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Developments in Coach Design on Indian Railways

S.Singh. AP/C&W IRIMEE

Historical Development
Pre-1955 Wooden bodied IRS coaches 1955 ICF set up at Perambur, Chennai in collaboration with Schlieren of Switzerland to make coaches with
Steel integral coach shell Fabricated bogie Coil primary springs Laminated secondary springs Speed potential of 96 km/h

Historical Development
Secondary suspension modified to Coil springs Length of bolster hanger increased to 410 mm in place of 286 mm Side bearers to transfer body weight in place of centre pivot

Historical Development
16t bogie for AC coaches Adoption of Air brakes Bogie mounted air brake system Composition brake blocks in place of Cast Iron

Historical Development
RCF set up at Kapurthala to make coaches to ICF design Variants developed like:
AC self-generating and End-on-generating MG versions 2-tier AC, AC chair cars, 3-tier AC

Historical Development
EMUs were imported from Metrocamel/UK and SIG/ Switzerland EMUs manufactured at ICF and Jessops/Kolkata Variants developed:
Metro coaches Rail-cars DMUs, MEMUs

ICF coach - Speed Up-gradation


Speed Year 96 1955 105 1965 120 130 140 1969 1971 1988 Remarks Original design of Schlieren All coil spring, weight transfer through side bearer Improved track standards to C&M 1(Vol 1) Trials - Introduction of Rajdhani Trials - Introduction of Shatabdi

Design Objectives
Corrosion Control Weight Reduction Increase in speed potential Increased Payload Increased train length Passenger amenity Safety and Maintainability

Corrosion Control
Low alloy steel IRS M-41 specified
Similar to Corten-A UTS 460 N/sq mm YS 320 N/sq mm

Decolite on wooden floor-boards replaced by 2mm PVC on 12 mm compreg boards Stainless steel/ epoxy inlay for toilets Ferritic SS for sole bar, pillars, turn-under Austenitic SS for trough floor

Weight Reduction
IRS M-41 use reduces 1.1t per coach PVC flooring reduces 1.1t per coach Change from 24V DC to 110V reduces 0.6t per coach
Weight increase:
Increased water tank capacity of 1820 l (from1280 l) Upholstered seats in II class Additional fans Increased height 4025 mm from 3889 mm

Increased speed potential


Original coach had a speed potential of 96 km/h on main line track Modified all-coil bogie has a speed potential of 105 km/h on main line track and 140 km/h on C&M-1 standard track

Limitations of ICF bogie


Dashpot prone to leakage uncontrolled damping Longitudinal and lateral flexibility of axle guidance cannot be controlled independently Space constraints limit use of low frequency vertical and lateral suspension design Bogie headstock increases its yaw inertia Friction damping in lateral direction is not controlled Requires frequent maintenance springs, roller bearings

IR-15 bogie
ICF bogie upgraded for speed of 160 km/h:
Secondary suspension made softer, with longer springs. Space made by lowering the spring beam, raising the bogie frame and coach body bolster. Stiffness of 88.57 kg/mm against existing 191.75 kg/mm. Length of bolster hanger increased from 410mm to 630mm. Space created by lowering the lower spring beam and raising the bolster suspension bracket from below the bogie frame to the middle. Natural frequency lowered from 0.95 to 0.74 Hz. Transverse resilient stops with non-linear characteristics act after 25mm swing of the bolster.

IR-15 bogie (contd.)


Dashpots replaced by 4 shock absorbers of 200 kg capacity Transverse spacing of secondary springs has been increased from 2254 mm to 2310 mm, to reduce tendency for rolling Tapered roller bearings TAROL 130 x 230 (UIC 130C) Axle mounted disc brakes for high speed Wheel diameter reduced from 915 to 865 mm, reducing unsprung mass by 140 kg/wheelset Bogie frame weight reduced by 300 kg by using IRS M41steel

IR-15 bogie (contd.)


