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The Implementation Stage

The Learning Pyramid

By Permission: Yin (2004)

Training Delivery Methods

Three basic categories:

On-the-Job Training Classroom Training Self-Paced Training

Note: Computer-based training can be in a classroom, or individual/self-paced.

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

Job instruction training (JIT) Job rotation Coaching Mentoring

Job Instruction Training (JIT)

Prepare the worker Present the task Practice the task Follow-up

Job Rotation

Train on different tasks/positions Often used to train entry-level managers Also used to provide back-up in production positions

Coaching and Mentoring

Coaching between worker and supervisor

y Can provide specific performance

improvement and correction

Mentoring senior employee paired with a junior employee (protg)

y Helps to learn the ropes y Prepares protg for future advancement

Classroom Training Approaches

Five basic types:

Lecture Discussion Audiovisual Media Experimental Methods Self-Paced or Computer-Based Training


Oral presentation of material

y Some visual aids can be added

Remains a very popular training method

y Transfers lots of information quickly

Interesting lectures can work well Good to supplement with other materials

Two-way communication Use questions to control lesson Direct: produce narrow responses Reflective: mirror what was said Open-Ended: challenge learners to increase understanding

Audiovisual Media
Brings visual senses (seeing) into play, along with audio senses (hearing) Types:

y Static Media y Dynamic Media y Telecommunications

Static Media

Printed materials
y Lecture notes y Work aids y Handouts

Slides e.g., PowerPoint Overhead transparencies

Dynamic Media

Audio cassettes CDs Film Videotape Video disc


Instructional TV Teleconferencing Videoconferencing

Experiential Training

Case studies Business game simulations Role Playing Behavior Modeling Outdoor training

Case Study Considerations

Specific instructional objectives Case approach objectives Attributes of particular case Learner characteristics Instructional timing Training environment Facilitators characteristics

Business Game Simulations

Computerized versus manual

y Operational y Financial y Resource bound

In-basket exercise
y Setting priorities y Time-driven decision making

Role Playing
Self discovery; use of interpersonal skills a plus Some trainees are better actors Transfer to job can be difficult

Behavior Modeling
Used mainly for interpersonal skills training Practice target behavior Get immediate feedback (video, among other media)

Outdoor Training
Ropes courses, etc. Can facilitate teamwork Focus on group problem identification, problem solving Often good for team building Fun but is it effective training?

Computer-Based Training (CBT)

Interactive with user Training when and where user wants it Trainee has greater control over progress CBT can provide progress reports and be tailored to specific instructional objectives Trainee works on own with minimal facilitation by instructor who is elsewhere


y Internal to site/organization

y y y y y

General communications Online reference Needs assessment, administration, testing Distribution of CBT Delivery of multimedia

Implementing Training

Depends on:
y Objectives y Resources y Trainee characteristics