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Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people, based on principles and ethics embodied in the Bible (Tanakh) and

the Talmud. According to Jewish tradition, the history of Judaism begins with the Covenant between God and Abraham (ca. 2000 BCE), the patriarch and progenitor of the Jewish people. Judaism is the first recorded monotheistic faith and among the oldest religious traditions still in practice today. Jewish history and doctrines have influenced other religions such as Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism and the Bah' Faith.

 While Judaism has seldom, if ever, been monolithic in practice, it has always been monotheistic in theology. It differs from theology. many religions in that central authority is not vested in a person or group, but in sacred texts and traditions. Throughout the traditions. ages, Judaism has clung to a number of religious principles, the most important of principles, which is the belief in a single, omniscient, omniscient, omnipotent, benevolent, omnipotent, benevolent, transcendent God, God, who created the universe and continues to govern it.

 According to traditional Jewish belief, the God who created the world established a covenant with the Jewish people, and revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of the Torah. Torah. The traditional practice of Judaism revolves around study and the observance of God's laws and commandments as written in the Torah Talmud. and expounded in the Talmud.

 With an estimated 14 million adherents in 2006,[1][2] 2006,[1][2] Judaism is the world's eleventheleventhlargest organized religion.  Judaism is a religion. It originated in the Middle East about 4,000 years ago. It is monotheistic, that is, based on a belief in one God. There are multiple denominations or types of Judaism.  Judaism, history is very important and believe that God is in their history as a people and as nation.

Founded: 13th Century BCE Founder: Moses, who emancipated the Moses, Jews from slavery in Egypt and later established a covenant between his people and Yahweh on Mount Sinai Traditionally, it is held that Abraham and his descendants established Judaism before Moses, however the 10 Commandments are now considered by many to be the foundation upon which Judaism rests. Roots: dating back approximately 4000 Roots: years= origins of Judaism, Islam and Christianity Place: Palestine (sometimes called Canaan; now Israel Sacred Books: Old Testament (which Books: consists of the Five Books of Law, the historical books, the Prophets and other writings). The most sacred are the Five Books of the Law= called the TORAH Symbols: Menorah and Star of David Adherents: Smallest major world religions, Adherents: making up 0.2 % human race

Judaism

Historical Overview
 Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity and Islam  Ancient Israel dates back approximately 4000 years to the books of the Old Testament  Great patriarchs of Judaism: Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua  Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, Semites: Semites: have all undergone persecution throughout history; from Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora, Spanish Inquisition, Holocaust

Ancient Israel

Birthplace of Judaism is also birthplace to Islam and Christianity

What is in a name?
 Hebrew means From acrossacrossname given to Abraham and his followers  Israelites: Abrahams grandson Israelites: Jacob renamed Israel which means he who has wrestled with God. His descendants were called Israelites  Jews: named after Jacobs son Jews: Judah, ancient father of tribe of King Davids dynasty

Key Concepts
Covenant  solemn and binding agreement between God and Abraham (humanity) as God as the Creator and the Chosen people Chosen People  Jews considered themselves to be Gods Chosen People as God chose Abraham and led him to monotheism  Jews were instruments of Gods will  God chose Jews (humanity); humanity must choose God Promised Land  Gained significance during Moses life as Hebrews sought to keep covenant and develop a community in the Promised Land. Jews believe this is Israel.

Development of Judaism
 Judges: tribal leaders Judges:  Kings: King Saul, King David, King Solomon (built Kings: temple)  Division: Northern tribes = Israel; Southern tribes = Judah  Prophetic Tradition: word of God spoken through Tradition: prophets Love God and keep the covenant with Him  Exile in Babylon= Temple of Solomon destroyed; Babylon= creation of synagogues and rabbis and concept of Messiah anointed one  Diaspora: dispersal of Jews outside of Israel and Diaspora: Hellenization  Maccabean Revolt: temple rededicated to God Revolt:  Expansion of Roman Empire and rule: destroying of rule: the temple leaving only the Western Wall; rabbinic Judaism (interpretative commentaries)

