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Transistor

Victor Hugo Estrada Rivera


University of Texas at El Paso
Molecular Electronics
Chem 5369
Definition
 An electronic device made of a semiconductor that can
act as an insulator and a conductor.
 The ability to change from these two states enables the
device switch or amplify.
 It has of three components:
 Source
 Gate
 Drain

http://www.privateline.com/
TelephoneHistory3/History3.html
Importance
“The Transistor was probably the most important invention of the 20th
Century and the story behind the invention is one of clashing egos
and top secret research.”
Ira Flatow

 Transistors replaced vacuum tubes.


 Transistors are central to the Integrated Circuit, and
therefore, all electronic devices of the information
age, such as: pc’s, cellular phones, ipods, pda’s,
intelligent cars and buildings…….. are made possible.
Timeline
•Click on a Year to Learn its
Significance

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•Click on the Blue Triangle to Return

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•You can also click to see how a

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transistor works

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How a transistor works?


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1874
 Ferdinand Braun discovered
Rectification
 crystals that can conduct
current in only one direction
under certain conditions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ferdinand_Braun.jpg


1883

 Edisoneffect ( thermionic
emission).
 The flow of electrons from
metals caused by thermal
vibration energy (heat) that
overcomes the electrostatic
forces that hold the electrons
to the surface.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thomas_Edison.jpg ◄
1895

 Guglielmo Marconi -sent


a radio signal over a
distance of more than a
mile.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marconi.jpg


1895
 John Ambrose Fleming
-developed the Vacuum
Tube
 a device that modify a
http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/art-58608
signal by controlling the
movement of electrons in
an evacuated space.
 The electrons flow only
from filament to plate
creating a diode (a device
that can conduct current
only in one direction)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Diode_vacuum_tube.png ◄
1898

 Thomson discovered
the electron.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jj-thomson2.jpg


1906
 Lee De Forest -Triode in
vacuum tube (amplify
signals) allowing farther
telephone conversations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Deforest.jpg
 The problems with this
Triode is that it was
unreliable and used a lot
of power.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Triode_
vacuum_tube.png

1907
 Bell telephone patents
expire.
 AT&T (Bell’s company)
bought De Forest’s
triode patent.
 Result: transcontinental
telephone service.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Al
exander_Graham_Bell22.jpg


1928
 The first patents for the
transistor principle were
registered in Germany by
Julius Edgar Lilienfield.
 He proposed the basic

principle behind the MOS


field-effect transistor http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/
lilienfeld.htm


1934

 German Physicist Dr.


Oskar Heil patented
the field effect
transistor

http://www.precide.ch/eng/eheil/eheil.htm


1936
 Mervin Kelly Bell Lab's
director of research. He
felt that to provide the
best phone service it will
need a better amplifier;
the answer might lie in
semiconductors. And he
formed a department
dedicated to solid state
science www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/kelly.html
http://


1945
 Bill Shockley the team leader of
the solid state department
(Hell’s Bell Lab) hired Walter
Brattain and John Bardeen.
 He designed the first
semiconductor amplifier, relying
on the field effect.
 His device was a small cylinder
coated thinly with silicon,
mounted close to a small, metal
plate. http://www.lucent.com/minds/
 The device didn't work, and transistor/history.html

Shockley assigned Bardeen and


Brattain to find out why.

1947
 Bardeen and Brattain built the point contact
transistor.
 They made it from strips of gold foil on a plastic
triangle, pushed down into contact with slab of
germanium.

http://www.lucent.com/minds/ http://www.lucent.com/minds/t
http://www.lucent.com/minds transistor/history.html ransistor/history.html
/transistor/history.html

1947 cont.
1947 cont.
 Shockley make the
Junction transistor
(sandwich).
 This transistor was more
practical and easier to
fabricate.
 The Junction Transistor
became the central
device of the electronic
age

http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/Homepages/schubert/Unused%20stuff/Educational%20resources/
Picture%20First%20junction%20transistor.jpg
1947 cont.
 A thin piece of semiconductor of
one type between two slices of
another type, is able to control the
flow of the current between emitter
and the collector.
 Even if the input current is weak,
the transistor can control a strong
current.
 The effect accomplish is that the
current through the collector mimics
and amplify the behavior of the
current through the Emitter.


1948
 Bells Lab unveil the transistor.
 They decided to name it transistor instead
of Point-contact solid state amplifier.
 John Pierce invented the name, combining
transresistance with the ending common
to devices, like varistor and thermistor.


1950’s
 Sony receives a license from
Bell Labs to build transistors
 In 1946 Sony produced
products for radio repair. In
1950 they decided to build
something for the mass
consumption; the transistor
radio.
 In United States they used
the transistors primarily for http://www.sony.net/Fun/SH/1-6/h2.html

computers and military uses.



