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Universidad de Colima

Linking Words

By Gonzalo Contreras Heredia Alejandro Contreras Pedraza

Linking Words
Linking words help you connect ideas and sentences and are essential for your writing to be natural and clear. Linking devices vary in three ways:

1. Position in the text. Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words: and but so because then until such as

are examples of this type of linking word. Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words must start with a capital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma: Furthermore, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, Therefore, In conclusion,

are used in this way. Most linking words, however, can either start a sentence or form a link between sentences. The choice is up to the writer.

2.

The function of linking words

Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide. Adding extra information to the main point, contrasting ideas, expressing cause and effect, showing exactly when something happened (narrating), expressing purpose (why?) and opinion, listing examples, making conclusions and giving emphasis. 3. Grammatical differences

Some linking words must be followed by a clause (Subject + Verb + Object). E.g.. while why because although so whereas when

Other linking words should be followed by a noun phrase (Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund) E.g.. because of despite during in spite of

The majority of linking devices can be followed by either a noun phrase or a clause. Here is a list of the principal linking words in English, their function and if their position is usually fixed.

Linking Words

Adding and *and as well as besides Moreover, Furthermore, What is more, In addition, not only .... but also another point is that relative clauses who where that ,which whose to whom when what why

Contrasting *but However, Although despite In spite of Nevertheless, On the contrary, on the one hand on the other hand, whereas while but while In contrast, Neither...nor

Expressing cause / reason because as since This is why because of Due to Owing to For this reason, Expressing effect / result *so so....that such a...that Therefore Thus Consequently, As a result, too...for/to not enough...for/to

Linking words

Narration First (of all) At first At the beginning In the beginning then next Before After After that afterwards When While during Soon prior to

immediately Once Suddenly As soon as on No sooner....than Hardly...when Finally Eventually At the end In the end At last To begin with, until

Expressing purpose to so as to in order that so that for (Non-specific) Expressing opinion I would say that In my opinion, I think (that) I believe (that) Personally Apparently,

Giving examples for example, for instance, For one thing, this includes such as e.g.. (for example) i.e. (that is)

Summing up / concluding All in all overall generally In conclusion, on the whole in the main To sum up,

Emphasis especially particularly Naturally, exactly because above all Whatever Whenever too / enough The more ....

LinkingwordsDifficultcases

So AVOIDSTARTINGASENTENCEWITHTHISWORD! 'So'canbeusedintwoways: 1. To show RESULT. E.g..Itwasraining,sowedecidednottogotothebeach. NOTE!'because'showstheREASON.Theabovesentencecouldbeexpressedlikethis: E.g..Wedecidednottogotothebeachbecauseitwasraining. NOTE!ToshowaREASONLINKBETWEENSENTENCESuse'Therefore,'. So & such used for EMPHASIS. Whenusedforemphasis,'So'mustbefollowedbyeitheranadjectiveoranadverbandmust belinkedtoanexplanationCLAUSE. E.g..Itwassohotthatwedecidednottogotothebeach. ORWedecidednottogotothebeachbecauseitwassohot.

Enough and too 'enough'goesAFTERADJECTIVES&ADVERBSbutBEFORENOUNS. E.g..Youwon'tpasstheexamifyoudon'tworkhardenough. ORHedidn'tgetthejobbecausehedidn'thaveenoughexperience. 'enough'canalsobeusedalone. E.g..I'lllendyousomemoneyifyouhaven'tgotenough. 'too'means'morethannecessary'andcomesBEFOREADJECTIVES&ADVERBSONLY. E.g..Thecoffeewastoohottodrink.

But and However, 'but'isusedtoCONTRASTclausesWITHINASENTENCE. E.g..Ilikegoingtothebeach,butInevergoatmidday. 'However,'hasthesamefunction,butisusedtoshowCONTRASTBETWEENSENTENCES. E.g..I'vealwaysenjoyedgoingtothebeach.However,Inevergothereatmidday.

Although, though, even though & In spite of / despite, 'Although'mustjointwoclauses,butit'spositioncanchange.Itcaneitherstartasentenceorcomeinthemiddle. E.g..Althoughitrainedalot,weenjoyedtheholiday. ORWeenjoyedtheholidayalthoughitrainedalot. InspokenEnglish'though'canbeusedinsteadof'although'whenitisusedforthesecondclause. E.g.."Ididn'tgetthejobthoughIhadallthenecessaryqualifications." 'though'canalsocomeattheendofasentence. E.g.."Thehouseisn'tverynice.Ilikethegardenthough." 'Eventhough'isastrongerformof'although'. E.g..EventhoughIwasreallytired,Icouldn'tsleep. 'Inspiteof'or'Despite'mustbefollowedbyaNOUN,PRONOUN(this,that,whatetc.)or~ING. E.g..Inspiteoftherain,wewenttothebeach. ORWewenttothebeachinspiteoftherain. Itiscommontousetheexpression'Inspiteofthefact(that)....'or'Despitethefact(that)....' E.g..She'squitefitinspiteofthefactthatshesmokes40cigarettesaday.

