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Information systems management is an organised
ongoing and continuous system of providing
information to decision makers at all levels of
Only an efficient management system can survive in a
competitive and dynamic environment . It has
implications in the following areas i.e., it gives the
computer department an edge when it comes to
information. It will not merely treated as an computer
department it will be assuming the importance of the
centre of information processing. It also encourages
MIS, Executive Information system (EIS), Decision
Support Systems(DSS), Electronic Data Interchange
(EDI), BPR (Business Process Re-engineering)
K common definition used for change
management is a set of processes that is
employed to ensure that significant changes are
implemented in an orderly, controlled and
systematic fashion to effect organizational
change. One of the goals of change management
is with regards to the human aspects of
overcoming resistance to change in order for
organizational members to buy into change and
achieve the organization͛s goal of an orderly and
effective transformation.
ãhat is MkIS?
MkIS (MIS) is a set of procedures and methods
for the regular, planned collection, analysis and
presentation of information for use in
marketing decisions͛
Kmerican Marketing Kssociation

The MkIS increases the number of options

available to decision-makers and supports
every element of marketing strategy. MkIS
affects marketing͛s interfaces with customers,
suppliers and other partners.
K marketing information system (MkIS) is intended to bring
together different items of data into a rational body of
Kn MkIS also provides methods for interpreting the information
the MIS provides.


1. Its an Continuous and Consciously developed plan.
2. It an Integrated process as all the departments are
integrated with the systems department.
3. It aids in decision making as an equipment in today͛s
dynamic environment.
4. It takes in modern management tools such as Statistical,
Operations Research to analyse the data for decisions.
5. Ks it is integrated ,top management gets steady flow of
information and right information at the right time.

They are categorised as:
1.Internal Reporting System
2.Market Research system
3.Market Intelligence System
4.Marketing Models.
      Kll enterprises which have
been in operation for long period of time have a
wealth of information. However, this information often
remains under-utilised because it is
compartmentalized. That is, information is usually
categorised according to its nature so that there are,
for example, financial, production, manpower,
marketing, stockholding and logistical data. Often the
entrepreneur, or various personnel working in the
functional departments holding these pieces of data,
do not see how it could help decision makers in other
functional areas. Similarly, decision makers can fail to
appreciate how information from other functional
areas might help them and therefore do not request it.
The internal records that are of immediate value to marketing
decisions are: orders received, stockholdings and sales invoices.
These are but a few of the internal records that can be used by
marketing managers, but even this small set of records is
capable of generating a great deal of information. Below, is a list
of some of the information that can be derived from sales
Product type, size and pack type by territory, type of account ,
industry , customer
Kverage value and/or volume of sale by territory, type of
account , industry , customer

By comparing orders received with invoices an enterprise can

establish the extent to which it is providing an acceptable level
of customer service. In the same way, comparing stockholding
records with orders received helps an enterprise ascertain
whether its stocks are in line with current demand patterns.
   Marketing research is a
proactive search for information. The data is collected
in a purposeful way to address a well-defined problem
. These monitoring or tracking exercises are continuous
marketing research studies, often involving panels of
farmers, consumers or distributors from which the
same data is collected at regular intervals.
     ãhereas marketing
research is focused, market intelligence is not. K
marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures
and data sources used by marketing managers to sift
information from the environment that they can use in
their decision making. This scanning of the economic
and business environment can be undertaken in a
variety of ways,
nfocused scanning: The manager, by virtue of what
he/she reads, hears and watches exposes him/herself
to information that may prove useful. ãhile the
behaviour is unfocused and the manager has no
specific purpose in mind, it is not unintentional

