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# m 

    
 m 

m 

 

  
 
  
 m !



m !

1. Mathematicsteachingandearningrimary
goaistodeveotheabiitytosoveide
varietyofcomexmathematicsrobem.
2. omanymathematicayiterateeoe
says- mathematicsissynonymousith
robemsoving.
m 
. hentoeoetaaboutmathematics
robemsovingtheymaynotbetaingabout
something.
4. eitmandefinedarobemashenyouhave
beengiventhedescritionofsomethingbutdo
notyethaveanythingthatsatisfiedthat
descrition.
5. endersonandmingry-bocingofthatgoafor
individua.
  !m"
m # " \$%&' !
"
ë ë mëm
  
m
 "#

## () ) &&"%""

1. esearchonhostudentsinsecondary
schooscandeveothea  tosovea
idevarietyofcomex.
2. ddressonhoininstructioncanbest
deveothisa .
odeveo
mathsis

nstruction
fundamenta
goa

biitythat
transferto
tassnot
Knoedge
exicity
coveredin
curricuum
ë%" *

1. houdinstructionemhasizethearticuar
robemsovingtechniquesonstrategies
uniquetoeachtas
2. irobemsovingbeenhancedby
rovidinginstructionthatdemonstratedon
deveosrobemsovingtechniquesor
strategiesusefuinmanytass
" m !

1. ducationaresearchconductedithin
varietyofconstraints
Ñ soationofvariabe.
Ñ vaiabiityofsubjects.
Ñ Limitationofresearchrocedures.
Ñ vaiabiityofresources.
Ñ aancingofriorities.
m 
2. Methodoogies
º minicaaroach
º Mathematicatasssituationaredevised
º aaoudhieoringorintervieedand
asedtorefectontheirexerienceand
eseciaytheirthiningrocess.

. asicformostmathematicsrobemsoving
researchforsecondaryschoostudentsinast
1yearsasmoya-fiedatcognitivesychoogy.
Ô)+

1. ccordingtomoyaǯsrobemsovingstages

nderstanding marryingout
Maingaan Looingbac
therobem theant

2. omoyarobemsovingasmajortheme
ofdoingmathematicandteachingstudentto
thin
m 
. hisbeoisinearframeorof
..
mathematictextbooforrobemsoving
stage.
ead
ead

Kno
ecide
Ú man

ove
ove

xamine chec
m 
4. Linearnatureofthatmodedonotromote
thesiritofmoyǯsstageandhisgoaof
teachingstudenttothin.hy
Ñ heydeictsrobemsovingasinearrocess.
Ñ heyresentrobemsovingasseriesofste.
Ñ heyimythatsovingMathematicsrobemis
aroceduretobememorizedracticedand
habituated.
Ñ heyeadtoanemhasisonansergetting.
m 
5. notherasectofrobemsovingisrobem
osingorrobemformuation.
6. otmuchresearchonthat.
7. venmoyadidnottasecificayabout
robemosingbutmuchofsiritandformat
ofrobemosingisincudedinhisiustration
ofooingbac.
8. rameorisneededthatemhasizedthe
dynamicandcycicnatureofgenuinerobem
soving.

nderstanding
therobem

Looingbac Maingaan

marryingout
thean
m 
m 

'
   #\$
, )&!
Ñ Úne must =   a a  a
a   = in
order to become a good robem sover in mathematics.
Ñ ]  those students ith a good noedge base
ere most a    

  (information or
strategies that e can adot to sove unfamiiar robems) in
geometry instruction.
Ñ M  
      attended to a
 a      hereas   categorized
robems on the a  
 =a a   
  =
Ñ M  successfu robem sovers ere more iey to
a  a
   on the a  
  =  
 a  in mathematica structure.
-#
r 
  

 



    
 


  







ë  

##      =

% .
    =
   =
 =
 
-#"\$""
, )&!

