radio
communication possible.

Ø The structure of the ionosphere is


strongly influenced by the charged
 6.Exosphere:
Ø The exosphere is the outermost layer of the
Earth's atmosphere.
Ø The exosphere goes from about 400 miles (640
km) high to about 800 miles (1,280 km).
Ø The lower boundary of the exosphere is called
the critical level of escape, where
atmospheric pressure is very low (the gas
atoms are very widely spaced) and the
temperature is very low.

7.Thermosphere:
Ø In the thermosphere, temperature increases with
altitude.
Ø The thermosphere includes the exosphere and
part of the ionosphere.
Layers of earth atmosphere-Conclusion
Ø Exosphere - the outermost layer of the Earth's
atmosphere, where atmospheric pressure and
temperature are low.
Ø Ionosphere - the atmospheric layer between the
mesosphere and the exosphere; it is part of the
thermosphere.
Ø Mesosphere - the atmospheric layer between
the stratosphere and the ionosphere.
Ø Stratosphere - the atmospheric layer between
the troposphere and the mesosphere. The
stratosphere is characterized by a slight
temperature increase with altitude and by the
absence of clouds.
Ø Thermosphere - the layer of the atmosphere
located above part of the ionosphere (starting
at the coldest part of the atmosphere) and
below outer space; it consists of the exosphere
• Not only does the Earth
have a complex
atmosphere, but that
atmosphere has
complicated motion and
nontrivial behavior.

• We Earthlings call this


weather in the short
term and climate over
the longer term.
Global warming and Green house
effect
• Green house effect: The “greenhouse
effect” & global warming are not the
same thing.
• To a certain degree, the earth acts like a
greenhouse.
• Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass
of a greenhouse and warms the air and
objects within the greenhouse.

The same
glass
slows the
heat from
escaping,
resulting
in much
higher
temperatur
es within
the
greenhouse
than
outside it.
Another Example of the
Greenhouse Effect
The Sun’s energy
passes through the
car’s windshield.

This energy (heat)


is trapped inside
the car and cannot
pass back through
the windshield,
causing the inside
of the car to warm
up.
Likewise, the earth’s atmospheric
gases affect the ability of the
earth to radiate the Sun’s energy
back into space.
Those gases play an important
role in keeping our planet at
comfortable temperature.
Greenhouse gases form a
“blanket” around the Earth and
keep it warm.
The problem is an excessive

The Earth is acting just like
that.
It is becoming warmer and
warmer inside the blankets.
The Sun’s heat keeps coming,
but the heat is trapped by
many layers of blankets and
cannot escape.
The Earth is getting warmer
and warmer.
Greenhouse gases keep our planet warm.

They exist naturally in the atmosphere,


heating it by trapping energy that has
originally come from the Sun.

This process is called the greenhouse


effect.

Without the greenhouse gases the surface of


the Earth would be as cold as the surface of
the Moon (about -18 degrees Celsius or
°C).
Enhanced Greenhouse
effect
• Global warming refers to a rise in the
temperature of the surface of the earth.
• Green house effect is essential for life and
is one of the Earth’s natural processes.
• An increase in the concentration of
greenhouse gases leads to an increase
in the magnitude of the greenhouse
effect.
• This is called enhanced greenhouse
effect; this results in global warming.
• Thus what we don’t want is
E n h a n ce d G re e n h o u se E ffe ct-C a u se s
Electromagnetic Spectrum
incoming outgoing
The temperature of the earth is largely
dependent upon the energy output from
the Sun, a primary source of energy, over
150 million kilometers away.
The Earth when formed was originally very
hot.
However, the Sun’s energy output was
only 70% of what it is presently.
The temperature of the earth is directly
related to the energy input from the Sun.
1/3 of the Sun’s energy is reflected by
clouds and ice.
The remainder 2/3 is absorbed by the
Sunlight heats up the ground.

The heated ground emits infrared radiation.

If amount of solar energy absorbed by the


earth is equal to the amount radiated back
into space, the earth remains at a constant
temperature.

However, if the amount of solar energy is


greater than the amount radiated, then the
earth heats up.

If the amount of solar energy is less than the


amount radiated, then the earth cools down.
• Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
absorb more infrared energy than
it re-radiates to space, resulting in
a net warming of the Earth-
atmosphere system and of surface
temperature.

• The ozone layer absorbs the ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun and warms the
atmosphere.
The most important greenhouse

gases are:
1. Carbon dioxide (CO : 2)


 Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation, automobiles, etc,.


