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This involves issues such as security, prevention of contamination, locating and collecting
relevant items of evidence, interpretation of evidence and possible reconstruction of
the event.Crime Scene's can range from a relatively simple house break to a fire in a
multi-storey building or a city bombing. A diploma in Forensic Investigation or Degree
in Forensic Investigation or Degree in Analytical Chemistry is necessary.

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They determine the time and cause of death in cases of suspected murder or suicide. It
involves post mortem examinations of deaths reported to determine the cause and the
manner of death. (i.e. sudden and unexpected deaths or deaths due to accident or
injury, suicide or homicide). Medical degree (MBBS) with M.D or appropriate post-
graduate qualifications in Forensic Science would be the required qualification
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Forensic anthropologists use their knowledge of human skeletal anatomy to assist in the
identification of skeletal remains. They are called to identify individuals murdered or
killed in disasters such as plane crashes, explosions, fires and other tragedies resulting
in the loss of life and mutilation of bodies. They may also be able to discover the age,
sex, ancestry, stature, and unique features of the deceased. Qualification requirement
would be Ph.D in anthropology with an emphasis on the study of human osteology
and anatomy or a Medical degree (MBBS) with appropriate post-graduate

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Psychiatry and psychology are concerned with whether a mental state may be a mitigating
circumstance in the commission of an alleged crime, whether a person is mentally fit
to stand trial and treating those convicted of crimes who are mentally ill. A forensic
psychologist is any psychologist who by virtue of training or experience may assist a
court or other fact finder in arriving at a just or correct decision.Forensic psychologists
or psychiatrists may be called on to evaluate a murder scene to suggest a possible
psychological profile of the killer.Qualification required is Medical degree (MBBS)
with appropriate post-graduate qualifications
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It is a branch of dentistry which deals with the collection, evaluation and proper handling
of dental evidence in order to assist law enforcement officers and in civil & criminal
proceedings. The role of the odontologist is to identify bodies and skeletal remains
from dental records, reconstruct faces from skulls and where possible, interpret bite
marks. Qualification required is Degree in Dentistry, Post Graduate Diploma of
Forensic Odontology.

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Those involved in clinical forensic medicine amongst other things, examine victims of
crime and suspects who may have sustained an injury while allegedly committing a
crime. They give interpretations of their findings such as the possible causes and
timing of the injuries.It would require a Medical degree (MB BS) with appropriate
post-graduate qualifications

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Forensic entomology is the application of the study of insects and other arthropods to
legal issues. The time of death, for example, can be determined using insect evidence
gathered from and around a corpse.
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Forensic serology is the study of blood groups, blood, and other bodily fluids for
identification purposes following a crime. Forensic serologists also carry out DNA
fingerprinting, which offers the possibility of positive identification of an individual
from samples of blood or semen.

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Areas of work includes the detection and identification of illicit drugs, accelerants used in
arson cases, explosive and gunshot residues, trace evidence, including paint, glass,
polymers and fibers. Qualification needed is a Science degree with a major in analytical,
applied or forensic chemistry.


Dactyloscopy is the scientific study of fingerprints. Fingerprints is perhaps the most well-
known of the forensic sciences. It also involves the identification of fingerprints and
their ability to categorically link suspects to or exclude suspects from a crime scene.
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Forensic linguists analyze the content of written or oral communication to identify who is
speaking and indicate the speaker's intent, and can determine whether two
communications are from the same person. This is obviously important in cases of
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Ballistics is the study of the flight paths of projectiles, but modern ballistics now includes
the study of everything to do with firearms. It also involves the determination of the
angle and distance a gun was fired from to hit a specific target. It would require a
Science degree with a major in a relevant discipline, Diploma in forensic investigation,
Degree in forensic investigation.

Toxicology involves the detection and identification of illicit and pharmaceutical drugs and
poisons, interpreting toxicity levels and the effects on the functions of the
body.Qualification required is Science degree with a major in chemistry or
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Deals with traffic accidents, fire investigations, and a variety of wrongful injury
cases. Engineers are involved in failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and
origins of fires or explosions, quality evaluation of construction or manufacturing
etc.An Engineering degree with post-graduate qualifications in Forensic Engineering is

A crime scene needs to be photographed from every angle clearly to show detail, with the
emphasis on accurately recording the size and distance of objects.

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Forensic artists can draw a likeness of a person based solely on eyewitness accounts.
Modern techniques of computer animation are now starting to be used to show
evidence or expert testimony to courts. Forensic sculptors can reconstruct faces,
usually in modelling clay or on a computer from skulls or other fragments. The
expertise may enable the police to find out who a person was when no other clues are
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