## a     

Ñ mosecx1/sinx
Ñ anxsinx/cosx

## a   a  a

Ñ ücosxdxsinxm
Ñ üsinxdx- cosxm
Ñ üsec2 xdxtanxm
þ !"

## Ñ s a  =  aicabe to a articuar tye

of exercise hich if fooed correcty is
guaranteed to give the anser to the
exercise.
Ñ mrobem soving is the     a  a
a
a =  a   to a secific
set of aications.
-#



  

 
 


 

ë  

   !
% .'%" !# !/%
&
f(x) x2 6x1
 x2 2x1/ 
 x2 2x(2/2)2 Ȃ (2/2)2 1/ 
 x2 2x(1)2Ȃ (1)2 1/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 11/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 2/ 
 (x1)2 Ȃ 2

x1 y-2
x-1

hereforethevaueforminimumquadraticequationis(-1-2)
 %""
Ñ re  =    a  avaiabe to students in
maing decisions during robem soving that are
a= to the generation of a soution a  in
nature rather than rescritive sedom roviding
 a  =a  and aa    .
Ñ ynonyms terms ith a   a = 
" .
Ñ 6a  # simify an agebraic exression by
removing arenthesesǳ mae a tabeǳ restate the
robem in your on ordsǳ and dra a figure to
suggest the ine of argument for a roofǳ.
-#\$ë%"
Ñ ooing are the numbers of assengers those
as had transited at KM tation on three days;
riday unti unday for to months.  = 

## 465 466 477 471 48 46 478 471 47

47 46 476 47 472 471 479 474 475
469 47 474 472 48 479
% .
a    "   a  \$   =a
 " 
46Ȃ 464 2 2 464.5
465Ȃ 469 5 469.5
47Ȃ 474 11 16 474.5
475Ȃ 479 6 22 479.5
48Ȃ 484 2 24 484.5
·

· 



       

 
 
-#"\$ %"".

Ñ ÷ a =
->
sefuforsovingsimerobemsand
togetherithassystematicistingsthisstrategyhesto
narrodontothecorrectguessintheshortesttime
ossibe.
Ñ Va a->mommonyusedithLooforatterns
strategyasitaccountsforaossibiitiessystematicay. t
organisesresentsorgeneratesinformationinasystematic
manner.
Ñ  a  -> sitinvovesactivesearchfroma
sequenceoffiguresornumbersinformationcanbe
exressed/vieedinanorganisedmanner.
-#"\$ %"".
Ñ paa = ->uitsuishoneedtoseeto
understandandittransatesordsorinformationinto
ictoriareresentations.
Ñ u  a a=->
sefuhenthefinaresuthasaready
beengiven.
Ñ  
  ->earatestherobemintosub-
robemstobesovedindividuayorinsequence.
Ñ   a   ->momareinformationtofindthe
unnonasitistsinformationgivenbeforeandafterthe
action.
(xtractedfrom ssessmentuidetomrimaryMathematics
bymmMÚ)
-#\$ë%"
 Marta ants to tie a ribbon around the sides of a
hexagona box and then tie a bo. ach of side of
the box is 4 inches ong. he needs 14 inches for the
bo. s one yard of ribbon enough xain. hen
state exacty ho ong the ribbon must be.

%&

'paa = 
a a 
-#\$ë%"

## _ tota of 28 handshaes ere exchanged at

a arty. ach erson shoo hands exacty
once ith each of the others. o many
eoe ere resent at the arty
%&
'u  a a=
-#\$ë%" "
_ tota of 28 handshaes ere exchanged at a
arty. ach erson shoo hands exacty once ith
each of the others. o many eoe ere resent
at the arty

## ! t a arty recenty noticed that every erson

shoo hands ith each other erson exacty one
time. f tod you there ere 66 handshaes coud
you te me ho many eoe ere at the arty