Anthropogenic increase: 30%


Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years

 Many studies show the correlation between carbon dioxide levels and
temperatures.

 2. Methane (CH4) :

 3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) :
 Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers)

Anthropogenic increase: 15%

Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years

 4. Chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs):During
the last fifty years mankind has also introduced
CFCs, which not only damage the ozone layer
but also act as greenhouse gases
 5. Water vapor: It is the most abundant
greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere.
 Without water vapor’s effect on the
atmosphere, the earth would be at below
freezing temperature
S o u rce s
Burning of Fossil Fuels

Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil


Atmospheric Feedbacks
POSITIVE NEGATIVE

Increased CO2 More water


+ vapor & other
changes
Higher temperature
+ Increased cloud cover
More water vapor

More reflected solar radiation


More absorbed infrared radiation


Lower temperature
+
+
Higher temperature Less water vapor
+
More water vapor
Many of greenhouse gases are emitted
by human activities.
We have to try to reduce the human
originated gas emissions with our efforts
and ingenuity.
By reducing emissions, global warming can
be prevented.
Rapid population growth (population
explosion-From about 1 billion in 1800, it
is predicted to reach 9 billion in 2050 and
11 billion in 2100) will worsen the
condition.


What’s the proof that global
warming is taking place?

During the 150 years of the industrial age,


the atmospheric concentration of carbon
dioxide has increased by 31 percent.
Over the same period, the level of
atmospheric methane has risen by 151
percent, mostly from agricultural activities.
The data show that an increase of one degree
Celsius makes the Earth warmer now than it
has been for at least a thousand years.
Out of the 20 warmest years on record, 19
have occurred since 1980.
The three hottest years ever observed have
all occurred in the last ten years, even.
Portage Glacier- Portage Glacier
is a glacier on the Kenai Peninsula of the
U.S. state of Alaska

2004

1914
Colorado River-

It is a river in the Southwestern United
States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 miles
(2,330 km) long draining a part of the arid regions on the western
slope of the Rocky Mountains.
A rizo n a

Ju n e 2 0 0 2 D ec 2003
How is global warming
measured?
Ice Core Data

CO 2 Measurements Before 1958 -


A n ta rctica
CO2 Atmospheric
Measurements

CO 2 M e a su re m e n ts S in ce 1 9 5 8 – M a u n a
L o a , H a w a ii
1000 Years of CO2 and
Temperature
Global Warming
CO 2 Concentrations
( Northern
Hemisphere )

P a rts P e r M illio n
D e g re e C e lsiu s
In cre a se

Ye a Ye ar
Effects of Global Warming:
 All the aspects of the life are affected.
 1.Rising Sea Level

The temperature rise causes melting of ice


caps atop mountains and glaciers in the
north and south Polar Regions.
It is predicted that a 5 °C increase in
temperature would melt the Greenland ice
sheet, resulting in 3-meter sea level rise
over the next millennium.
Not only that, it would raise sea level by
about 7 meters if it melted completely.
At this rate 125 million Indians will need to
relocate by 2029.
Sea levels increase some 20 to 40
2. Increased

Temperature:
v The slightest
difference in the
Earth’s
temperature would
upset the whole
world.
v Global-average
surface
temperature
projected to
increase by 1.4 ºC
to 5.8 ºC by 2100
3.Changes in Water Supply

Global warming will reduce


 glaciers, water supply and
 affect millions of people.

Causes water stress and scarcity


Increase water borne diseases
Source :April
2Source: Pat
Mulroy, General
Manager,
Southern Nevada
Water
Authority, Lake
Mead Intake No.
3, Keynote
address,
PowerPoint
presentation,
Environmental
Services
Association of
Alberta, Banff,
Alberta, Canada,
2, 2010

Hoover Dam - Lake Mead Water Levels , 1983 and


4.Habitat Damage and Species
Affected:
• All animals and plants are sensitive to
temperature changes.
• When there are not many plants, creatures that
eat plants will also be affected.
• Insects, birds, and plant-eating animals will
disappear from their habitats.
• Food cycle is affected.

Food cycle is affected
5.All the economies such as, Agriculture,

Insurance, Transportation etc, are


affected.

6.Ecosystems such as, Forests,

Mountains, and Ecological productivity-


affected

7.High incidence of natural
calamities
Ø Including epidemics of emerging and
reemerging diseases.
Ø For the last 20 years nearly
30 new diseases have evolved

and many diseases are reemerging.