1955
 Foundation of Shockley Semiconductor,
sowing the seeds of silicon valley

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SJPan.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShockleyBldg.jpg

1957
 Thetraitorous eight abandoned Shockley
founding Fairchild Semiconductor.

http:// www.fairchildsemi.com/company/history_1957.html


1958
 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments –
Invent the Integrated Circuit (IC)
 It occurred to him that all parts of
a circuit could be made out of the
same piece of silicon.
 The entire circuit could be built
out of a single crystal
 Reducing the size
 Easier to produce

Texas Instruments' first IC



1958 cont. - Integrated Circuit
A single device that
contains an
interconnected array
of elements like
transistors, resistors, http://www.helicon.co.uk/online/datasets/
capacitors, and samples/education/images.htm

electrical circuits
contained in a silicon
wafer.

http://www.ece.uiuc.edu/grad/7reasons/5reputation.html
1968
 Bob Noyce and Gordon Moore, two of the
traitorous eight together with Andy Grove,
form Intel Corporation

http://www.itnews.sk/buxus_dev/images/
2006/Intel_logo_nove1_velky.jpg

http://www.granneman.com/techinfo/
background/history/

How a Transistor Works
 The transistor can function as:
 An insulator
 A conductor
 The transistor's ability to fluctuate between these two states that
enables to switch or amplify.
 The transistor has many applications, but only two basic functions:
switching and modulation (amplification).
 In the simplest sense, the transistor works like a dimmer.
 With a push the knob of the dimmer, the light comes on and off. You
have a switch. Rotate the knob back and forth, and the light grows
brighter, dimmer, brighter, dimmer. Than you have a modulator.


How a Transistor Works cont.
 Both the dimmer and the
transistor can control
current flow.
 Both can act as a switch
and as a
modulator/amplifier.
 The important difference
is that the “hand”
operating the transistor is
millions of times faster.
http://www.ieicorp.com/consum/dimmer.gif


 Transistors are made of semi-conductors such
as silicon and gallium arsenide.
 These materials carry electricity not well enough
to be called conductors; not badly enough to be
called insulators.
 Hence their name semiconductor.
 The importance of a transistor is in its ability to
control its own semi conductance, namely acting
like a conductor when needed, or as an insulator
(nonconductor) when that is needed.


 You can compare a transistor to an ordinary faucet.
 The water enters the faucet in the pipeline from the
water distributor, which would correspond to the source
in the Transistor.
 The water then leaves the faucet into the sink, this would
be the drain in the Transistor.
 The water tap controls the amount, flow, of water. In the
Transistor the gate operates as this controller.
 With a small force you can control the water flow with the
water tap, just as you can control the current flowing
from the source to the drain, with a small change of the
charge of the gate.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/watertap.html

Transistors are Made of Silicon
 Silicon is a grey colored element with crystalline
structure.
 It is the second most abundant element in the earth's
crust, after oxygen.
 Silicon is always found in combined form in nature, often
with oxygen as quartz, and is found in rocks and silica
sand.
 To be able to use silicon as a semiconductor, it needs to
be in a very pure form.
 If there is more than one impure particle in a million, the
silicon can not be used.
 Silicon is the most frequently used semiconducting
material today.


Doping
 The addition of a small
amount of a different
substance to a pure
semiconductor crystal.
 The impurities give an n-type doping
excess of conducting
electrons or an excess of
conducting holes which is
crucial for making a
working transistor.

http://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/
astr511/im/Si-B-doping-JFA.jpg

p-type doping ◄
Donor doping

Acceptor doping

http:// 131.104.156.23/Lectures/CHEM_462/462_chapter_1.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/
Hbase/solids/dsem.html#c2 ◄
Conduction Band: Is a part in which electrons can move freely and can accelerate
under an electric field, constituting an electric current.

Conduction Band
Metals
Valence Band

Energy Gap: Is
the energy Conduction Band
difference Semiconductors
between the Energy gap
valence gap and Valence Band
the conduction
band

Conduction Band

Bigger Energy gap Insulators


Valence Band

Valence Band: Is a part of the molecule, called band, where you can find the
electrons ◄
Transistor types

 MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor


 FET - Field Effect Transistor
 BJT - Bipolar Junction Transistor


Moore’s Law
 It’s an observation made by Gordon E.
Moore, in which he predicted that the
number of transistors, inside an Integrated
Circuit, could be doubled every 24
months.
 At the density that also minimized the cost
of a transistor.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Moore_Law_diagram_%282004%29.png ◄
Transistor problems
 Power density increased
 Device variability
 Reliability
 Complexity
 Leakage
 Power dissipation limits device density
 Transistor will operate near ultimate limits of size and
quality – eventually, no transistor can be fundamentally
better


The Future of transistors
 Molecular electronics
 Carbon nanotubes transistors
 Nanowire transistors
 Quantum computing
 CMOS devices will add functionality
to CMOS non-volatile memory,
opto-electronics, sensing….
 CMOS technology will address new
markets macroelectronics, bio-
medical devices, …
 Biology may provide inspiration for
new technologies bottom-up
assembly, human intelligence

"Photo: National Research Council of Canada.“


http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/multimedia/picture/
fundamental/nrc-nint_moleculartransistor_e.html ◄
Pictorial History of Transistors

http://www.bellsystemmemorial.com/belllabs_transistor.html ◄
Further Resources
 Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal Fire: The Invention of the
Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. New York: W. W. Norton and
Company, 1997.
 Brattain, Walter H. "Genesis of the Transistor." The Physics Teacher. (March,
1968) pp. 109-114.
 Hoddeson, Lillian. "The Roots of Solid State Research at Bell Labs." Physics
Today. (March, 1997).
 Holonyak, Jr., Nick."John Bardeen and the Point-Contact Transistor." Physics
Today.
 (April, 1992).
 Shockley, William. "How We Invented the Transistor." New Scientist 21.
(December, 1972) pp. 689-91.
 http://www.pbs.org/transistor
 http://www.aip.org/history
 http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/history.html
 http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/lilienfeld.htm
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
 You can find two very cool games on transistors in the next link:
 http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/intro.html