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Part VI: Valuation of Securities and Cost of Capital

3. The Cost of Capital

What is the Cost of Capital?


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A companys cost of capital is the average cost of the various capital components (or securities) employed by it. Put differently, it is the average rate of return required by the investors who provide capital to the company. Return that an investor receives from a security is the cost of that security to the company that issues it. Cost of capital associated with an investment depends on the risk of that investment. It is not right to think that cost of capital for an investment depends primarily on how and where the capital is raised.
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What is the Cost of Capital?


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When we talk about the cost of capital, we are talking about the required rate of return on invested funds It is also referred to as a hurdle rate because this is the minimum acceptable rate of return Any investment which does not cover the firms cost of funds will reduce shareholder wealth (just as if you borrowed money at 10% to make an investment which earned 7% would reduce your wealth)

Financial Policy and Cost of Capital


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Lets say the financial policy of the firm is given That means firm has fixed debt-equity ratio to maintain This ratio reflects the firms target capital structure. Given that a firm uses both debt and equity capital, this overall cost of capital will be a mixture of the returns needed to compensate its creditors and those needed to compensate its stockholders.

The Appropriate Hurdle Rate: An Example


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The managers of Rocky Mountain Motors are considering the purchase of a new tract of land which will be held for one year. The purchase price of the land is $10,000. RMMs capital structure is currently made up of 40% debt, 10% preferred stock, and 50% common equity. This capital structure is considered to be optimal, so any new funds will need to be raised in the same proportions. Before making the decision, RMMs managers must determine the appropriate require rate of return. What minimum rate of return will simultaneously satisfy all of the firms capital providers?

RMM Example (cont.)


Because the current capital structure is optimal, the firm will raise funds as follows:

Source of Funds
Debt Preferred Common Total

Amount
$ ,000 $1,000 $ ,000 $10,000

Dollar Cost
$ 80 $100 $ 00 $980

After-tax Cost
7% 10% 1 % 9.8%

RMM Example (Cont.)


The following table shows three possible scenarios:

Rate of Return
Total Funds Available Less: Debt Costs Less: Preferred Costs = Remainder to Common

8%
$10,800 $4,280 $1,100 $5,420

9.8%
$10,980 $4,280 $1,100 $5,600

11%
$11,100 $4,280 $1,100 $5,720

Obviously, the firm must earn at least 9.8%. Any less, and the common shareholders will not be satisfied.
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The Weighted Average Cost of Capital


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We now need a general way to determine the minimum required return Recall that 40% of funds were from debt. Therefore, 40% of the required return must go to satisfy the debt holders. Similarly, 10% should go to preferred shareholders, and 50% to common shareholders This is a weighted-average, which can be calculated as:

WACC ! w d k d  w p k p  w cs k cs
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Calculating RMMs WACC


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Using the numbers from the RMM example, we can calculate RMMs Weighted-Average Cost of Capital (WACC) as follows:
WACC ! 0.40( 0.07 )  0.10( 0.10)  0.50( 0.12 ) ! 0.098

Note that this is the same as we found earlier

Things to remember
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For the sake of simplicity, we have considered only three types of capital viz equity; nonconvertible, non-callable preference; and nonconvertible, non-callable debt. Debt includes long term debt as well as short-term debt (such as working capital loans and commercial papers) Non-interest bearing liabilities, such as trade creditors, are not included in the calculation. Does that mean non-interest bearing liabilities have no cost ? NO, but this cost is implicitly reflected in the price paid by the firm to acquire goods and services. Hence, it is already taken care of before the cash flow is determined.
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Finding the Weights


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The weights that we use to calculate the WACC will obviously affect the result Therefore, the obvious question is: where do the weights come from? There are two possibilities:
Book-value weights Market-value weights

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BookBook-value Weights
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One potential source of these weights is the firms balance sheet, since it lists the total amount of longterm debt, preferred equity, and common equity We can calculate the weights by simply determining the proportion that each source of capital is of the total capital

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BookBook-value Weights (cont.)