Semi-focused scanning: Kgain, the manager is not in

search of particular pieces of information that he/she is
actively searching but does narrow the range of media
that is scanned. For instance, the manager may focus
more on economic and business publications,
broadcasts etc. and pay less attention to political,
scientific or technological media.
Informal search: This describes the situation where a fairly
limited and unstructured attempt is made to obtain
information for a specific purpose. For example, the
marketing manager of a firm considering entering the
business of importing frozen fish from a neighbouring country
may make informal inquiries as to prices and demand levels of
frozen and fresh fish. There would be little structure to this
search with the manager making inquiries with traders he/she
happens to encounter as well as with other p  contacts in
ministries, international aid agencies, with trade associations,
importers/exporters etc.
Formal search: This is a purposeful search after information in
some systematic way. The information will be required to
address a specific issue. ãhilst this sort of activity may seem
to share the characteristics of marketing research it is carried
out by the manager him/herself rather than a professional
researcher. Moreover, the scope of the search is likely to be
narrow in scope and far less intensive than marketing
How to improve marketing intelligence system?
1. Train the sales force
2. Motivate the distributors
3. Do purchase competitor͛s product and
analyse them
4. Setup customer advisory panel
5. Purchase information from research firms
6. Gathering information from the
  ãithin the MIS there has to be the
means of interpreting information in order to give
direction to decision. These models may be computerised
or may not.
Typical tools are:
Time series sales modes
Brand switching models
Linear programming
Elasticity models (price, incomes, demand, supply, etc.)
Regression and correlation models
Knalysis of Variance (K OVK) models
Sensitivity analysis
Discounted cash flow
Spreadsheet 'what if models
ýey Elements of MkIS:
1. Information
2. Intelligence Development Process:
3. Computer Systems
4. Organisational Focus
Ten Steps to Success:
1. Define the customers
2. nderstand eeds
3. Map various uses of Information
4. Implement a Sourcing Strategy
5. Define Information Policies and Standards
6. Select a Pilot Project
7. Kppropriate Technology
8. urture the Intelligence Processes
9. Focus Dissemination (Disbursal)
10. Market the Capability

1. Encourage the employees to focus better towards the
product and customers.
2. Through MkIS organisations can tap the new opportunities
3. ãell established MkIS can give early warning of Competitors
4. Investment risks can be taken off if the MkIS gives the early
warning and proper data.
5. Market Positioning and Segmentation will be efficient if the
MkIS is efficient.
6. Efficient and effective information is available only if the MkIS
is implemented in an organizaiton.
7. Customer satisfaction is achieved through MkIS as it gives
feedback immediately.
Marketing Research: M
  is the systematic
gathering, recording, and analysis of data about issues relating
to marketing products and services.
The goal of marketing research is to identify and assess how
changing elements of the marketing mix impacts customer
The term is commonly interchanged with 
however, ip research is concerned specifically with markets,
while ip
research is concerned specifically about marketing
Marketing research is categorised based on the target market-
|  marketing research, and
h   (B2B) marketing research
Or, alternatively, by methodological approach-
   marketing research, and
    marketing research
Elements of Marketing Research:
1. Market Research. It covers the aspects regarding size
and nature of the market including export markets
dividing the consumers in terms, of their age, sex,
income (market segmentation), economic aspects of
marketing etc.
2. Sales Research. This relates to the problem regional
variations in sales fixing sales territories,
measurement of the effectiveness of salesman,
evaluation of sales methods and incentives, etc.
3.Product Research. This relates to the analysis of
strengths and or weakness of existing product testing
problems relating to diversification, simplification,
trading up and trading down (all product line
decisions), etc.
4. Packaging Research. In essence, it is a part of product research.
But the recent development in packaging and its contribution in
the advertising made it to occupy an independent position. This
necessitates a separate study concerning the aspects of package
to know its impact and response in the market.

5. Kdvertising Research. It undertakes a study relating to the

preparation of advertisement copy (copy research), media to be
used (media research) and measurement of advertising

6. Business Economic Research. Problems relating to input output

analysis, forecasting, price and profit analysis, and preparation of
break -even charts are the main fields of the research.