Corresponding IRX shell developed with straight side walls (no turn-under) and no pockets for corrosion IRX shell has body bolster modified to suit IR-15 bogie Stress investigation for fatigue done. Maximum stress was 106.7 N/sq mm Riding was found satisfactory during simulation by NUCARS. Results at 180 km/h: IR-15 ICF Vertical RI 3.34 3.72 Lateral RI 3.44 3.41 Project closed due to development of IR-20 bogie

IR-20 Bogie Design Concepts


Axle flexibility in longitudinal and lateral direction to be optimised independently Flexi-coil secondary suspension Y-frame design to provide space for secondary suspension No head-stock and shorter wheel-base Better noise isolation

IR-20 Bogie Design Concepts


IRY shell developed to suit Bogie suitable in Fatigue tests and NUCARS simulation Shell suitable in squeeze test and FE simulation Shell is lighter by 2.5t Coach is lighter by 1.5t Field Tests at 140 km/h (limited by CRS): IRY/IR-20 ICF Vertical RI 2.91 3.21 Lateral RI 3.08 3.28

Projects Completed Recently

High Capacity Parcel Van

VPH

High Capacity Parcel Van VPH


Existing limitations
Parcel Van VP/VPU Pay load limited to 17 tonnes. Maximum speed limited to 110 km/h on Rajdhani standard track.

Solution concept
Use of progressive coil spring suspension.

Scope
Design of two stage secondary suspension bogies.

High Capacity Parcel Van VPH

High Capacity Parcel Van VPH


Results
Pay load increased from 17 to 23 tonnes. Cleared for speed of 130 km/h on Raj. Standard track. Route proving run has been conducted and railways advised to obtain sanction for running at speeds upto 130 km/h on NDLS-SBC route. Project completed in March 2002.

High Capacity Parcel Van VPH


Cost Implication
Estimated Rs. 1.38 lakhs per coach. Pay-back period of 7 months.

Benefit
Each coach adds Rs. 3 lakhs / year to earning potential. Manufactured 305 VPHs giving earning potential of Rs. 9 crores / year.

High Capacity Parcel Van VPH


The Road Ahead
Railways to obtain CRSs sanction for operation at speeds of 110 - 130 km/h on other high speed routes. Establish mechanism to prevent overloading.

Coaching Container Flat CCF

Coaching Container Flat (CCF)


Existing limitations
Parcel vans have to be loaded/ unloaded at platforms. Maximum load of VPH is 23 tonnes.

Solution concept
Use of container flats fit for service on express trains.

Scope
Design of container flat on coaching bogies.

Coaching Container Flat (CCF)

Coaching Container Flat (CCF)


Project start : Sep-98 Project completed : Sep-2001 Results
Pay load increased to 31 tonnes, on three 81/2 feet high 20-feet ISO containers per flat. Speed certificate for 105 km/h on main line standard track issued in September 2001. Board have identified 5 trains for CCF operation.

Coaching Container Flat (CCF)


Cost Implication
Estimated Rs. 30 lakhs per CCF as against Rs. 47 lakhs per VPH. Estimated additional earning potential of each flat, as compared to VP is Rs. 6 lakhs per year.

The Road Ahead


Board have to include further manufacture in RCFs Production Programme.

Introduction of LHB Coaches

Coaches received
3 Executive Chair Cars 3 Generator vans 18 Chair cars

Dec 2000

Oscillation trials completed Feb 2001 Braking and coupler force test completed Mar 2001
Route proving trials completed Coaches introduced in NDLS-LKO Shatabdi Express Mar 2001

May 2001

Service Experience
Favourable reaction to riding, seat design, noise control and interiors. Problems noticed:
Uncoupling - Modifications made and service reintroduced. M/s LHB to replace couplers. Air-conditioning - software modified.

Salient Features- Body


Light weight Stainless steel body for low corrosion Longer coach by 2m - additional capacity Better use of fire retardant material Improved interiors Modular state-of-the-art lavatory Speed control discharge toilet Efficient heat and sound insulation Double seal glass windows

Salient Features - Coupling


Introduction of tight-lock CBC coupler in coaching stock Elimination of shuttling effect Anti-climbing feature in case of accident Eliminate train parting ACP with emergency braking Eliminates un-coupling of coaches during accident

Salient Features - Bogie


Bogie frame - EUROFIMA type bogie Y-shape two side frames Side frame connected with 2 tubular cross members Simple in construction

BOGIE FRAME

Salient Features - Bogie


Primary Suspension: Nested steel coil springs Hydraulic dampers Control arm axle guidance Rubber spring over steel spring Lateral flexibility - reduced wheel wear

Salient features Bogie Primary Suspension

Salient features - Bogie


Secondary Suspension:
Nested flexi-coil steel spring Rubber bellow inside coil springs for progressive characteristics Rubber springs at top and bottom of steel springs Hydraulic vertical and lateral damper