Linking words of time - Still, yet and already 'Still'tellsusthatanactioniscontinuing,orhasn'thappenedyet.Ithaspositive,negativeandquestionforms. E.g..It's10o'clockandJohn'sstillinbed. orShesaidthatshewouldbehereanhouragoandshestillhasn'tcome. orAreyoustilllivinginLondon? 'yet'asksifsomethinghashappened,ortosaythatsomethinghasn'thappened.ItismainlyusedinNEGATIVES& QUESTIONSandcomesattheendofasentence.'Yet'isusuallyusedwiththepresentperfecttense. E.g..Hehasn'tfinishedthereportyet. ORIsdinnerreadyyet? 'Already'isusedtosaythatsomethinghappenedbeforeexpected,itusuallycomesinmiddleposition,butcanalso comeinfinalposition.'Already'isnotusedinnegativesandinBritishEnglishisonlyusedinquestionstoshow considerablesurprise. E.g..I'lltellherthatdinnerisready. Shealreadyknows. Haveyoufinishedalready?!Ithoughtitwouldtakeyoulonger! Inordertounderstandthistypeoflinkingword,youmustbeclearabouttheconceptsof'apointintime'and'aperiodof time'.Apointintimeistheanswertoa'when'question,andaperiodoftimeistheanswertoa'howlong'question. E.g..Pointsoftime=6pm,Wednesday,shearrived,summer,1999,Christmas,fiveminutesago. Periodsoftime=3seconds,4days,ages,100years,theChristmasholiday,fiveminutes.

During and while Both'during'and'while'tellusWHENsomethinghappened.Thedifferencebetweenthemisthat'during'isfollowedbya nounphrase(noverb),and'while'isfollowedbyaclause(subject+verb+object). E.g..WhendidyougotoBarcelona? IwentthereduringmyholidayinEurope. OR IwenttherewhileIwasonholidayinEurope. 'By'means'atsometimebefore'andtellsuswhensomethinghappens.Itisfollowedbyapointintimeandcanbeused forbothpastandfuturetime. E.g..Thisreportmustbefinishedby6pm. 'Bythetime'hasthesamemeaningbutisfollowedbyaclause.Itiscommonwithperfecttenses. E.g..Bythetimewegettherethepartywillhavefinished. For, since and until Thesewordsalltellushowlongsomethinghappens.'For'focusesondurationandcanbeusedinmosttenses.Itis followedbyaperiodoftime. 'Since'isonlyusedwithperfecttensesandmustbefollowedbyapointintime. E.g..TheystayedinBarcelonafortwoweeks. ORThey'vebeeninBarcelonasincelastFriday.=TheyarestillinBarcelonanow. 'Until'alsotellsushowlongsomethinghappens,butthefocusisontheendoftheactionorsituation.Itisfollowedbya pointintime. E.g..TheystayedinBarcelonauntillastFriday.=TheyleftBarcelonalastFriday.

Not....any more/longer and no longer Theseexpressionstellusthatasituationhaschanged.'not....anymore/longer'goattheendofasentenceand'nolonger'is usedinthemiddleofasentence. E.g..Mr.Jonesdoesn'tworkhereanylonger.ORShenolongerworkshere. As & like 'As'and'like'canbeusedinCOMPARISONS. However,'As'MUSTBEFOLLOWEDBYACLAUSE,and'like'MUSTBEFOLLOWEDBYANOUN. E.g..Heworkedforthecompany,ashisfatherhaddonebeforehim. ORSheactslikeachildsometimes.

'As'canalsobefollowedbyapreposition E.g..In1998,asin1997,inflationinBrazilfellsteadily. '(not)as....as'+ADJECTIVEorADVERBshowsEQUALITYorINEQUALITY. E.g..Sheisn'tastallasherfatherwas.ORThetrafficcanbeasbadinRioasitisinSoPaulo. 'As'canbeusedtostatetheROLE,JOBorFUNCTIONofapersonorthing. E.g..Weallworkedtogetherasateam.ORSheworkedasamanagerintheHumanResources Department.OR Heusedhishandkerchiefasaflagtoattractattention. 'As'canbeusedinthesamewayas'because';however,itgiveslessemphasisthan'because'. E.g..Astheweatherwassobad,wedidn'tgotothebeach. ORIboughthersomeflowersasshehadbeensokindtome. 'As'tellsusthatactionsoccuratthesametime. E.g..Asthedooropened,shesawhimstandingbythewall. 'As'isoftenusedinthesecommonexpressions: Ashardas,assoonas,aslongas,aswellas,asfaras,asgoodas. E.g..HecanstayhereasfarasI'mconcerned.Youcangoaslongasyoucomehomeearly. 'As'isalsotheprepositionusedaftertheseverbs: Regardedasseesth.asbethoughtofasBelookedonas.

Bibliography

Linking words

http://www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwd.html http://www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words/ https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/4_WritingSkills/writing_tuts/lin http://www.open.ac.uk/skillsforstudy/using-linking-words.php http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Spanish/Grammar/Spanish-Conjunction

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