%&
'   a  
K  ! !
Ñ &  = a  = a  
  a ( a
( a = a    

  are     =   
 .
Ñ he students must     = 

a  to seect from among the avaiabe
heuristics or to deveo ne ones.
!  . 
Ñ Long ago eey emhasized sef-refection in
the soving of robems; a   .
Ñ Metacognition is    =    
        a = =  
a 
   a =  
) ave (1976)
Ñ Metacognition theory hods that such 


a  ( = ( a =     
  .
_ + !+
Ñ Looing bac is the set of activities that rovides the
rimary oortunity for tudents   a  

  

## Ñ he hase as identified by moya ith admonitions

 a  
 by such activities as

  the  
  the a 
=   the   =     the   or
the 
= for some 
   
      the         the  
or a  a    to sove.
ÿmm" !

## Ñ s a too for =    a =  

 
 a 
    . t is an inductive
questioning rocess that structures diaogue in
the cassroom (arah ixon-monder).

## Ñ nvoves the  a     about

the situation or the reformuation of a given
robem (ngish 1997; iver and mai 1996)
Ñ rom the definitions of robem osing e no that
robem osing is 
a  
a a  

 a      
a   

## Ñ or exame given the mythagorean heorem here a2

 b2  c2. fter a discussion of the attributes the teacher
may as hat if a2  b2 < c2ǳ hrough this discussion

=    a 
   



%'\$m !
"m""

## ë   %&*

nisosceestriange m  mand
theattitudetomis2.iftheerimeter
ofthetriangeis8findtheareaofthe
triange.
m  M m  

## p a     =  notheshaeofisoscees

triangeandthefeatureoftheshae.
%
notherocedureorconcettofindthe
engthofbothunnonsides;mythagoreanheorem
+  drathediagramofisoscees.
*Va a amonitorandrefecthethertheayof
cacuationisogicornot.
_   a chectheresut/anserbyusingother
methods.
!,   assefhathaenifa2 b2 <c2instead
ofa2 b2 c2hentrytodiscussithothereoefor
betterunderstandingtheconcet.
K!"\$m !."
&m""

nderstandandexoretherobem(= a   
 = andnothea
/rocedurethatcan
beuse)
 indastrategy(nothe
 /techniquethatcan
beuse)

sethestrategytosovetherobem(aythe
suitabeheuristicand a a a)
 Loobacandrefectonsoution(   a the
soutionand 
  /thininverseyabout
theresut)
&&"" ) "%  
"&#"'


(""****
 % \$ !
"0
Ñ mrobemsovingasfocusofschoo
mathematicsosefundamentaquestions
nature
Ñ rtofrobemsovingis
ofmathematics

Ñ esignMathematicsinstructionexerience
mathematicsasrobemsoving
('#" !****

1. Majorartofmathematicssumand
substanceofdisciine
2. Mathematicshaveaicationhich
reresentimortantrobems.
. ntrinsicmotivationembeddedcan
stimuateinterestandenthusiasm
4. unuseasrecreation
5. eveoartofrobemsoving
" \$  %&
#" !"

Ñ choomathematicsinstruction
Ñ ncudesargument 
º ifficut
º aestoomuchtimes
º Mathematicsissequentia
º otinthetextboo
m" !"  "% 
&

Ñ oaccomishtheinstructionagoaof
earningbasicfactsconcetsandrocedures
aseasgoasforrobemsovingisithin
therobemcontext.

Ñ ointroduceconcetsviaessoninvoving
exorationdiscovery
\$%"#
" !
Ñ murricuumvauationtandards
studentsneedtoviethemsevesascaabe
ofusingtheirgroingmathematica
noedge

Ñ choenfodstudentsbeiefthat
1-mathematicshetothincearyand
creative
2- earnedbestbymemorization
Ñ econdaryschoomathematicsstudents
redisositiontovierobemsovingas
ansergetting

Ñ Mathematicsasasetofrueshighyoriented
todoeontest

Ñ sousebeiefrobemsovingare
consistentithreasonabyimemented
robemsovingfocusinschoo
mathematics!!
 !' &m
 !