Bogie Secondary Suspension

Secondary suspension

Anti-roll bar

Body bogie connection:


Provides rigid connection between body and bogie Consists of disc spring Capable to transmit 0.25g acceleration in normal operation and 5g in emergency condition

Body-bogie connection

Brakes:
Disc brake system with two discs per axle Brake cylinder with built-in slack adjuster Upgradable to EP feature Provision of ACP with emergency braking Stainless steel pipes EBD 1200m at 160 kmph on level track for 18 coach train. Upgradable to magnetic brakes Brake disc dia 640mm

Others:
Wheel slip protection device to overcome flat wheel problems Permanent earthing connection to safeguard axle bearings Tapered roller bearings Wear adopted wheel profile Speed potential upto 160 kmph upgradable to 200 kmph Superior ride comfort

FIAT BOGIE

FIAT BOGIE

FIAT BOGIE

LHB coach - improved safety


Complete elimination of swing link arrangement No dashpot damping No brake linkages Permanent earthing connection - Protection to bearings Body-bogie connection to withstand 5g forces Wheel slip protection arrangement

LHB coach - improved safety


Tight lock CBC coupler:
Reduced train parting Anti-climbing feature ACP with emergency braking

Improved riding means better safety against derailment.

Ri e scillatio

omfort o Im rove HB coac

esig avi g I ogie

rial Res lts o

a im m ee (km 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 ) Vertical 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.18 0.19 0.29 0.18

cceleratio ateral 0.12 0.098 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.11

a im m Ri e I Vertical 2.20 2.18 2.38 2.40 2.41 2.44 2.46

ateral 2.10 2.21 2.19 2.28 2.54 2.19 2.19

COMPARISON OF FIAT WIT


Features peed otential (kmph) ide Index (max.) Weight (t) Wheel base(mm) Inner axle distance (m) Wheel dia ne (mm) Wheel dia orn (mm) xle box guidance ampers rimary FI T 160 2.75 at 180kmph 6.5 2560 12.34 915 845 rticulated Hydraulic damper I F 140 3.5 at 140kmph 5.72 (13t) 6.5(16.25t) 2896 11.89 915 814 igid ashpot

ICF
I 20 160 3.0 at 160kmph 6.8 2440 12.33 890 814 rticulated Hydraulic damper

Composition Brake Blocks

Composition Brake Blocks


Existing limitations of Cast Iron brake blocks
Low life, high weight and maintenance intensive Inconsistent friction over speed range

Solution concept
use of high quality non-metallic composite material

Scope
Development of non-asbestos based composition brake blocks

Composition Brake Blocks

Composition Brake Blocks


Results
Two sources have been developed. Dynamometer and field trials indicate that: four times less wear than cast iron blocks; giving an average life of 88 days as compared to 21 days. reduced braking distance due to uniform coefficient of friction very much lighter in weight (2.9 kg against 11 kg for Cast iron) less wear on brake rigging less noise during braking

Composition Brake Block


Cost implications
Cost Rs. 400 per brake block, two times higher than cast iron, but lasts four times longer. Benefit Full introduction of L type blocks on coaches with underframe mounted brakes will give an estimated saving of Rs. 46 crores per year.

Composition Brake Blocks


The Road Ahead
Board have directed the Railways and PUs to effect the change.

Air Springs on EMUs

Air Springs on EMUs


Existing limitation
EMU suspension unable to cope up with the superdense-crush loads of Mumbai and Kolkata.

Solution concept
Use of self-leveling progressive pneumatic suspension.

Scope
Design and development of bogies fitted with air springs for DC & AC EMU coaches.

GROWTH OF PASSENGERS ON SUB-URBAN SECTION


Tare Wt. (t) Pay load (t) PAST DCL 18.0 15.5 PDCL 28.5 21.0 PRESENT SDCL 34.0 28.0 (Approx.) Trailer 32.5 Motor 51.0

PROBLEMS DUE TO SUPER DENSE CRUSH LOAD


LARGE SCALE BREAKAGE OF BOGIE COMPONENTS COACH BODY GRAZING AGAINST PLATFORM POOR RIDING

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
SHORT-TERM
Strengthening of bogie components

LONG-TERM:
Upgrade existing coil suspension Design improved suspension bogie

UPGRADED COIL SUSPENSION


IMPROVED COIL SUSPENSION ON DC-EMU (1997) COACH MC EXISTING PRIMARY SECONDARY 55.96 143.06 (2 nest spring set) 55.55 82.5 IMPROVED PRIMARY SECONDARY 81.68 32.341 (4 nest spring set) tare 41.144 gross 121.679 (4 nest spring set) 76.158

TC

(2 nest spring set) * Values in Kg/mm.

