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1. Mathematicsteachingandearningrimary
goaistodeveotheabiitytosoveide
varietyofcomexmathematicsrobem.
2. omanymathematicayiterateeoe
says- mathematicsissynonymousith
robemsoving.
m 
. hentoeoetaaboutmathematics
robemsovingtheymaynotbetaingabout
something.
4. eitmandefinedarobemashenyouhave
beengiventhedescritionofsomethingbutdo
notyethaveanythingthatsatisfiedthat
descrition.
5. endersonandmingry-bocingofthatgoafor
individua.
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1. esearchonhostudentsinsecondary
schooscandeveothea  tosovea
idevarietyofcomex.
2. ddressonhoininstructioncanbest
deveothisa .
odeveo
mathsis

nstruction
fundamenta
goa

biitythat
transferto
tassnot
Knoedge
exicity
coveredin
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1. houdinstructionemhasizethearticuar
robemsovingtechniquesonstrategies
uniquetoeachtas
2. irobemsovingbeenhancedby
rovidinginstructionthatdemonstratedon
deveosrobemsovingtechniquesor
strategiesusefuinmanytass
" m !

1. ducationaresearchconductedithin
varietyofconstraints
Ñ soationofvariabe.
Ñ vaiabiityofsubjects.
Ñ Limitationofresearchrocedures.
Ñ vaiabiityofresources.
Ñ aancingofriorities.
m 
2. Methodoogies
º minicaaroach
º Mathematicatasssituationaredevised
º aaoudhieoringorintervieedand
asedtorefectontheirexerienceand
eseciaytheirthiningrocess.

. asicformostmathematicsrobemsoving
researchforsecondaryschoostudentsinast
1yearsasmoya-fiedatcognitivesychoogy.
Ô)+

1. ccordingtomoyaǯsrobemsovingstages

nderstanding marryingout
Maingaan Looingbac
therobem theant

2. omoyarobemsovingasmajortheme
ofdoingmathematicandteachingstudentto
thin
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. hisbeoisinearframeorof
..
mathematictextbooforrobemsoving
stage.
ead
ead

Kno
ecide
Ú man

ove
ove

xamine chec
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4. Linearnatureofthatmodedonotromote
thesiritofmoyǯsstageandhisgoaof
teachingstudenttothin.hy
Ñ heydeictsrobemsovingasinearrocess.
Ñ heyresentrobemsovingasseriesofste.
Ñ heyimythatsovingMathematicsrobemis
aroceduretobememorizedracticedand
habituated.
Ñ heyeadtoanemhasisonansergetting.
m 
5. notherasectofrobemsovingisrobem
osingorrobemformuation.
6. otmuchresearchonthat.
7. venmoyadidnottasecificayabout
robemosingbutmuchofsiritandformat
ofrobemosingisincudedinhisiustration
ofooingbac.
8. rameorisneededthatemhasizedthe
dynamicandcycicnatureofgenuinerobem
soving.

nderstanding
therobem

Looingbac Maingaan

marryingout
thean
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Ñ Úne must =   a a  a
a   = in
order to become a good robem sover in mathematics.
Ñ ]  those students ith a good noedge base
ere most a    

  (information or
strategies that e can adot to sove unfamiiar robems) in
geometry instruction.
Ñ M  
      attended to a
 a      hereas   categorized
robems on the a  
 =a a   
  =
Ñ M  successfu robem sovers ere more iey to
a  a
   on the a  
  =  
 a  in mathematica structure.
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›a     


Ñ mosecx1/sinx
Ñ anxsinx/cosx

›a   a  a


Ñ ücosxdxsinxm
Ñ üsinxdx- cosxm
Ñ üsec2 xdxtanxm
þ !"

Ñ s a  =  aicabe to a articuar tye


of exercise hich if fooed correcty is
guaranteed to give the anser to the
exercise.
Ñ mrobem soving is the     a  a
a
a =  a   to a secific
set of aications.
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f(x) x2 6x1
 x2 2x1/ 
 x2 2x(2/2)2 Ȃ (2/2)2 1/ 
 x2 2x(1)2Ȃ (1)2 1/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 11/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 2/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 2

x1 y-2
x-1

hereforethevaueforminimumquadraticequationis(-1-2)
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Ñ re  =    a  avaiabe to students in
maing decisions during robem soving that are
a= to the generation of a soution a  in
nature rather than rescritive sedom roviding
 a  =a  and aa    .
Ñ ynonyms terms ith a   a = 
" .
Ñ 6a  # †simify an agebraic exression by
removing arenthesesdz †mae a tabedz †restate the
robem in your on ordsdz and †dra a figure to
suggest the ine of argument for a roofdz.
-#$ë%"
Ñ ooing are the numbers of assengers those
as had transited at KM tation on three days;
riday unti unday for to months.  = 

a  =a by using boundary 46-464.

