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Key Sequences for Command Edit & Recall

Up arrow or Ctrl-p
This displays the most recently used command. If it is pressed again, the next most recent command appears until the history buffer is exhausted. (The p stands for previous.)

Down arrow If you have gone too far back into the history buffer, these keys will go forward to the more recently typed or Ctrl-n
commands. (The n is for next.)

Left arrow or Ctrl-b Right arrow or Ctrl-f Backspace

This moves the cursor backward in the currently displayed command without deleting characters. (The b stands for back.) This moves the cursor forward in the currently displayed command without deleting characters. (The f stands for forward.) This moves the cursor backward in the currently displayed command, deleting characters.

Key Sequences for Command Edit & Recall


Ctrl-a Ctrl-e Esc-b Esc-f Ctrl-r
This moves the cursor directly to the first character of the currently displayed command. This moves the cursor directly to the end of the currently displayed command. This moves the cursor back one word in the currently displayed command. This moves the cursor forward one word in the currently displayed command. This creates a new command prompt, followed by all the characters typed since the last command prompt was written.

Key Sequences
The key sequences are part of what Cisco calls enhanced editing mode. However, you can turn off these keystrokes with the no terminal editing exec command, and turn them back on with the terminal editing command. For the exam, just remember that you can enable and disable enhanced editing mode.

Show Commands
The most popular single IOS command is the show command. The show command has a very large variety of options, and with those options, you can nd the status of almost every feature of IOS. Essentially, the show command lists facts about the routers operational status that the router already knows.

Router Memory, Processors, and Interfaces


The conguration le contains the conguration commands that you have typed, as well as some conguration commands entered by default by the router. The conguration le can be stored in a variety of places, including two inside a router. The router has a couple of other types of memory as well:

RAM
Sometimes called DRAM for dynamic random-access memory, RAM is used by the router just as it is used by any other computer: for working storage. The running or active conguration le is stored here.

ROM
This type of memory (read-only memory) stores a bootable IOS image, which typically is not used for normal operation. ROM contains the code that is used to boot the router until the router knows where to get the full IOS image or as a backup bootable image, in case there are problems.

FLASH MEMORY
Either an EEPROM or a PCMCIA card, Flash memory stores fully functional IOS images and is the default location where the router gets its IOS at boot time. Flash memory also can be used to store any other les, including conguration les.

NVRAM
Nonvolatile RAM stores the initial or startup conguration le. All these types of memory, except RAM, are permanent memory. No hard disk or disk storage exists on Cisco routers.

CISCO IOS Software Boot Sequence


Cisco routers perform the same types of tasks that a typical computer performs when you power it on or reboot (reload) it. The boot process: 1.The router performs a power-on self-test (POST) to discover and verify the hardware. 2.The router loads and runs bootstrap code from ROM. 3.The router nds the IOS or other software and loads it. 4.The router nds the conguration le and loads it into running cong.

EXAM QUESTIONS
IOS on a router uses a conguration le for the initial conguration at router startup and the active, running conguration le. The startup conguration le is in NVRAM; the other le, which is in RAM, is the one that the router uses during operation. When the router rst comes up, the router copies the stored conguration le from NVRAM into RAM.

EXAM QUESTIONS (continued)


Show running-cong and show startupcong commands display the currently used, active, running conguration and the stored, startup conguration used when the router boots. Copy tftp flash command copies the IOS Image to Flash Memory Show flash verifies the contents in flash memory.

Switch Initialization
A switch initializes when it is powered on. Like all computers, it performs some basic checks to discover what kind of hardware is installed, what is working, and what is not, and then it proceeds to load the operating system if enough of the hardware is in working order. You should know the basics of how a 2950 switch tells you its status during initialization by lighting the LEDs on the front panel of the switch.

Switch LEDs During POST


Power-On Self Test (POST) denes the series of steps that a device goes through to test the hardware and nd out what is working before moving on to loading the operating system. POST processing is performed by boot code that is loaded into ROM.

Switch LEDs During POST (continued)


Because a full operating system has not yet been loaded when the switch performs POST, it needs a way to tell the human user if POST worked well, if it failed partly, or if the switch is totally unusable. To communicate the status, the switch uses the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the front panel of the switch. During POST, these LEDs have one set of meanings; during normal operation, the LEDs are used for other purposes.

Switch LEDs During POST (continued)


During POST, the switch varies the lights on the LEDs to imply what is happening. For instance, as do most devices, the switch starts by turning all the LEDs green for a moment, just so you can know whether the LEDs are working. On the 2950, if the system LED turns amber, the switch failed POST, meaning that it has a problem that prevents it from even bringing up the switch operating system. (Solid green on the system LED means all is well.)

Switch LEDs During POST (continued)


If the stat LED is on, each port LED shows a solid green light if the respective Ethernet links are working, and a ashing green when trafc is being sent across the links. If the duplex LED is lit, then the port LEDs are green if the port is using full duplex, and are not lit if using half duplex.

2950 Switch LEDS and Meanings


LED Use and Meaning OFF: Powered off / GREEN: Up and Working AMBER: POST failure This signals the existence of RPS, the status of RPS and the status of main power. Each port has a single LED, whose meaning is interpreted based on which of the four MODE leds is lit. When pressed, this button changes from one of four states: stat, util, duplex, and speed. The current mode is shown by the green LED beside only one of the four words stat, util, duplex, and speed. When stat is green, each port LED shows the working status of the port. Green means functional, off means not functional, and ashing green shows link activity. This uses the combined port LEDs to give an indication of overall switch utilization. The more port LEDs are lit, the more switch utilization is occurring. The port LEDs show solid green in full duplex and off if half duplex. For 10/100 ports, the LED shows solid green if running 100 Mbps, and off if running 10 Mbps.

System RPS Port LEDs Mode Button Stat

Util

Duplex Speed