our e Long term De t referred E uity ommon E uity Grand Total Total Book Value $ 00,000 $100,000 $ 00,000 $1,000,000 of Total 0 10 0 100

The Ta le how the al ulation of the ook value weight for RMM:

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MarketMarket-value Weights
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The problem with book-value weights is that the book values are historical, not current, values The market recalculates the values of each type of capital on a continuous basis. Therefore, market values are more appropriate Calculation of market-value weights is very similar to the calculation of the book-value weights The main difference is that we need to first calculate the total market value (price times quantity) of each type of capital
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Calculating the Market-value Weights MarketThe following table shows the current market prices: Source Debt Preferred Common Totals Price per Units Total Market % of Unit Value Total $ 905 400 $362,000 31.15% $ 100 1,000 $100,000 8.61% $ 70 10,000 $700,000 60.24% $1,162,000 100.00%

WACC ! 0.3115 0.07  0.0861 0.10  0.6024 0.12 ! 0.1027 ! 10.27%

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Market vs Book Values


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It is important to note that market-values is always preferred over book-value The reason is that book-values represent the historical amount of securities sold, whereas marketvalues represent the current amount of securities outstanding For some companies, the difference can be much more dramatic than for RMM Finally, note that RMM should use the 10.27 WACC in its decision making process
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Which weight to use?


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The appropriate weights are the target capital structure weights stated in the market value terms. What is the rationale for using the target capital structure ?
Current capital structure may not reflect the capital structure that is expected to prevail in future with project being employed.

Difficulties in using the target capital structure:


1. A company may not have a well-defined target capital structure 2. Changing complexion of its business or changing conditions in the capital market may make it difficult for the company to articulate its target capital structure. 3. If the target capital structure is significantly different from the current capital structure, it may be difficult to estimate what the component capital costs would be.
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Company Cost of Capital vs. Project Cost of Capital


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The company cost of capital is the rate of return expected by the existing capital providers. It reflects the business risk of existing assets and the capital structure currently employed. The project cost of capital is the rate of return expected by capital providers for a new project or investment the company proposes to undertake. It will depend on the business risk and debt capacity of the new project. If a firm wants to use its company cost of capital (WACC), for evaluating a new investment, two conditions should be satisfied: The new investment will not change the risk complexion of the firm. The capital structure of the firm will not be affected by the new investment i.e. The firm will continue to follow the same financing policy.
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The Costs of Capital


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As we have seen, a given firm may have more than one provider of capital, each with its own required return In addition to determining the weights in the calculation of the WACC, we must determine the individual costs of capital To do this, we simply solve the valuation equations for the required rates of return

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The Cost of Debt


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Conceptually, the cost of debt instrument is the YTM of that instrument Recall that the formula for valuing bonds is:

I M  P0 ! t t (1  k d ) t !1 (1  k d )
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We cannot solve this equation directly for kd, so we must use an iterative trial and error procedure (or, use a calculator) Note that kd is not the appropriate cost of debt to use in calculating the WACC, instead we should use the after-tax cost of debt
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Approximation

(M  0 ) I n kd ! 0.6 0  0.4M
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The After-tax Cost of Debt Afterv v

Recall that interest expense is tax deductible Therefore, when a company pays interest, the actual cost is less than the expense The tax rate to be used in is the Marginal Tax Rate applicable to the company As an example, consider a company in the 34% marginal tax bracket that pays $100 in interest The companys after-tax cost is only $66. The formula is:

After  tax k d ! Before  tax k d 1  t


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What about Other Instruments ?