Ø Even an 1°C rise of temperature


will lead to natural calamities

 like Typhoons, earthquake,

 cyclones, floods, droughts,

 epidemic of diseases etc

Ø

Global warming can cause

04/06/11 70
How to prevent:


s n o T c i r t e M nfoob rsanCo in oltlaigBi G n o b r a C

2007
Our Goal

s in CO 2
Per Year
Reduction
Global
Warming:
Shifting Gears
üUse less energy that heat up the earth.
Incandescent

ü Use CFLs, not regular incandescent


 bulbs.

ü CFLs use 60% less energy than a


 regular bulb.

ü This simple switch will save


 about 150KGs of carbon dioxide a year.

 Compact
Fluorescent
ü If every family in India replaces regular
üSet the AC to 25°C, not 22.
üAn AC used for an hour generates 3KGs of
CO2.
üIf you go without Ac for an hour a day,
the release of 3X365=1204.5 KGs of
CO2 into the atmosphere per year,
could be prevented.
üTake a train or bus instead of a car. Use
bicycles.
üAvoid traffic jams.
üWalking, carpooling or using public
transport will save at least 2 liters

of petrol a week.


• When you use the
geyser for an hour
generates 3.3 kg of
CO2.
• If you cut down the use
of the geyser by just
one hour a day, you
can stop the release
of 3.3 x 365 =
1204.5 kg of CO2 in
the atmosphere
annually.

Use of lead free

petrol.
ü Use of alternate
fuel such as CNG
(Compressed
Natural Gases) for
automobiles
instead of petrol
and diesel.
ü 1 litre of petrol
(octane) produces
about 1 Kg of
water vapour and
2.17 Kg of CO2.
ü Avoiding just 10
miles of driving
every week would
eliminate about
Afforestation:

Ø A single tree will absorb


one ton of carbon dioxide
over its lifetime.
Ø If each person plants one
tree in a life time we can
eliminate 1.13 billion tons
of CO2 from the
atmosphere.
Ø One tree can absorb the
amount of CO2 released
by an average car that
has been driven for 4,000
miles (6,437 km).
Ø Unfortunately globally,
Recycle your

organic
waste:
ü Around 3% of
the
greenhouse
gas emissions
through the
methane is
released by
decomposing
bio-
degradable
waste.
ü You can save
1200 Kg of
Industries
üGreen belts, plantation of trees to create
a buffer zone between residential and
industrial estates. These absorb CO2 of
the air.
üPlan industries away from residential
areas and ensure regulation.
üControlling emissions at source level in
industrial set up by use of electrostatic
precipitators and bag filters.
üFitting power station with scrubbers can
reduce SO2 (Sulphur dioxide) emission
by upto 95% and with catalytic
converters can significantly reduce
Alternatives

Renewable Energy Sources

Solar Energies
Wind Power
Biomass
Geothermal
Legislation to control Bhopal gas tragedy,
1984
air pollution.
The air ( prevention and

control of pollution)
Act, 1981 and
environmental Act,
1986 form the basis of
monitoring and
controlling air pollution
in the country
especially after Bhopal
gas tragedy, 1984.

 Central pollution control Board (CPCB):
Ø Central Pollution Control Board was
constituted in 1974 and it is executing a
nation-wide programme of ambient air
quality monitoring known as National Air
Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP).
Ø The monitoring of pollutants is carried out
for 24 hours.
Ø If temperatures do not decrease in the
near future, at the current rate,
temperatures would be 1- 2°C higher by
the end of the century.
Ø Some climate models have predicted
temperature increases of up to 9°C with a
doubling of atmospheric CO2.
Ø However, two recent studies, using
different techniques, have constrained the
Conclusion:
vThe whole world needs to tackle global
warming together.
vAn international conference is annually
held to try to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions.
vEvery action of us adds to global
warming.
vEvery one of us is also able to contribute
to stopping the problem through energy
saving.
vFor example setting your air conditioner’s
thermostat to a moderate temperature
vMany small things make
a great difference.

vEven if human beings stop burning


oil and coal today, we can’t stop
global warming immediately.

vWe have already spewed enough


greenhouse gases into the
atmosphere to cause temperatures
to warm and sea levels to rise for
at least another century.
STOP
GLOBAL
WARMING
Thank You