* Did not show acceptable behaviour beyond 65 kmph.

AIR SUSPENSION WITH AIR SPRING AT SECONDARY STAGE

COMPARISON OF AIR SPRING AND STEEL SPRING:

STEEL SPRING AIR SPRING * Constant stiffness


* Variable Height * Simple in design & construction * Self-supporting * Variable stiffness * Constant height * Complex in design & construction * Needs control equipment and air pressure

COMPARISON OF AIR SPRING AND STEEL SPRING

Tare Load

Full Load Full Load Tare Load

Spring Force F

Spring Force F

Steel Spring

Air Spring

Air springs vs Steel Springs


Full

Tare

Unlike steel springs, air springs retain their height under changing loads. The low natural frequency remains virtually constant. Thus, air suspension is especially suitable where passengers or fragile goods are to be transported.

Deflection S Sdym S stat S total S dym (full) Deflection S S dym S dym S total

Fig.No.

(tare)

AIR SPRINGS vs STEEL SPRINGS

Air suspension control loop Q Q+ Equalization Supply reservoir


V L L E

Q Loading Supply reservoir


V E

Actual

Required

Act.

Req.

Q-

Unloading

Supply reservoir
V

L E

Actual

Required

Working rinciple o

neumatic uspension

EXISTING M.R. PIPE IC

DV

AR

FT NRV

AR

AS LV MR 150 Litres LV AS
*I -I TI * - T * - I ITI * - I I * FT - FI T * I * I I * - . .

AS LV DV IC LV AS IC

AR 20 LIT.

Fig. : 4 -

I T

                 
I I

AR 20 LIT.

150 Lit. RESERVOIR AIR FILTER ISOLATING COCK NON-RETURN VALVE ISOLATING COCK FROM MAIN AIR SUPPLY LINE

ISOLATING COCK

SCH

TIC I

F Q I

TS

FRAME

litre/sec
5

Throttled

Air release

Air addmission

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Lever deflection

DELAYED REACTION OF CONTROL VALVE TO AVOID EXCESSIVE AIR CONSUMPTION

AIR SPRING

Emergency Spring

AIR SPRING DEPICTING EMERGENCY SPRING

l1 l2
X

2Re

ertical Spring Action

ateral Spring Action


Orifice

Displacement

Vo

Time

Sel - amping Characterstics

ELIMINATION OF SWING HANGERS AND SPRING PLANK PROVISION OF LOWER SPRING BRACKET MODIFIED BOLSTER PROVISION OF AIR SPRING CONTROL SYSTEM

BOGIE BOLSTER AXLE BOX LE ELLING AL E BOGIE FRAME

STEEL SPRING (Primary Suspension)

INSTALLATION LE ER

ERTICAL DAMPER

LOWER SPRING BEAM

BOGIE GENERAL ARRANGEMENT FITTED WIT

AIR SPRING

 

AIR SPRING (Secondary Suspension)

Rail Level

PRESENT STATUS
DC-EMU:
Two prototype coaches (1 MC & 1 TC) manufactured in 1997 Oscillation trials passed in October 98 Service trials completed in March 2001 of one year Performance, found satisfactory

PRESENT STATUS
AC-EMU:
Prototype coaches manufactured at ICF in Feb.2000 Oscillation trials passed in July-Aug. 2000 Final speed certificate issued in Nov. 2000 Coaches are in service on ER since Mar.2001

PRESENT STATUS
HP-DMU:
Prototype coaches manufactured at ICF in Feb.2000 Oscillation trials passed in July-Aug. 2000 Final speed certificate issued in Nov. 2000 Coaches are in service on SR since May 2001

PRESENT STATUS
AC/DC-EMU:
AC/DC EMU under manufacture at ICF with air suspension.

Air Springs on EMUs


Results
Oscillation trials successfully completed for 110 km/h. Service trials for one year on DC section over.

The Road Ahead


Board have decided that future builds should be with air springs. M/s Contitech/ Germany developed as a source. M/s Firestone under development.