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What about bank loan ? Unlike debenture and bond, a bank loan is not traded in the secondary market. The cost of a bank loan is simply the current interest the bank would charge if the firm were to raise a loan now. (not the interest rate on the outstanding loan) What about commercial paper ? A commercial paper is a short-term debt instrument which is issued at a discount and redeemed at par. Hence the cost of commercial paper is simply its implicit interest rate.
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Illustration
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Suppose A ltd has outstanding commercial paper that has a balance maturity of 6 months. The face value of one instrument is Rs 1,000,000 and it is traded in the market at Rs 965,000. The implicit interest rate for 6 months is: 1000,000 / 965,000 1 = 0.0363 i.e. 3.63 % The annualized interest rate works out to: (1.0363)2 -1 = 0.0739 or 7.39 % When a firm uses different instruments of debt, the average cost of debt has to be calculated.
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Illustration
Debt Instrument Face Value Market Value Coupon Rate 12 % 13 % N.A YTM or Current Rate 10.7 % 12.0 % 7.39 %

Non-convertible Debentures Bank Loan Commercial Paper Total

Rs 100 Mln Rs 200 Mln Rs 50 Mln

Rs 104 Mln Rs 200 Mln* Rs 48.25 Mln Rs 352.25 Mln

*Since the bank loan doesnt have a secondary market, we have, for the sake of simplicity, equated market value with face value.

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Solution:
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Average Cost of Debt for A ltd:

10.7 % [104 / 352.25] + 12.0 % [200/352.25] + 7.39 % [48.25 / 352.25]

= 10.98 %
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Note that we use the YTM or the Current Rates as they reflect the rates at which the firm can raise new debt. Coupon rates that reflect historical or embedded interest rates at the time the debt was originally raised are not relevant for our purposes.
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The Cost of Preferred Equity


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As with debt, we calculate the cost of preferred equity by solving the valuation equation for kP:

D kp ! P0
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Note that preferred dividends are not tax-deductible, so there is no tax adjustment for the cost of preferred equity If a company has more than one issue of preference stock outstanding, the average yield on all preference issues may be calculated.

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Cost of Equity
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Equity finance may be obtained in two ways:


1. Retention of Earnings 2. Issue of additional equity

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The cost of equity is same in both the cases When a firm decides to retain earnings, an opportunity cost is involved. Shareholders could receive the earnings ad dividends and invest the same in alternative investments of comparable risk to earn a return. So, irrespective of whether a firm raises equity finance by retaining earnings or issuing additional equity shares, the cost of equity is the same. The only difference is in floatation cost.
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The Dividend Growth Model Approach


We know the value of equity stock according to dividend growth model is: n 3 2
P0 ! D1 D (1  g ) D1 (1  g ) D (1  g ) D (1  g )  1   1  ...........  1  ....... n 1 4 3 2 1  k c (1  k c ) (1  k c ) (1  k c ) (1  k c )

If dividends are expected to grow at a constant rate of g % per year then :

D 0 (1  g) D1 P0 ! ! kc - g kc - g

D 0 (1  g) D1 @kc ! g ! g P0 P0
The expected return of shareholders is the required return which is equal to the dividend yield plus the expected growth rate.

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Estimating g
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Relying on analysts forecast for the future growth rates. Obtain multiple estimates from various sources and then average them. v Look at the dividends for the preceding 5-10 years, calculate annual growth rates, average them. For eg Year Dividend Rupee Change Growth % 1 Rs 3.00 2 Rs 3.50 Re 0.50 16.7 % 3 Rs 4.00 Re 0.50 14.3 % 4 Rs 4.25 Re 0.25 6.3 % 5 Rs 4.75 R Re 0.50 11.8 % Average = 12.3 % v Use Retention Growth Rate Method (Sustainable Growth Rate) g = b x ROE
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The SML (Security Market Line) Approach


According to SML, the required return on companys equity is: rE = Rf + E (RM - Rf) Where, Rf = Risk-free rate E = Systematic Risk (un-diversifiable risk) of the asset relative to average, which we call beta of the equity of the company RM= Expected return on the market portfolio (RM Rf) = Market Risk Premium
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Inputs for SML approach


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The risk-free rate may be estimated as the yield on a long-term government bond that has maturity of 10 years or more. The market risk premium may be estimated as the difference between average return on the market portfolio and the average risk free rate over the past 10 to 30 years the longer the period, better it is. The beta of the stock may be calculated by regressing the monthly returns on the stock over the monthly return on the market index over the past 60 months or more