Monotheistic  Oneness of Creator God  Human obligation to worship God  God is immaterial and indivisible  God is refered to as YHWH or YAHWEH I am that I am Lineage  People are born a Jew (through mother) or can convert (gerut) Mitzvah  act of performing a good deed or commandment (ie. 10 Commandments)  Bible contains total of 613 mitvoth (some positive, some negative) Jesus  View of Jesus = born a Jew a preacher and teacher  Jesus was not the Son of God; the Messiah is still to come Suffering  suffering is heightened because as the Chosen People, Jews expect to suffer for all of mankind Death and Afterlife  on death, body returns to earth (dust to dust) but soul return to God who gave it  body will be Resurrected and reunited with soul at a later time (therefore no cremation)

Beliefs

 BELIEFS: The stories of the Patriarchs was their personal experience of God . A covenantal God. A God who established a covenant with His people, the people of Israel .  He is the God of Abraham the God Isaac, and the God of Jacob. He was the God Almighty, Who save , Who liberate and Who provide the needs of His people.  As a chosen people of God they follow the commandments of God that was given to Moses in Mt. Sinai.  The Ten Commandments was the law that guided the Israelites how to live and be faithful to the covenant.

TORAH

 consists of Five Books of Moses written on parchment scroll in ancient form by hand and kept in Ark  Torah means law but more accurate is revelation, teaching or instruction  Torah is divided into 54 sections and one portion is read each week (2 weeks of year have a double portion) so that the entire Torah is read from beginning to end in a year

Practices
          Holy Ark & Torah Blessings and prayer Minyan Kashruth Shabbat Circumcision Shofar Bar / Bat Mitvah Marriage Death & Shiva

Interesting Facts
 The Israeli flag is rooted in Jewish tradition. The white background symbolizes purity. The symbols on the flag are two stripesone on the top and one on the bottomand stripes bottom the Star of David emblem adorning the center. The stripes and blue color are inspired by the techeileth dye of the tallit (Jewish prayer shawl)  Jews have regarded the Land of Israel as their homeland, both as a Holy Land and as a Promised Land. The Land of Israel holds a special place in Jewish religious obligations, encompassing Judaism's most important sites including the remains of the First and Second Temples

Sacred Texts
Tanukh  Jewish Bible, consisting of Torah (Law of Moses), the Prophets, and the Writings Talmud  second most important source of rabbinic Jewish law based on Mishnah, which complements and interprets the Torah and applies scripture to everyday life and observance Mishnah  Early rabbinic teachings on how to live according to Torah

Symbols
 Star of David= shape David= of King Davids shield; symbol adopted by Zionists  Menorah= ancient Menorah= source of light 7 branched= Sabbath 9 branched= Hanukah

Denominations
    
Orthodox Reform Conservative Reconstructionist Messianic

Western Wall

The Western Wall in the midst of the Old City in Jerusalem is the section of the Western supporting wall of the Temple Mount which has remained intact since the destruction of the Second Jerusalem Temple (70 CE) It became a center of mourning over the destruction of the Temple and Israel's exile Communion with the memory of Israel's former glory and the hope for its restoration It became known in European languages as the "Wailing Wall".

Tracing Roots of Israels History


 Nomadic tribes wandered into Palestine from east in approximately 1900 BCE  Mesopotamian society dominated by polytheism  God (Yahweh) appeared (Yahweh) before Patriarch Abraham and told Abraham to go to and raise a great nation nation  This began the monotheistic tradition of the Hebrew faith with the establishment of the Covenant, Chosen Covenant, Chosen Promised People People and Promised Land Land  Abraham settled in Canaan  Story: Sacrifice of Abraham

Patriarchs to Judaism

Abraham  God told Abraham to go to Haran then Canaan and make of him a great nation  Began monotheistic tradition  Covenant with God  The story of the Sacrifice of Abraham