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Adverbs of manner

•The –ly ending

•CAL
•EOI El Puerto
Adverbs of manner
• Adverbs of manner are the largest group of adverbs. Most
adverbs of manner are closely related to corresponding
adjectives.
• Although some words can be used as either adjectives or
adverbs, in most cases, adverbs of manner are formed by
adding ly to the corresponding adjectives.
• In most cases, ly is simply added to the positive form of the
adjective. For example:

• Adjective • Adverb of Manner


• bad • badly
• complete • completely
• normal • normally
• surprising • surprisingly
©Rafael Moreno Esteban
Adjectives ending in ic

However, when the adjective ends in ic, the syllable al is


usually added before the ly ending. For example:

• Adjective • Adverb of Manner


• dramatic • dramatically
• scientific • scientifically
• specific • specifically
• basic • basically

©Rafael Moreno Esteban


When the adjective ends in le
preceded by a vowel, in most cases,
Adjectives ending in le ly is simply added to the positive
form of the adjective. For example:
When the adjective ends in le
preceded by a consonant, the Adjective Adverb of Manner
final e is usually changed to y, agile agilely
to form the ly ending. For sole solely
example:

However, in the case of the adjective


Adjective Adverb of whole, the final e is removed before
Manner the ending ly is added:
favorable
humble favorably
Adjective Adverb of Manner
simple humbly whole wholly
simply

©Rafael Moreno Esteban


Adjectives ending in ll
When the adjective ends in ll, only y is added. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner


dull dully
full fully
shrill shrilly

Adjectives ending in ue
When the adjective ends in ue, the final e is usually omitted before
the ending ly is added. For example:

Adjective Adverb of Manner


due duly
true truly
©Rafael Moreno Esteban
Adjectives ending in y
When the adjective ends in y However, in the case of the
preceded by a consonant, the y adjectives shy and sly, ly is
is usually changed to i before the simply added to the positive form
ending ly is added. For example: of the adjective:
shy shyly
busy busily sly slyly
easy easily
happy happily
When the adjective ends in y
preceded by a vowel, in most
However, in the case of the cases, ly is simply added to the
adjective gay, y is changed to i positive form of the adjective. For
before the ending ly is added: example:

gay gaily coy coyly


grey greyly

©Rafael Moreno Esteban


Adverbs of frequency
• It should be noted that while most adverbs which end
in ly are adverbs of manner, other types of adverb
may also end in ly. For instance, consequently and
subsequently are connecting adverbs. The following
are adverbs of frequency which are formed by adding
ly to the corresponding adjectives.

Adjective Adverb of Frequency


frequent frequently
rare rarely
usual usually

©Rafael Moreno Esteban


The following tables give examples of adverbs of manner,
location, time and frequency which do not end in -ly.
Adjective Adverb of Manner Adjective Adverb of Location
good well far far
fast fast high high
hard hard low low
little little near near
loud loud or loudly wide wide
much much
straight straight Adjective Adverb of
Frequency
Adjective Adverb of Time daily daily
early early monthly monthly
first first weekly weekly
late late yearly yearly
long long
©Rafael Moreno Esteban
It should also be noted that there are several
adjectives ending in ly which have no
corresponding adverbs:
• friendly • When it is desired to use one of these
• likely words to modify a verb, an adverb
• lively phrase of manner may be used.
• lonely
• In the following examples, the adverb
phrases are underlined.
• silly
• ugly • e.g.
He behaved in a friendly manner.
They acted in a silly way.

©Rafael Moreno Esteban


Adverbs With and Without ly Endings
Adverb Meaning
hard with effort
high opposite of low
late opposite of early
near opposite of far
wide opposite of narrow

Adverb Meaning
hardly scarcely
highly very; very well
lately recently
nearly almost
widely commonly

©Rafael Moreno Esteban