Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

Introduction to

Chapter11
Managing
Employees

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Learning Objectives

 Uraikan teori motivasi.


 Jelaskan bagaimana perusahaan
dapat tingkatkan kepuasan kerja
dan tingkatkan motivasi.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Motivation and Performance
Efforts of employees
to create and produce
a quality product

Efforts of employees Firm’s


to sell the product Revenue
Firm's Firm's
Efforts of employees Earnings Value
to achieve efficient Firm’s
(low-cost) production Expenses
and marketing

Efforts of employees
to achieve low
financing costs

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Major Theories on
Motivation
•• Hawthorne
Hawthorne Studies
Studies
•• Maslow’s
Maslow’s Hierarchy
Hierarchy of
of Needs
Needs
•• Herzberg’s
Herzberg’s Job
Job Satisfaction
Satisfaction Study
Study
•• Theory
Theory X,
X, Y,
Y, and
and ZZ
•• Expectancy
Expectancy Theory
Theory
•• Equity
Equity Theory
Theory
•• Reinforcement
Reinforcement Theory
Theory

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Summary of Hawthorne
Studies
Condition Result

Increased Lighting Higher


for Employees Productivity
Experiment
Reduced Lighting Higher
for Employees Productivity

Beberapa penyesuaian
ke dalam Kondisi-
Conclusion Kondisi Yang Higher
Mencerminkan Productivity
Perhatian Ditingkatkan
Ke arah Karyawan

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs
Theory: Orang-Orang harus memenuhi kebutuhan yang lebih
rendah dalam rangka meningkat kepada kebutuhan yang lebih
tinggi.
Self-Actualization Maximization of potential.
Respect, recognition. Esteem Needs
Social Needs Social interaction.
Job security.
Safety Needs

Physiological
The basics: food, shelter, and clothing.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Herzberg

Hygiene Factors (Environmental) Motivator Factors (The Job Itself)

• Policies • Achievement
• Supervision • Recognition
• Working Conditions • Challenging Work
• Money • Responsibility
• Opportunities for advancement
• Status
• Personal growth opportunities
• Job Security

Hygiene Factors mempertimbangkan pencegahan


bukan motivasional tetapi tidak boleh perhatian
motivasional
MultiMedia by Stephen M. tidak
© 2001 disajikan
South-Western College .Publishing
Peters
Summary of McGregor’s
Theory X and Y
Supervisors’ View
Implications
Theory of Employees

Theory Employees dislike work Supervisors cannot


and job responsibilities and delegate responsibilities.
X will avoid work if possible.

Theory Employees are willing to Supervisors should


work and prefer more delegate responsibilities,
Y responsibility. which will satisfy and
motivate employees.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Expectancy Theory

•Teori: Suatu usaha pekerja


dipengaruhi oleh hasil yang
diharapkan (penghargaan).
Dua kebutuhan:
• Penghargaan yang
diinginkan.
• Kesempatan penerima
penghargaan

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Equity Theory
Teori: konpensasii harus patut, atau
yang sebanding, kepada masing-masing kontribusi pekerja

Ron Example:
20% $100,000 bonus
to be divided based
Mary on relative contribution
30% to a project:
Joe Joe: $50,000
50% Mary: $30,000
Ron: $20,000

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Reinforcement Theory
Theory: Reinforcement dapat mengendalikan
prilaku.
- Positive reinforcement: provides rewards for high
performance.
Contoh: Bonus, promotion, oral compliment.

- Negative reinforcement: memotivasi karyawan dengan


memberi sangsi
Contoh: Teguran, PHK, dll.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Guidelines to Motivation
Employee will: Employer should:
• Compare compensation and • Ensure compensation is
contribution. proportionate to contribution.
• Not be satisfied with • Ensure employees have other
compensation alone. needs met: respect, self-esteem,
• Be motivated if they can etc.
gain a reward. • Motivate using positive
reinforcement.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Key Characteristics
Affecting Job Satisfaction
• Money or
compensation
programs.
• Security.
• Work schedule.
• Employee
involvement
programs.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Three Compensation
Programs
 Merit system
– Raise according to merit.
 Across-the-board system
– All employees get similar raise.
 Incentive plans
– Various forms of compensation based on specific
performance.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Characteristics of a
Compensation Program

 Sesuaikan rencana konpensasi dengan tujusan bisnis.


 Sesuaikan konpensasi dengan atujuan karyawan tertentu.
 Menetapkan tujuan yang mungkin dapat dicapai oleh
karyawan.
 Ijinkan karyawan memberikan masukan tentang rencana
konpensasi.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
.
Flexible Work Schedule
(Flextime Programs)
Pekerjaan yang dimampatkan :
• Mampatkan beban kerja ke dalam lebih
sedikit hari per minggu.
• Tujuan utama akan mengijinkan karyawan
untuk mempunyai tiga hari di akhir pekan.
Pekerjaan yang berbagi (Job sharing)
• Dua atau lebih orang-orang berbagi full-time
tertentu ( 40 jam) rencana kerja.
• Ini mengijinkan karyawan untuk bekerja part-
time. Banyak dari karyawan ini tidak ingin
bekerja full-time.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters
Employee Involvement
Programs

• Job enlargement.
• Job rotation.
• Empowerment.
• Teamwork.
• Open-book
management.

MultiMedia by Stephen M. © 2001 South-Western College Publishing


Peters