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GROUP

Marvin . E. Shaw has defined group as two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other

This definition takes a broader view with certain identifiable features which are given here under: Two or more persons: To form a group, there should be at least two persons, because a single individual cannot interact Collective identity: Each member of the group must believe that he is a member of the group and also be aware of his participation in group activity.

Interaction: Members of the group will interact with each other, share their ideas and communicate with each other. Shared goal interest: Members of the group should concur to the attainment of objective each one must at least share one of the group concerns

Reasons for formation of groups


Interpersonal attraction: People are down to those groups which are physically are attractive and similar to themselves. The group act as a vehicle of socialization: Keith Davis in his Human Behavior at work, has observed along with men s technical imperative to work together.

Groups serve as means of need satisfaction: Members of the group interact towards achieving a common need or goal. A change from usual work environment: People seek routes to escape from job, when their capabilities exceed job requirement. Helps in group decision making and getting job done: This activity is based on the old age. Two heads are better than one .

Advantages of groups
Greater sum total of knowledge and information: In group all tasks are carried out effectively with the help of all the group members, group decisions and sharing job knowledge. Greater number of approaches to the problem: Groups perform the role of problem solving by adopting a task accomplishing mechanism.

Participation increases acceptance: The attraction of a particular group for a member is because there is a shared goal/ objective or interest which binds the group members together. Better comprehension of the problems and the solutions: A group provides the supportive climate for decision making.

Group acts as a motivator: Individual satisfaction and commitment in group decision making are enhanced and help in effective implementation of the decision.

Disadvantages of groups
Solution mindedness: Though the group members bring with them expertise in the form of knowledge and experience, sometimes due to want of time, the group members may pressurize all concerned with the group to arrive at a solution to the problem quickly.

Compromised results: In case of problems the group members through interactions and discussions, will understand the problem, hold discussions and try to arrive at a consensus. Untimely Decisions: One of the characteristic features of a group is that decisions can be taken very fast.

Conflicts: Since group exist to meet and satisfy the social needs of its members, there are chances of occurrence of role conflict. Diffusion of responsibility: The group members develop awareness of the other members problem and are free to express their opinions and participate in decision making.

Free riding or social loafing: Groups will be successful if decisions are taken in an atmosphere of team spirit and co-operation with all the group members getting involved in the discussion and openly n freely expressing their opinions. High co-ordination cost in time and money: Groups exist so as to take care of the social needs of the persons.

Dominance: Groups are useful for transmitting and sharing information. Pressures to conformity: The group will function smoothly if the members follow the principle of equals