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Bond Yield Plus Risk Premium Approach


Cost of Equity = Yield on Long Term Bonds + Risk Premium v Logic:
Firms that have risky and consequently high cost of debt will also have risky and consequently high cost of equity. So it makes sense to base the cost of equity on a readily observable cost of debt.
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Problem is how to determine risk premium Theres no objective way of determining it. Most analyst look at the operating and financial risks of the business and arrive at a subjectively determined risk premium (2 % - 8 %)
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Flotation Costs
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When a company sells securities to the public, it must use the services of an investment banker The investment banker provides a number of services for the firm, including:
Setting the price of the issue, and Selling the issue to the public

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The cost of these services are referred to as flotation costs, and they must be accounted for in the WACC Includes underwriting costs, brokerage expenses, fees, advertising expenses etc. Generally, we do this by reducing the proceeds from the issue by the amount of the flotation costs, and recalculating the cost of capital
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The Cost of Debt with Flotation Costs


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Simply subtract the flotation costs (F) from the price of the bonds, and calculate the cost of debt as usual:

I M  0 F! t t (1  k d ) t !1 (1  k d )
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Note that we still must adjust this calculation for taxes

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The Cost of Preferred with Flotation Costs


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Simply subtract the flotation costs (F) from the price of preferred, and calculate the cost of preferred as usual:

kp !
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F

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The Cost of Common Equity with Flotation Costs

Simply subtract the flotation costs (F) from the price of common, and calculate the cost of common as usual:

D 0 (1  g) D1 P0  ! ! kc - g kc - g D1 D 0 (1  g) kc ! g g ! P0  P0 
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A Note on Flotation Costs


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The amount of flotation costs are generally quite low for debt and preferred stock (often 1% or less of the face value) For common stock, flotation costs can be as high as 25% for small issues, for larger issue they will be much lower Note that flotation costs will always be given, but they may be given as a dollar amount, or as a percentage of the selling price The cost of retained earnings is exactly the same as the cost of new common equity, except that there are no flotation costs

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Approach 1
W CC Revised W CC ! 1 - Floating Cost

A better approach is to leave the WACC unchanged but to consider floatation costs as part of the project cost.

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Better Approach (Illustration)


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A ltd, an all equity firm has WACC of 18 % (cost of equity) Its considering a Rs 200 million expansion project which will be funded by selling additional equity. Based on the advice of its merchant banker, A ltd believes that its floatation costs will be 8 % of the amount issued. This means that the net proceeds will only be 92 % of the amount of equity raised. What is the cost of expansion, considering the floatation costs ? Rs 200 million = 0.92 x Amount Raised Amount Raised = Rs 217.39 million Hence, Floatation cost of A ltd = Rs 17.39 million and True cost of expansion project is Rs 217.39 million
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Floatation Cost and WACC


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If the firm raises a mixture of capital then find weighted average floatation cost which is defined as: FA = wrFr + weFe + wpFp + wdFd

FA of 5.1 % means that for every rupee of financing needed by the firm for its investments, the firm must rise 1 / (1- 0.051) = Rs 1.054 Use the weights in the target capital structure, even though the specific investment under consideration is financed entirely by debt or equity (because firm has to maintain its constant financial policy)
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Floatation Costs and NPV (Illustration)


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B ltd is currently at its target debt-equity ratio of 4:5 It is evaluating a proposal to expand capacity which is expected to cost Rs 4.5 million and generate after-tax cash flows of Rs 1 million per year for the next 10 years. The tax rate for the company is 25 %. Two financing options are being looked at:
Issue of equity stock. The required return on companys new equity is 18 %. The issuance cost will be 10 % Issue of debentures carrying a yield of 12 %. The issuance cost will be 2 %.

What is the NPV of the expansion project ?