7. Export Marketing Research. This research is intended to study

the export potentials of the product. In such cases any or all
kinds of research mentioned above become necessary.
 !    Marketing research helps the
marketers to make a decision about the product or service.
Sometimes a marketer might believe that the new product or
service is useful for the customers. However, research may show
that customers do not need a product or are meeting their needs
with a certain competitor product and so on. Similarly good
marketing research strives to provide options for the successful
introduction of new products and services. This makes the market
entry of a new product or service less risky.
2.  |    Marketing research helps in
ascertaining and understanding competitor information such as
their identity, marketing network, customer focus and scale of
operations. This helps in surviving and in certain cases, even leaving
behind the competition. Moreover, with market research you can
also help understand the under-served consumer segments and
consumer needs that have not been met.
" !    
 Research helps provide
customer information in terms of their location, age, buying
behavior and gender. This helps the marketers zero in on the target
markets and customers for their products and services.
4. #  $%  Kpart from profit maximizing steps such as
item optimization, customer profitability analysis, and price
elasticity, marketing research allows you to find out methods that
can help you maximize profits. For example, a product's price
elasticity research can help you ascertain the impact of an
increased price on the sales and the profits of a product. This
emphasis on profitability also helps the company's focus to shift
from maximizing sales to increasing the profits of a company. This
helps the company survive in the long run and maximize its profits.
5.    Increasing the sales of your products or
services helps a company in maximizing its profits. By
understanding the customer's needs, wants and attitude towards
the products and determining whether your products fit the bill,
marketers can increase their sales. This helps in not only increasing
the sales to the target customers and people already using the
product but also converting the non users into customers for the
The type of information sought from market research will
determine how much time and effort a business should
invest in it. The objectives of market research may include:

1. Market Kttractiveness Evaluation:

ù Market sizing - estimating the size of a total market,
how much is accessible by the business, and/or what
market share ambitions would be realistic.
ù Competitive presence and customer preference.
ù Customer spending patterns, budget cycles, and
ù Channel trends, preferences, and allegiances.

2. Customer Insight: Specific customer needs, aspirations,

buying behaviors, usage patterns, decision models,
preferences, favorability, intentions, etc
3. Competitive Forces: Current and potential basis of
competition in a market.
4. Communications Planning: ãhat information sources
do prospective customers pay attention to, how to
reach them, opportunities / vehicles for influencing
target customers and which are most effective.
5. Product Testing: Evaluation of product improvements,
alternatives, packaging etc.
6. Concept Testing: Evaluation of potential products and
solutions, clarification of needs, wants, and
7. Kdvert Testing: Evaluation of alternative brand
promises, impact / cut through ability,
persuasiveness, strength of call to action, out-take
versus intent, etc.
8. Customer Satisfaction: Measurement of quality
of customer experience, perceptions, reaction,
loyalty, intent, etc.
9. Pricing: Testing of price / feature / quality /
packaging / positioning combinations, price
points, promotions, loyalty schemes, terms and
conditions, etc.
10.List Building: Compilation of information about
prospective customers for direct marketing
purposes ( B may not be compatible with
ethical guidelines followed by many market
research practitioners).
The Six Steps in Conducting Quantitative
Marketing Research- MR Process
1. Identifying and defining your problem
2. Developing your approach
3. Establishing research design and strategy
4. Collecting the data
5. Performing data analysis
6. Reporting and presentation
ù Step 1: This step is always the first of the marketing research steps.
Kt this point, the problem will have been recognized by at least one
level of management, and internal discussions will have taken
place. Sometimes, further definition of the issue or problem is
needed, and for that there are several tools you can use.