465 466 477 471 48 46 478 471 47


47 46 476 47 472 471 479 474 475
469 47 474 472 48 479
% .
a    "   a  $   =a
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46Ȃ 464 2 2 464.5
465Ȃ 469 5 469.5
47Ȃ 474 11 16 474.5
475Ȃ 479 6 22 479.5
48Ȃ 484 2 24 484.5
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Ñ ÷ a =
->
sefuforsovingsimerobemsand
togetherithassystematicistingsthisstrategyhesto
narrodontothecorrectguessintheshortesttime
ossibe.
Ñ Va a->mommonyusedithLooforatterns
strategyasitaccountsforaossibiitiessystematicay. t
organisesresentsorgeneratesinformationinasystematic
manner.
Ñ „ a  -> sitinvovesactivesearchfroma
sequenceoffiguresornumbersinformationcanbe
exressed/vieedinanorganisedmanner.
-#"$ %"".
Ñ paa = ->uitsuishoneedtoseeto
understandandittransatesordsorinformationinto
ictoriareresentations.
Ñ u  a a=->
sefuhenthefinaresuthasaready
beengiven.
Ñ  
  ->earatestherobemintosub-
robemstobesovedindividuayorinsequence.
Ñ ›  a   ->momareinformationtofindthe
unnonasitistsinformationgivenbeforeandafterthe
action.
(xtractedfrom ssessmentuidetomrimaryMathematics
bymmMÚ)
-#$ë%"
 Marta ants to tie a ribbon around the sides of a
hexagona box and then tie a bo. ach of side of
the box is 4 inches ong. he needs 14 inches for the
bo. s one yard of ribbon enough xain. hen
state exacty ho ong the ribbon must be.

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'paa = 
a a 
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_ tota of 28 handshaes ere exchanged at


a arty. ach erson shoo hands exacty
once ith each of the others. o many
eoe ere resent at the arty
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_ tota of 28 handshaes ere exchanged at a
arty. ach erson shoo hands exacty once ith
each of the others. o many eoe ere resent
at the arty

! t a arty recenty noticed that every erson


shoo hands ith each other erson exacty one
time. f tod you there ere 66 handshaes coud
you te me ho many eoe ere at the arty

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K  ! !
Ñ &  = a  = a  
  a ( a
( a = a    

  are     =   
 .
Ñ he students must     = 

a  to seect from among the avaiabe
heuristics or to deveo ne ones.
!  . 
Ñ Long ago eey emhasized sef-refection in
the soving of robems; a   .
Ñ Metacognition is †   =    
        a = =  
a 
   a =  
) ave (1976)
Ñ Metacognition theory hods that such 


a  ( = ( a =     
  .
_ + !+
Ñ Looing bac is the set of activities that rovides the
rimary oortunity for tudents   a  

  

Ñ he hase as identified by moya ith admonitions


 a  
 by such activities as

  the  
  the a 
=   the   =     the   or
the 
= for some 
   
      the         the  
or a  a    to sove.
ÿmm" !

Ñ s a too for =    a =  


 
 a 
    . t is an inductive
questioning rocess that structures diaogue in
the cassroom (arah ixon-monder).

Ñ nvoves the  a     about


the situation or the reformuation of a given
robem (ngish 1997; iver and mai 1996)
Ñ rom the definitions of robem osing e no that
robem osing is 
a  
a a  

 a      
a   

 =   a     

Ñ or exame given the mythagorean heorem here a2


 b2  c2. fter a discussion of the attributes the teacher
may as †hat if a2  b2 < c2dz hrough this discussion

=    a 
   





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nisosceestriange m  mand
theattitudetomis2.iftheerimeter
ofthetriangeis8findtheareaofthe
triange.
m  M m  

p a     =  notheshaeofisoscees


triangeandthefeatureoftheshae.
%
notherocedureorconcettofindthe
engthofbothunnonsides;mythagoreanheorem
+  drathediagramofisoscees.
*Va a amonitorandrefecthethertheayof
cacuationisogicornot.
_„   a chectheresut/anserbyusingother
methods.
!,   assefhathaenifa2 b2 <c2instead
ofa2 b2 c2hentrytodiscussithothereoefor
betterunderstandingtheconcet.
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nderstandandexoretherobem(= a   
 = andnothea
/rocedurethatcan
beuse)
 indastrategy(nothe
 /techniquethatcan
beuse)

sethestrategytosovetherobem(aythe
suitabeheuristicand a a a)
 Loobacandrefectonsoution(   a the
soutionand 
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theresut)
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(""****
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"0
Ñ mrobemsovingasfocusofschoo
mathematicsosefundamentaquestions
nature
Ñ rtofrobemsovingis
ofmathematics

Ñ esignMathematicsinstructionexerience
mathematicsasrobemsoving
('#" !****

1. Majorartofmathematicssumand
substanceofdisciine
2. Mathematicshaveaicationhich
reresentimortantrobems.
. ntrinsicmotivationembeddedcan
stimuateinterestandenthusiasm
4. unuseasrecreation
5. eveoartofrobemsoving
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#" !"