Air Springs on EMUs


Cost Implication
Estimated cost Rs. 6 lakhs per coach. Pay-back period 6 Years.

Emergency Exit Windows For


ICF Coaches

Emergency Exit Windows


Existing limitations
Evacuation is hampered at the time of accidents when the door approach is blocked or door is jammed.

Solution concept
Use of hinged windows in AC compartments.

Scope
Design of hinged 2 and 4 windows for AC coaches with emergency opening arrangement.

Emergency Exit Windows


Project Started : Project Completed : Results Feb-01 Sep-01

The following designs have been standardised: Non-AC coaches - Grill window as per ICF/STD -54-005. AC Two feet windows: ICF/SK-5-4-168 -Side opening. AC Four feet windows: RDSO SK-98161 - Bottom Opening.

Emergency Exit Windows

Emergency Exit Windows

Emergency Exit Windows


Cost Implication
Marginal

Benefit
Will fulfill a major safety requirement

Emergency Exit Windows


The Road Ahead
Pus have been asked to implement with immediate effect Railways have been asked to implement during POH

Lighter Brake beam


For

Coaches with bogie mounted brakes

Lighter Brake beam


Existing limitations
Brake hanger failures are partly attributed to the heavy weight of the existing brake beam ( 46 kg ).

Solution concept
To take advantage of lower brake force with K type composite brake blocks

Scope
Use a lighter brake beam for Bogie mounted brake coaches

Lighter Brake beam

Lighter Brake beam


Project Started : June-01 Project Completed : Feb-02 Results
A lighter brake beam (30 kg) to drawing no. T3-2-624 has been selected and FEM analysis has established its adequacy.

Lighter Brake beam


Cost Implication
Reduction in cost

Benefit
Will reduce brake hanger failures Will reduce weight by 128 kg per coach

Lighter Brake beam


The Road Ahead
Railways have been asked to implement the change during POH

Operation of 24 coach trains


on The Mumbai Ghats

Operation of 24 coach trains


Existing limitations
24 coach trains were not being run through NE and SE ghats of Mumbai division of Central Railway.

Solution concept
To establish operating conditions for their operation

Scope
Conduct braking distance and coupler force measurement trials under different conditions of loco combinations.

Operation of 24 coach trains


Project Started : Project Completed : Dec-2000 Dec-2002

Results
Controllability, braking distance and coupler force trials were conducted and conditions established: Draw bar and screw coupling of steel to IS-5517 Main & banking locos combination specified Single loco not suitable for descent on controllability considerations Double headed loco not suitable for ascent on coupler force considerations

Operation of 24 coach trains


Cost Implication
nil, as standard stock and materials are to be used

Benefit
Enable running 24 coach trains in and out of Mumbai on the Central Railway routes.

Operation of 24 coach trains


The Road Ahead
24 coach trains are now being planned to run through the Central Railway route

Road Railer

Road Railer
Existing limitations
Poor interface of road with rail high handling time

Solution concepts
Use of multi-modal transport system

Scope
development of Road Railer for door to door service

ROAD RAILER

Road Railer
Results
Road Railers proposed by M/s Kirloskar Pneumatic are cleared up to 80 km/h on Main line standard track. Service trials conducted for six months on NGP-Pune. Speed certificate for running at speeds upto 80 km/h issued for Kodal-Cochin section. Oscillation trials completed satisfactorily upto 110 km/h on Pune - Lonavala section.

Road Railer
Infrastructure required
For KPC
Road railer units -Estimated cost Rs. 20 lakhs each. Tractor units

For IR
Transfer lines with level track.

The Road ahead


Marketing and terminal arrangements are to be made.

Fire Control

Fire retardant components


Objective:
Materials used in coach furnishing should y delay/retard propagation of fire so that enough time is available for passengers to evacuate the train and for fire fighting methods to be put into operation. y NOT release toxic fumes or melt and drop when they burn.