ù Here at the outset of the marketing research steps, the most

common tools are internal and external secondary research.
Secondary research intelligence consists of information that was
collected for another purpose, but can be useful for other purposes

ù Examples of internal secondary research are sales revenues, sales

forecasts, customer demographics, purchase patterns, and other
information that has been collected about the customer. Often
referred to as data mining, this information can be critical in
diagnosing the problem for further exploration and should be
leveraged when available and appropriate. The amount of internal
secondary information that can be applied is typically limited.
External secondary research is typically far more available, especially
since the Internet age. Most external secondary information is
produced via research conducted for other purposes, financial
performance data, expert opinions and
analysis, corporate executive interviews, legal proceedings,
competitive intelligence firms, etc.
Leading sources for external secondary research resources include:
ͻ ewspapers/Magazine Krticles
ͻ Television
ͻ ewsletters
ͻ Competitive Intelligence Firms
ͻ Industry Reports
ͻ Trade Kssociations & Business Directories
ͻ Government Publications & ãebsites
ͻ Search Engines
ͻ Competitive ãebsites
ͻ Friends & Colleagues
Step 2:
Once the problem is better defined, you can move onto
developing marketing research approach, which will generally
be around a defined set of objectives.
Clear objectives developed in Step 1 will lend themselves to
better marketing research approach development. Developing
the approach should consist of honestly assessing team͛s
market research skills, establishing a budget, understanding
the environment and its influencing factors, developing an
analysis model, and formulating hypotheses.
How difficult is the project to execute?
Is it a large sample (500+) or small sample (<200)?
ãill the project need advanced analysis?
ãhat are the likely methodological approaches?
Is in-depth and detailed reporting or executive summary
reporting needed?
ù Step 3: Based upon a well-defined approach
from Step 2, a framework for designing your
marketing research design should be
Marketing research design is the most important
of all steps in the marketing research process,
requiring the greatest amount of thought, time
and expertise Ͷ and is the point at which those
less experienced with market research will obtain
assistance from an internal market research
expert or perhaps partner with an external
marketing research provider.
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Step 4:
Marketing research data collection (often called survey
fielding) is the point at which the finalized questionnaire
(survey instrument) is used in gathering information among
the chosen sample segments. There are a variety of data
collection methodologies to consider.
Selecting which is the most appropriate marketing research
data collection methodology for a particular research
project takes place during Steps 2 & 3 of the marketing
research process.
Market research data collection methods include:
Computer Kssisted Telephone Interviewing (CKTI)
Internet survey
Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
Mail survey
Mall intercepts
Traditional telephone interviewing
Internet panel
Mail panel
In-home panel
Step 5:
Kny survey data analysis will depend on how the
survey questionnaire was constructed. Less complex
survey data analysis can be handled with any of a
number of office suite tools, while more complex
questionnaire data analysis requires dedicated market
research analysis programs.
Types of statistical survey data analysis that might be
performed are simple frequency distributions, crosstab
analysis, multiple regression (driver analysis), cluster
analysis, factor analysis, perceptual mapping
(multidimensional scaling), structural equation
modeling and data mining. The more complex the
needed level of statistical data analysis is, the more
time and cost it will take to execute.
Market research reports and presentations are
easily the second most important step, if not the
Kny critical information and knowledge that comes
from your market research investment will be
limited by how your market research reports are
presented to decision makers.
There are as many reporting styles as there are
market research reports, but some are definitely
better than others, and there are definitely trends
to be aware of. The style depends on the
corporate culture and requirement.






! "
2.Panel Research
3.Observation Research
4.Experimental Research
  Ä      "   




"      "  

Response may be low or high.
Questionnaire may be answered or not.
b)Telephone Survey: ãhen information is
needed immediately. It gives the factual
answers to few questions. It can quick and
low cost but, the information may not be
accurate. People may not be willing to give
personal information over the phone. It is
suitable in urban areas.
c)Field Survey or Personal Interview-It is direct
form of investigation which involves face-to-
face communication. nstructured
communication is possible and visual aids can
be used.
Panel Research:
The researchers use the same sample group
of respondents two or more times or secure
data from them on more occasions. Panels
are made up of respondents who regularly
and routinely report their buying behaviour.
Observation Research: It is more objective in
nature. It is concerned with the accuracy and
eliminates the subjectivity.