Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004

Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)


N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
1 1
Survey of Radio Propagation Models for
Mobile Communication
Presented by
Salini Patnaik
Roll# EC200157231
At
NIST,Berhampur
Under the guidance of
Mr. Rowdra Ghatak
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
2 2
High-tier
Low-tier
Satellite
High Mobility
Low Mobility
Wide Area
Regional Area
Local Area
Different Communication System
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
3 3
INTRODUCTION:

Various propagation
models can actually address
both problems.
BAS E
STATION
RADIO
TOWER

The objective here is to


design a suitable receiver
that
will receive the transmitted
signal, distorted due to the
multipath and dispersion
effects of the channel, and
that will decode the
transmitted signal.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
4 4
DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGIES

Path Loss:
Where P
t
and P
r
the transmitted and received power

Power Delay Profile:


Where h(t) = impulse response

Time-Delay Spread
Coherence Bandwidth : B
c
=1/50
RMS

Where B
C
= Coherence bandwidth

RMS
= RMS Delay
r
t
P
P
log 10 ) dB ( PL

dt | ) t ( h |
| ) t ( h |
) t ( P
2
2
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
5 5
TYPES OF FADING:

Large-scale fading

Frequency-selective fading

Flat fading

Fast fading and slow fading


BASIC PROPAGATION MECHANISMS :

Reflection

Diffraction

Scattering
Transmission
through a
dielectric slab
T
R
1st Fresnel zone
Obstruction
Diffraction
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
6 6
OUTDOOR CASE

OKUMURA et al MODEL
L
50
(db) = L
F
+A
mu
(f,d)-G(h
te
) - G(h
re
)-G
AREA

Where
L
50
is the median value of the propagation path loss
L
F
is the free-space propagation loss
A
mu
, is the median attenuation in the medium relative to free space at frequency f
d corresponds to the distance between the base and the mobile unit.
G(h
te
) and G(h
re
) are the gain factors for the BTS antenna and the MS antenna.
h
te
and h
re
are the effective heights (in meters )of the BTS and the MS antennae.
G
AREA
is the gain generated by the environment in which the system is operating.
EMPIRICAL OR STATISTICAL MODELS FOR PATH LOSS

Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
7 7

HATA MODEL
L
50
(urban)(dB) = 69.55 + 26.16log f
c
- 13.82 log h
re
-a(h
re
,)
+ (44.9 - 6.55 log h
re
)logd
Where
f
c
is the frequency (in MHz), which varies from 150 MHz to 1500MHz.
h
te
and h
re
are the effective heights of the base-station and the mobile
antennas (in meters), respectively.
d is the distance from the base station to the mobile antenna,
a(h
re
) is the correction factor for the effective antenna height of the mobile
unit, which is a function of the size of the area of coverage.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
8 8

COST-231-Walfisch-lkegami Model
Where
L
0
represents the free-space loss.
L
rts
is the roof-top-to-street diffraction and
scattering loss.
L
msd
is the multi-screen diffraction loss.

'

+
> + + +

0 L L L
0 L L L L L
L
msd rts 0
msd rts msd rts 0
b
for
for
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
9 9
INDOOR CASE

It can be affected by the layout in a building.

When electromagnetic radiation is incident on a wall or


a flow in an oblique fashion, less power will be
transmitted through the wall than would occur at normal
incidence .

Transmitter
Propagation in Indoor Case
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
10 10
SITE-SPECIFIC MODELS FOR PATH LOSS
RAY-TRACING TECHNIQUE

Technique based on Geometrical Optics (GO)

Fermat principle and the principle of the local field are two
basic concepts extensively used by the ray models .

The Fermat principle states that a ray follows the shortest path
from a source point to a field point.

The principle of the local field states that the high-frequency


rays produce reflection, refraction, and diffraction when
hitting a surface.

Two types of ray-tracing methods :

Image method

Brute-force ray-tracing method


Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
11 11
Image Method

This method generates the images


of a source at all planes

These images then serve as


secondary sources for the
subsequent points of reflections.
It can only handle simple
environments.
Ground reflections and rays over
rooftops are neglected .
A threshold must be set with
respect to the number and order of
reflection and diffraction rays that
can be considered.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
12 12
Brute-Force Ray-Tracing Method

This method considers a


bundle of transmitted rays
that may or may not reach
the receiver.

A finite sample of the


possible directions of the
propagation from the
transmitter is chosen. A
ray is launched for each
such direction.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
13 13

There are two kinds of methods to obtain the rays at the source
point.

2D ray tracing approach:At the source, rays are launched along


different directions with the same sector angle, , in a plane .

An intersection with a surface of an object is represented by a


node in the tree.

The incident ray is decomposed into an object-reflected ray and


an object-penetrated ray .

3D ray tracing approach:The transmitter and receiver are


modeled as point sources .