Fire retardant components


Developments Made by RDSO:
Location Roof iling Change H r boar s r laced b im et sbestos sheets anvas bellows replaced b etal/Rubber UI vestibules sheets to upgraded specification -96 Rexine upgraded to -9 pecified fire resistant fabric to 99 Year 9 99 996 99

Vestibule Interior anels Upholster urtains

Wheel Failures
Investigations and Remedial Measures

Wheel Failures- Investigations and Remedial Measures


11 wheels failed from Dec99 to Dec2001 leading to derailment of passenger trains.The following causes were identified
High carbon, manganese and silica inclusions led to lower fracture toughness of wheels. Rim quenching not carried out at Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) Ultrasonic testing not carried out on all wheels

Remedial Measures undertaken by RDSO


At Durgapur Steel Plant:
Wheel specifications R-19/93 incorporating lower carbon content, rim quenching and residual stress measurement implemented. On line ultrasonic testing, Magnetic Particle Testing & cold stamping machine for identification installed. Fatigue tests done. Wheel inspection guidelines CMI-K003 framed and issued.

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets
Existing limitations
Maintenance intensive Difficult to keep clean Appearance is not attractive

Solution concept
Use of improved material and layout

Scope
Development of Modular Toilets in composite material.

Modular Toilets
Action taken
Collaborative project was taken up with Department of Science and Technology (TIFAC) ,M/S Hindustan Fibre Glass Works, Calcutta as industry partner and IIT, Mumbai. Four prototypes for one coach developed. Under service trials.

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets

Modular Toilets
Results
light in weight Corrosion resistant modular, easy maintainability attractive granite finish, anti-skid flooring concealed piping with flexible composite pipes

Cost implications
Estimated extra cost - Rs. 2 lakhs per coach

Modular Toilets
The Road ahead
Further fitment by PUs Development of vendors

On-Going Projects

Fitment of CBC on BG ICF coaches

Fitment of CBC on coaches


Existing limitations
Limit of utilisation with screw coupling has been reached. Max. weight (30 kg) has been reached. Max. draft load of 53t cannot be increased further. Alarm chain actuation has to be limited to keep coupler forces within limit. There is no anti-climbing feature. Energy absorption of buffing gear is only 20 kJ. Risk to shunting staff. Higher inter coach distance.

Fitment of CBC on coaches


Solution concept
Use of AAR H type tight-lock centre buffer coupler.

Scope
Development of specification for coupler and draft gear and suitable coach shell design.

Fitment of CBC on coaches

Fitment of CBC on coaches


Results
Specification for CBC to suit IR developed, featuring
Tight-lock feature. Energy absorption in buff raised to 45 kJ. Emergency brake application from coaches feasible.

Board have invited tenders for 150 nos. ICF have built one shell which has passed squeeze test in May 2001.

The Road Ahead


Board have to nominate services for conversion.

Fitment of CBC on coaches


Cost Implication
Estimated Rs. 8.5 lakhs per coach. Pay back period of 8.9 years.

ADAMS/Rail
Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems

NUCARS limitations
Existing softwares limitations:
NUCARS ver.1.z cannot model Air springs, Rubber elements, active suspensions and control systems like WSP. Is a text based software hence is difficult to use and troubleshoot. NUCARS is a closed code software hence cannot interface with any CAD package or control system package like IDEAS, MATLAB etc. Design optimization is convoluted and very time consuming since result interpretation and task iteration has to be done manually for each variable individually.

ADAMS/Rail Ver.11
Solution:
 Upgrade NUCARS with a more powerful and current software ADAMS/Rail.

Scope:
Sanctioned and included in Pink Book 1988-

89. Sanctioned Cost = Rs. 1.7414 Crores. Purchased through Global Open Tender through two-packet system.

ADAMS/Rail Ver.11
 ADAMS/Rail Ver.11 software purchased from   

M/s Mechanical Dynamics Inc. USA in 2000. Hardware and ADAMS/Rail software installed and commissioned in 2001. Initial training given to 15 trainees from various Directorates for 30 days at RDSO. Proposal for advanced training including customisation of software and assessment criteria as per IR requirement is pending with Board. Validation of the software by M/s MDI Inc. USA is in advanced stage and shall finish by June 2002.

ADAMS/Rail - Virtual prototyping


Sample simulation of a bogie prone to hunting as seen during ADAMS/Rail simulation:

ADAMS/Rail
Accuracy of the software can be seen from the graph below of actual case study:
Non linear dynami response of t e vehi le to a track switch

ADAMS/Rail results

ERRI reference results

The Road Ahead:

ADAMS/Rail Ver.11

 Conversion of appx. 3000 legacy model files from NUCARS to ADAMS/Rail format.  Understanding algorithm and logics used by ADAMS/Rail in modelling and solving a problem.  Creating seamless integration between CAD software/hardware and ADAMS/Rail through LAN.