'1) 
"")"|
Ñ heimortanceoftechnoogyasatoofor
mathematicsrobemsoving.
Ñ hedeveomentofacomuterrogramto
erformmathematicatascanbechaenging
mathematicarobemandcanenhancethe
rogrammerǯsunderstandingofthe
mathematicsbeingused.
Ñ hetechnoogyusedheedstudentstobetter
understandfunctionconcetsandimroved
studentattitudestoardrobemsoving.
m! !"m !

Ñ terationinMathematics.
Ñ socaed  a a  a
robem-sovingorcomutationamethodin
hichasuccessionofaroximationseach
buidingontheonerecedingisusedto
achieveadesireddegreeofaccuracy.
m! ! #
" !
Ñ Va a
-Maeisagenera-urosecommercia
comuteragebrasystem.

Ñ ,
-tatisticamacagefortheociaciences
- naysisofdatainresearch
#"\$)

 |
 |

!"  #
\$

## · ·  

m
%  #
" !
+ aa 
  
   
w 

   


  
 
   
  

 


mM
"" "

Ñ nayzethestudentsǯoverarogressase
astheirreactionstothenoteboosinorderto
assestheeffectivenessoftheevauation
rocess.
! " !"%& "2! 
#"""
Ñ yevauatingtheamountandtyeofhe
neededbyanindividuaduringarobem
sovingactivity.
' """" 
Ñ tudentsaregivenmathematicsrobemsto
sove

Ñ heassessorthenbeginstorovideasitte
heasnecessarytothestudentsthroughout
theirrobemsovingactivity

Ñ heamountandtyeofheneededcan
rovidegoodinsightintostudentsǯrobem
sovingactivitiesaseastheirabiityto
earnandaynerincies.
 "\$  "

w   
 

  
  

 

 


 

 
    
rismen

Ñ mrobemseredeveoedsuchthatthe
methodsofsoutionserenotreadiy
aarenttostudents.
Ñ sequenceofhintsasthendeveoedfor
eachitem.
 "\$&" 
%#
Ñ earningeader(teacheroreer)guidesthegrou
insovingtherobemthroughtheuseofthree
boards

Ñ hestudentsabetodiscussandrefectontheir
aroachesbyvisuaytracingtheirjointor

m 
  
  
# 3)  & "&
\$"&

w 

 

  
        
  
 ##

Ñ vauateindividuaǯsthiningrocess
Ñ vauaterogressinrobemsoving

Ñ xame thiningaoudmaybecanonicay
achievedithinthecassroombyacingthe
studentsincooerativegrous.

Ñ tudentsmayexresstheirrobemsoving
strategiesaoudandemayabetoassesstheir
thiningrocessesandattitudesunobtrusivey.
 )4\$5 #

Ñ tudentsareasedtorefectontheir
robemsovingexerience
xame refectivejourna

Ñ Úftenusedinrobemsovingresearch
 !%& "2( (+

Ñ eston
-ersonajudgment
-questionsaboutmathematicarobem
soving
w w


 
esting mrobemoving

-mhasizesanser -mhasizesonhoto
getting. sovetherobem.
-eedtocoveraotsof -eveoingdesirabeand
materias(syabus) understandingofthe
noedge
-otidevarietyofabiity -mreatevarietyofabiityto
tosovequestion sovequestion
w   
       
 
 
    
       
           
   
      
 
     
            
        
      
     

   
,a
 %" 
Ñ sare-serviceteachereshoudemhasizethe
studentstoinvoveinrobemsoving.
Ñ mrobemsovingincreasestudentsǯcriticaand
creativethining.
Ñ eshoudnotemhasizeonexam-orientedonybut
deveoourstudentsǯcriticaandcreativethining.
Ñ Mathematicsteacherhomustcreatethecontextfor
robemsovingtofourishandforstudentsto
becomerobemsovers.
Ñ Mathematicarobemsovingisverysignificantto
ourife.