In order to determine all possible rays that may leave the


transmitter and arrive at the receiver in three dimensions, all
possible angles of departure and arrival at the transmitter and
receiver are considered.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
14 14

Applicable when transmitting and receiving antennas are


often inevitably installed close to structures with complex
material .

properties for which no asymptotic solutions are available.

Advantages of the FDTD method are its accuracy. It also


gives signal-coverage information throughout a given area

Disadvantage of FDTD is that it requires large amounts of


computer memory.
FDTD model FDTD model
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
15 15
Moment-Method Models

Method of Moments(MOM) model is better when higher


precision is required and when the size of the buildings is
smaller.

Due to limitations of computer memory and CPU time,the


MOM is usually applied for analyzing objects that are tens of
wavelengths in size.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
16 16
Artificial Neural-Network Models

Key feature of the neural network is the intrinsic parallelism,


allowing for fast evaluation of the solutions .

The inputs were the frequency, the heights of the antenna for
the base and mobile stations, respectively, and the distances
between them. The output was the field strength.

Multilayered ANN suffers from slow convergence and


unpredictable solutions during learning .

Radial-basis function (RBF) neural networks that have a


linear-in-the parameters representation were proposed to
overcome multilayered ANN problem.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
17 17

Vector Parabolic-Equation Model

As a parabolic version of Maxwells equations, it allows


a full treatment of three-dimensional electromagnetic
scattering .

Fast Far-Field Approximation Model

The method has been applied to gently undulating


terrains and more hilly terrain.

Waveguide Model

In large metropolitan areas the city streets act as a type of


wave-guiding structure for the propagating signal .

the statistical propagation characteristics in such a


Waveguide are expressed in terms of multiple ray fields
approaching the observer.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
18 18

Boltzmann Model

It describes a physical system in terms of the motion of


fictitious microscopic particles on a lattice .

MODELS FOR SMALL SCALE FADING


Ricean Distribution:
Where
r is the amplitude of the envelope of the received signal,
2
2
is the predicted mean power of the multipath signal
A denotes the peak amplitude of the dominant signal, and
Io (Ar/
2
) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind

Rayleigh Distribution:

'

<

,
`

.
|
]
]
]
]

2
0 r 0
0 r , 0 A
Ar
I
2
A r
exp
r
) r ( p
0
2
2 2

'

<

]
]
]
]

0 r 0
r 0
2
r
exp
r
) r ( p
2
2
2
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
19 19

Log-Normal Fading Model


Where m is the median value, and
is the standard deviation of the corresponding
normal distribution

Suzuki Model:
[ ]

'

'

2
2
2
2
m ) r ln(
exp
2 r
1
) r ( p
) t ( ) t ( ) t (
2
2
2
1
+
Where (t) can be regarded as the envelope of one complex
valued normal random process, (t)
The requirement of statistical independence between is
identical to the
1
(t) and
2
(t) demand for a symmetrical
power spectrum for L(t).
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
20 20
STATISTICAL MODELS OF TIME-DELAY SPREAD:

Two-Ray Rayleigh Fading Model


The impulse response of the model is represented by:
h(t)=
1
exp[j
1
(t)] (t)+
2
exp[j
2
(t)] (t- )
Where
1
and
2
are independent random variables and have a
Rayleigh PDF.

1
and
2
are also two independent random variables, and
their density functions are uniformly distributed over [0,2 ].
is the time delay between the two rays.

Saleh and Valenzuela Model

Proved that the statistics of the channel impulse response


were independent of the polarizations of the transmitting
and the receiving antennas if there was no line-of- sight
path between them.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
21 21

- k Model

This model takes into account the clustering property of paths


caused by the grouping property of scatters .

Discrete-Time Model

In this model, the time axis is divided into small time


intervals, called bins.

Each bin is assumed to contain either one multipath


component or no multipath component.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
22 22
DETERMINISTIC MODELS OF TIME-DELAY SPREAD

Ray Tracing Model

Have the ability to incorporate antenna radiation patterns.

VRP Model

It assumed some virtual reflection points (VRF's), located


at the intersection points along the LOS on streets and at
building walls.

It did not consider the effects of traffic and moving


humans.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
23 23
Conclusion:

Propagation models play a key part in any analysis or


design that strives to mitigate interference.

Despite the enormous efforts to date, much work remains


in under standing and predicting the characteristics of
mobile communications channels.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
24 24
REFERENCES
[1] Sarkar Tapan A Survey Of Various Propagation Models For
Mobile Communication, IEEE Transactions On Antenna and
Propagation,Vol.45,pp 51-82
[2] M.O. Al Nuaimi Prediction Models And Measurements Of
Microwave Signals Scattered From Buildings, IEEE
Transactions On Antenna and Propagation Vol.45, pp 51-82.
[3] Theodore S. Rappaport Wireless Communication Principles
and Practices, chapter 1, pp. 1-22, chapter 2, pp. 26-55.
Technical Seminar Presentation - 2004
Presented by :-Salini Patnaik(EC 200157231)
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

S
c
i
e
n
c
e

&

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
25 25
THANK YOU
THANK YOU