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@Concept of Tourism & Environment
@Eco-tourism & Environment
@Sustainable Tourism
@Pros & Cons of Environment
@Environment impact of Tourism on Vegetation and Wildlife
@Environmental Imapact of Tourism on Mountains and Hills
@Environmental Impact of Tourism on Wetlands, Islands &
@Sport tourism and Environmental impact
@Remedies for curbing Environmental Pollution
@Various Environmental Acts
Concept of Tourism
 Derived from the Latin word ´Tomosµ &
Hebrew word ´Torahµ
 Tourism not an industry but an activity
 It is defined as an activity that takes place
when people move to some other place
for leisure or for business and stay atleast
for24 hours.
Definition adopted by Govt of India
´A person visiting on a foreign passport for
period of not less than 24 hours for non
immigrants, non-employment tourist
Concept of Enviroment
 Environment refers to the surroundings
of an organism
 It includes ² air, water, land, vegetation &
wildlife, mountains, wetlands, islands &
beaches, human beings, flora and fauna.
 Environment in Indian treaties.
 9 elements concept, ie. ,earth, air, water,
fire, sky, time, direction, mind and soil.
Relationship between Tourism and
V Neutrality ² rarest and short lived
V Opposition and conflict ² when tourism
becomes unplanned, uncontrolled and
profit led.
V Harmony and symbiosis ² both provide
benefits to each other.
'actors influencing the nature
 Scale of tourism development and rate of growth
 'ragility and sensitivity of the environment
 Sensitivity of the development in terms of its integration
with the local environment and culture
 Political extend of development
 Range of development incentives and importance
attached to by national regional government
 Cultural attitudes of local people to the environment
 Type of tourist attracted to the destination and the
characteristics of their behaviour
 Availability of information to educate the tourist
 Volume of tourists using the destination
 Physical robustness or fragility of the
environment to different types of tourist

VEcotourism is natural based tourism.

VIt consists of flora and fauna and is
subset to environmen.
VIt is one of the fastest growing tourism
 Main features include:
 (a) all forms of nature tourism aimed at the appreciation of
both the natural world and the traditional cultures existent in
natural areas,
 (b) deliberate efforts to minimize the harmful human impact
on the natural and socio-cultural environment, and
 (c) support for the protection of natural and cultural assets
and the well-being of host communities.

 'urthermore, even when ecotourism activities are carried out

in a responsible manner, they tend to give







Principles of Eco Tourism
 Minimize impact
 Build environmental & cultural awareness and respect
 Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts
 Provide direct financial benefits for conservation
 Provide financial benefits & empowerment for local people
 Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental,
and social climate
 Support international human rights & labour agreements

Sustainable Tourism









Source: World Tourism Organization

Principles of Sustainable Tourism


 Minimisation of negative tourism impacts

 Natural and cultural preservation and conservation

 Promotion of visitor observation and comprehension - the


 Efficient use of resources in tourism.

Principles of Sustainable Tourism

 Participation and information.

 More meaningful tourism experiences.

 Promotion of visitor observation and comprehension -culture

 Sensitivity towards local people & other stakeholders.

Principles of Sustainable Tourism

 Importance of policy, planning and management.

 Emphasises of limits to tourism development.

 Generation of economic profit for local people.

 Economic independence of local people

Types of sustainable tourism
 All tourism can be sustainable !!!!

 Some types more sustainable:

å Ecotourism

å Pro-poor tourism

å Community-based tourism

å Rural tourism etc.

 Ecotourism is:





 Ecotourism is a subset of  

p m   m  V
m  V

üDirect benefits deals with government revenues
& indirect benefits acts as a catalyst between
development of economic sectors Vs supply
of goods and services.
üEg; Srilanka and Taj mahal









#     %  


&           '   


!   (   


Other negative impacts

Loss of potential economic benefits

Economic and employment distortions

Inflation and loss of amenities for residents

'luctuation in productivity index

Cultural impact

Global warming
Environmental impact of tourism in
vegetation and wild life
V Awareness among tourists
V Maintenances of scenic environment
V Promotes research and environmental
V Roads eg. Badrinadh
V Tourist accommodation
V Transportation
V Eg. Crushing of eggs and killing of animals
V Water disposal
Environmental Impact of tourism on
Mountains and Hills
á Heaven on earth
á Mountain defined as a large raised area of land
which is very high and steep like a hill while hills
are lower than mountains
á Indians stripped by ´spiritualismµ while
Europeans by ´Romanticismµ
á Positive impact
á New architecture
á Issue of health and sanitation


 Converted into urban townships
 'orest exploited for the construction of
 Acute problem of land use
 Environmental pollution and degradation
 Over population, over construction and
over crowding
 Wetlands are defined as the swamps and
other damp areas of land or large body of
water surrounded by land
 Islands are defined as a piece of land
surrounded by water
 Beaches are defined as the accumulation
of materials along the coast usually
defined as lying between the highest point
reached by the storm waves and the low
water spring tide line.

 'lood controls, regulation of water quality,
helpful in droughtful conditions.
 2 specific functions ² preservation and
 Ecologically helpful and acts as natural
 Nutrient recovery and cycling

 Reduced arrival of migratory birds
 Over exploitation
 Pollution caused by tourist
 Degradation caused by infrastructure
 Diminishing Mangroove system
Mangrove Ecosystem


 Sports ² Any physical activity done for the
exercise and amusement , usually played in a
particular area and according to fixed rules
 Sports includes
ü Trekking
ü Skating
ü Hot air ballooning and Gliding
ü Golf
ü Water sports ² canoeing, sailing, rafting,

 Trekking, mountaineering, rock climbing
disturbs and destroys flora and fauna
 Golf uses fertile land and affects the food
production for the sale of recreation
 Water sports causes littering, erosion of
banks, noise and soil pollution
 Affects marine life severely



 Improved environmental management and
proper planning
 Developing sustainable tourism
 Environmental awareness raising
 Protection and preservation
 Alternative employment
 Regulatory measures
 Spatial planning strategies
 Alternative development strategies
 Education and marketing techniques
 Access control measures
 Site management techniques
 Insecticide Act
 Wild life protection Act
 Water Act
 Air Act
 Environmental Act

 Choosing the right tour operators
 Eco friendly travel
 The do·s and don·ts at your destination
 Learning about the place and sharing what
you know
 'inding the right place to stay
 Tourism and environment, Sunil K Kabia
 'inancial management of travel and
tourism, Dinesh Kaushik
 Global eco tourism : codes, protocols,
charters, Prabhas Chandra
Presented by
 Vinoop M Gopal
 Bincymol Balan
 Seetha M.P.