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Solution:
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WACC = (5/9) x 18 % + (4/9) x 12 % (1-.025) = 14 % NPV = Rs 1,000,000 x PVIFA ( 14 %, 10 yrs) Rs 4,500,000 = Rs 716,000 What will be the effect of floatation cost ? Weighted average floatation cost is: FA = (5/9) x 10 % + (4/9) x 2 % = 6.44 % Note that B ltd can finance the project entirely with equity or debt is irrelevant. What matters is the target capital structure ? True cost of project = Rs 4,500,000 / 0.9356 = Rs 4,809,748 NPV = Rs 1,000,000 x PVIFA ( 14 %, 10 yrs) Rs 4,809,748 = Rs 406,252 The project is still worthwhile 43

Marginal Cost of Capital


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At the outset we assumed, inter alia, that the adoption of new investment proposals will not change either the risk complexion or the capital structure of the firm. Does it mean that the WACC will remain the same irrespective of the magnitude of financing ? Apparently not. Generally, WACC tends to rise as the firm seeks more and more capital. As financers provide more capital , the rate of return required by them tends to increase. A schedule or graph showing the relationship between additional financing and the WACC is called the Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital Schedule.
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Determining the WMCC Schedule


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3. 4.

Estimate the cost of each source of financing for various levels of its use through an analysis of current market conditions and an assessment of the expectation of investors and lenders. Identify the levels of total new financing at which the cost of the new components would change, given the capital structure policy of the firm. These levels, called breaking points can be established using the following relationships: BPj = TFj/ wj where, BPj = breaking point on account of financing source j TFj = total new financing from source j at the breaking point wj = proportion of financing source j in the capital structure Calculate the WACC of various ranges of total financing between breaking points. Prepare the WMCC schedule which reflects the WACC for each level of total new financing.

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Illustration
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Electronics Ltd plans to use equity and debt in the proportion of 40:60 Cost of each source of finance for various levels of use: Based on its discussions with its merchant bankers and lenders Electronics estimates
Range of New financing (Rs Mln) Cost

Sources of Finance

Equity Debt

0 -30 > 30 0 -50 > 50

18 % 20 % 10 % 11 %
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Illustration (contd)
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Breaking Points: Column 3


Cost (1) 18 % 20 % Range of new Financing (2) 0 30 > 30 0 -50
50

Sources

Breaking Point (3) 30 / 0.4 = 75 50 / 0.6 = 83.3 -

Range of Total New Financing (4) 0 -75 Above 75 0 83.3 > 83.3
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Equity

Debt

10 % 11 %

Illustration (contd)
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WACC for various ranges of total financing: Column shows that the firms WACC will change at Rs 75 Mln and Rs 83.3 Mln.
Source of capital (1) Equity Debt WACC Equity Debt WACC Equity Debt WACC Proportion (2) 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 Cost (3) 18 % 10 % 20 % 10 % 20 % 11 % Weighted Cost (2 x 3) (4) 7.2 % 6.0 % 13.2 % 8.0 % 6.0 % 14.0 % 8.0 % 6.6 % 14.6 %

Range of total new financing 0 -75

75 83.3

> 83.3

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Illustration (contd)
Weighted Marginal Cost of Capital Schedule Range of Total Financing (Rs in Mln) 0 75 75 -83.3 > 83.3 WMCC

13.2 % 14.0 % 14.6 %


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5.6 Determining the Optimal Capital Budget


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Compare the expected return on proposed capital expenditure projects with the WMCC schedule. Illustration: Electronics Ltd is developing its capital budget for the forthcoming year. The companys proposed capital expenditure projects for the coming year is as follows: Project A B C D E Amount (Rs Mln) 30 40 25 10 20 IRR 18.0 % 16.5 % 15.3 % 13.4 % 12.0 %
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Illustration
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The expected returns from the proposed capital expenditures are plotted against the cumulative funds required and shown as the investment opportunity curve Also WMCC cost of capital curve is plotted. The optimal capital budget is reflected by the point at which the investment opportunity curve and the marginal cost of capital curve intersect.

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Determining optimal capital budget

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Solution
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Thus, the optimal capital budget for Electronics totals Rs 95 million and includes Projects A, B and C. Projects D and E are excluded as their expected returns are lower than marginal cost of capital.

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