Adams Rail Simulation Software


Cost Implication
Cost of software Rs. 1.74 crores Pay back period 1.7 years

ADAMS/Rail users worldwide:


RDSO, India ADtranz Linke-Hofmann-Busch GM Electromotive ARGE ARE Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. National Research ouncil Japanese Railroad SPOORNET KD Tatra De Dietrich Dornier Fiat Ferroviaria Finnish Railways Fraunhofer Gesellschaft GEC Alsthom GE Transportation Geor e Fox University Gunderson Industrial Packaging Systems Korea Rail Research Institute LTK AEG Westinghouse Ministry of Railways China NS Materieel Engineering Nippon Sharyo Oregon Graduate Institute Politecnico di Torino SIFANG Rolling Stock Institute SITFA SKODA Locomotive SLM CSIST Sumitomo Metal Industries Thyssen Industrie TU Berlin University of Milan University of Perugia University of Rome Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Zi ang Diesel Locomotive Works Bureau Magistral Moscow ESTECH

Brake Cylinder Relief alve

Brake Cylinder Relief alve


Existing limitations
Brake binding due to DV malfunction cannot be corrected.

Solution concept
Monitoring of brake pipe and cylinder pressures.

Scope
Development of Brake cylinder relief valve based on Brake pressure

Brake Cylinder Relief alve


Results
Lab trials on samples of M/s Escorts completed successfully. Field trials on Gomti Express completed.

The Road Ahead


Techno-economic evaluation in hand.

Brake Cylinder Relief alve


Cost implications
Estimated cost Rs. 5000 per coach

Solid Wheels for EMUs

Solid Wheels for EMUs


Existing limitations of tyred wheels
Poor thermal resistance Comparatively low life Maintenance intensive

Solution concept
Adoption of solid wheel technology

Scope
Development of Solid Wheels of EMUs

Solid Wheels for EMUs


Results
Developmental orders placed by Railway Board. One design FEM approved.

The road ahead


Visit of officer to witness tests proposed to Rly. Board.

Cost implication
Rs. 21,000 per wheel

Target date of Completion : Mar-2003

Development of LHB coach Variants

Development of LHB coach Variants


Suspension and layout of 4 EOG variants have been developed and are under manufacture at RCF:
AC First Class AC 2-tier Sleeper AC 3-tier Sleeper AC Hot Buffet Car

Development of LHB coach Variants


Coach AC First AC 2-tier AC 3-tier

Passenger Capacity LHB type ICF


24 54 72 18 48 67

Development of LHB coach Variants


Suspension, layout and Electrical drive for 6 Self Generating coach variants have been developed :
AC First Class AC 2-tier Sleeper AC 3-tier Sleeper Sleeper Class - 3-tier Second class, Luggage and Brake (SLR) General Second class (GS) - (under simulation)

MG DMU
Specification with 350 hp engine was finalised in Nov-2000. RCF has made one prototype Driving Power car and one trailer car. DPC is currently undergoing squeeze test at RCF. Expected date of Completion: Mar-03.

New Shell for EMU


One composite steel shell was developed with the help of Japanese expert (JICA) in 93-94. Solebars, body pillars, trough floor and side walls upto height of 600 mm are of Stainless steel. ICF has done a FEM study and has planned for manufacture by July 2002. Expected date of Completion: Mar-03.

MG Version of IR-20 bogie for Export


RDSO has designed IR-20 bogies for BG with Speed potential of 160 km/h. They are successfully operating in the Swarn Shatabdi Express since 1998. The MG version design has been made by RCF, checked and tested on simulation by RDSO. Fatigue test has been completed in Nov-01. RCF is making the Prototype. Expected date of Completion: Mar-03.

Development of sintered brake blocks


Objective To increase the interval for brake block change to 18 months. Savings abot 4 crores per annum To reduce the incidence of thermal cracks on tyred wheels. Status Samples of M/S Carbon Lorraine tested on dynamometer.

High capacity buffers


Objective To increase the energy absorption capacity of side buffers to withstand impact of shunting. To increase life of buffer elements. To improve maintainability Status Parameters for development identified.

FRP MAIN DOOR


Advantages Light weight Low cost Easy to break in the event of accidents Status FRP doors developed. Draft specifications prepared.

Thank you