Ñ choomathematicsinstruction
Ñ ncudesargument 
º ifficut
º aestoomuchtimes
º Mathematicsissequentia
º otinthetextboo
m" !"  "% 
&

Ñ oaccomishtheinstructionagoaof
earningbasicfactsconcetsandrocedures
aseasgoasforrobemsovingisithin
therobemcontext.

Ñ ointroduceconcetsviaessoninvoving
exorationdiscovery
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Ñ murricuumvauationtandards
studentsneedtoviethemsevesascaabe
ofusingtheirgroingmathematica
noedge

Ñ choenfodstudentsbeiefthat
1-mathematicshetothincearyand
creative
2- earnedbestbymemorization
Ñ econdaryschoomathematicsstudents
redisositiontovierobemsovingas
ansergetting

Ñ Mathematicsasasetofrueshighyoriented
todoeontest

Ñ sousebeiefrobemsovingare
consistentithreasonabyimemented
robemsovingfocusinschoo
mathematics!!
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'1) 
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Ñ heimortanceoftechnoogyasatoofor
mathematicsrobemsoving.
Ñ hedeveomentofacomuterrogramto
erformmathematicatascanbechaenging
mathematicarobemandcanenhancethe
rogrammerǯsunderstandingofthe
mathematicsbeingused.
Ñ hetechnoogyusedheedstudentstobetter
understandfunctionconcetsandimroved
studentattitudestoardrobemsoving.
m! !"m !

Ñ terationinMathematics.
Ñ socaed  a a  a
robem-sovingorcomutationamethodin
hichasuccessionofaroximationseach
buidingontheonerecedingisusedto
achieveadesireddegreeofaccuracy.
m! ! #
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Ñ Va a
-Maeisagenera-urosecommercia
comuteragebrasystem.

Ñ ,
-tatisticamacagefortheociaciences
- naysisofdatainresearch
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Ñ nayzethestudentsǯoverarogressase
astheirreactionstothenoteboosinorderto
assestheeffectivenessoftheevauation
rocess.
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Ñ yevauatingtheamountandtyeofhe
neededbyanindividuaduringarobem
sovingactivity.
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Ñ tudentsaregivenmathematicsrobemsto
sove

Ñ heassessorthenbeginstorovideasitte
heasnecessarytothestudentsthroughout
theirrobemsovingactivity

Ñ heamountandtyeofheneededcan
rovidegoodinsightintostudentsǯrobem
sovingactivitiesaseastheirabiityto
earnandaynerincies.
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Ñ mrobemseredeveoedsuchthatthe
methodsofsoutionserenotreadiy
aarenttostudents.
Ñ sequenceofhintsasthendeveoedfor
eachitem.
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Ñ earningeader(teacheroreer)guidesthegrou
insovingtherobemthroughtheuseofthree
boards

Ñ hestudentsabetodiscussandrefectontheir
aroachesbyvisuaytracingtheirjointor

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Ñ vauateindividuaǯsthiningrocess
Ñ vauaterogressinrobemsoving

Ñ xame thiningaoudmaybecanonicay
achievedithinthecassroombyacingthe
studentsincooerativegrous.

Ñ tudentsmayexresstheirrobemsoving
strategiesaoudandemayabetoassesstheir
thiningrocessesandattitudesunobtrusivey.
 )4$5 #

Ñ tudentsareasedtorefectontheir
robemsovingexerience
xame refectivejourna

Ñ Úftenusedinrobemsovingresearch
 !%& "2( (+

Ñ eston
-ersonajudgment
-questionsaboutmathematicarobem
soving
w w


 
esting mrobemoving

-mhasizesanser -mhasizesonhoto
getting. sovetherobem.
-eedtocoveraotsof -eveoingdesirabeand
materias(syabus) understandingofthe
noedge
-otidevarietyofabiity -mreatevarietyofabiityto
tosovequestion sovequestion
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Ñ sare-serviceteachereshoudemhasizethe
studentstoinvoveinrobemsoving.
Ñ mrobemsovingincreasestudentsǯcriticaand
creativethining.
Ñ eshoudnotemhasizeonexam-orientedonybut
deveoourstudentsǯcriticaandcreativethining.
Ñ Mathematicsteacherhomustcreatethecontextfor
robemsovingtofourishandforstudentsto
becomerobemsovers.
Ñ Mathematicarobemsovingisverysignificantto
ourife.