Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

CHAPTER 10

LANGUAGE
AND
EDUCATION
Learning Objectives

What is the typical


developmental course of
language development?
Mastering Language
Phonology: The sound
system
Morphology: Forming words
from sounds
Syntax: Grammar (sentences
from words)
Semantics: Meaning
Pragmatics: Context
appropriate use
Language
Development
Prelinguistic Abilities
 First sounds and feedback
 Vocalizations (6-8 weeks)
 Babbling (4-6 months)
 Home language sounds (8
months)
 Comprehension before
production
 Joint attention
First Words
First Year
 Holophrases: Single words
 Nonverbal information
 Intonation: Question, request,
demand
 Nouns first (naming)
18 months: Vocabulary spurt
of 30-50 words
24 months: 186 words
First Mistakes
Two-Year-Olds
 Overextension: Too broad
 Underextension: Too narrow
 Overregularization: Applying
rules
“Foots” or “good”
Found in other languages
Suggestsan understanding of
grammatical rules
Two-Year Olds
Telegraphic Speech: Critical
content only
 2+ word utterances
Functional Grammar
 Semantic relations expressed
 Context important
Rules inferred from adult speech
Age 2-5: Transformational
grammar
Later Language
Development
First grade: 10,000 words
Abstractterms by
adolescence
Metalinguistic awareness
Adulthood
 Expanded vocabulary
 Refine pragmatics
Learning Objectives

How do learning, nativist, and


interactionist perspectives
explain the acquisition of
language?
Which explanation is best
supported by research?
How Language
Develops
Learning Theory (Skinner)
 Accounts for phonology and
semantics
 Cannot account for syntax or
novelty
Nativist:
(Chomsky)
Language Acquisition Device
(LAD)
 Inborn mechanism
 Universality of stages and errors

 Genetic evidence from twin


Critical or Sensitive
Period?
Critical Period Argument
 Youngerlearn more easily: All
languages
 Deaf
children: Same timing,
sequence
 Second language learners
Sensitive Period
 Earlier is better
Learning Objectives

What factors influence mastery


motivation of infants?
How is this related to later
achievement?
Mastery Motivation
Typical of infants
Individual differences exist
Parents Must Provide:
 Sensory stimulation
 Responsive environment
EarlyEducation: Not
necessary
 Important for disadvantaged
children
Learning Objectives

What are the pros and cons of


early education?
What factors contribute to
differences in levels of
achievement motivation during
childhood, and what can be
done to foster achievement
motivation?
Achievement
Motivation
by Age 7
Mastery Orientation
 Success: internal, stable
attribution (smart)
 Failure: external factors (hard
test)
 Learning goals (to solve problem)
Learned Helplessness
 Success: external attribution
(luck)
 Failure: internal and stable (I’m
Contributions to
Achievement
Motivation
Infancy

 Stimulating, responsive
environment
 Independence and self-reliance
 Set high standards
 Parental involvement
School Age
 De-emphasize grades
 Focus on learning
Learning Objectives

What are the components of


learning to read?
Is there a most effective way
to teaching reading?
What distinguishes skilled and
unskilled readers?
Learning to Read
Alphabetic Principle
 Printed words related to sounds
 Phonological awareness:
decoding
Emergent Literacy
 Reading to preschoolers
 Repetitious reading and rhymes
 Questions
Skilled vs. Unskilled
Readers
Skilled Readers
 Understand the phonetic
alphabet
 Eyes hit all the words
 Relyon phonology, not context to
identify words
Unskilled Readers
 Lowlevels of phonological
awareness
 Eyes skip words and parts of
Teaching Reading
Phonics (Code Oriented)
 Analyze words for sounds
 Sound-letter correspondence
Whole-Word Method (Look-
Say)
 Read for meaning
Research supports phonics
Learning Objective

How does school affect


children?
What factors characterize
effective schools?
Effective Schools
Less Important Factors
 Increased resources (reasonable)
 Average class size (18-40)
 Ability grouping: no advantage
found
Factors that Matter
 Student aptitude
 Task-oriented classes; discipline
enforced
 Parental involvement
Learning Objectives
What changes in achievement
motivation occur during
adolescence?
What factors contribute to
these changes?
How does science and math
education in the United States
compare to science and math
education in other countries?
The Adolescent in
School
Declining achievement and
self-esteem
Negative school attitudes
Critical juncture: middle
school
Risk factors
 Minority
group, mother’s
educational level and mental
health
Why Achievement
Drops
Family characteristics
Cognitive growth
Negative Feedback
 Younger are praised for effort
alone
Peer pressures, which
discourage academic
achievement esp. low income
minority peers
Science and Math
Education
Cultural Differences: Asian
vs. US students
Asian: Higher scores
Differences in Asian schools
 More time in school and on task
 More homework
 Committed parents
 Peers: high values and standards
 Belief in hard work and effort
Work and School
Students working 20+ hours
per week
 Lower GPA
 Disengaged and bored attitude
 Alienation and anxiety
Other Findings
 Lowermath and science
achievement
 Morelikely to use alcohol and
drugs
Learning objectives

How does achievement


motivation change during
adulthood?
How do literacy, illiteracy, and
continued education affect
adults’ lives?
The Adult
Achievement Motivation
Stable
 Affected
by education, type of
work, and family situations
Literacy: 22% at 3rd grade
level
 UShas more high level and more
low level
 Related to poverty
Continuing Education