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THE RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE & BREATHING MECHANISM IN HUMAN AND ANIMALS

SUB TOPICS
CELL RESPIRATION RESPIRATION CELL ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM GLUCOSE DURING AEROBIC ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM GLUCOSE RESPIRATION DURING AEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST CELL IN YEAST CELL ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN HUMAN MUSCLE HUMAN ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN COMPARISON BETWEEN AEROBIC RESPIRATION AND MUSCLE ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION COMPARISON BETWEEN AEROBIC RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND BREATHING MECHANISM IN RESPIRATION AND ANAEROBIC HUMANS :RESPIRATION  DIAGRAM 1 RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND  DIAGRAM 2 BREATHING MECHANISM IN HUMANS AND  DIAGRAM 3 ANIMALS  DIAGRAM 4 RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND  3D RESPIRATION (ANIMATION) BREATHING MECHANISM IN PROTOZOA RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND BREATHING MECHANISM IN RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND INSECTS :BREATHING MECHANISM IN INSECTS TRACHEAL SYSTEM  DIAGRAM 1  DIAGRAM 2

CELL RESPIRATION
Cellular respiration is the process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and partially captured in the form of ATP. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuels in cellular respiration, but glucose is most commonly used as an example to examine the reactions and pathways involved

Aerobic respiration : Is the oxidation of glucose in cell to poduce energy (ATP) in the presence of oxygen ANAEROBIC RESPIRATIon : Is the oxidation of glucose in cell to produce energy (ATP) in the absence of oxygen

ENERGRY PRODUCTION FROM GLUCOSE DURING AEROBIC RESPIRATION


Aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration occurs when there is adequate oxygen in the cell The main substaret for aerobic respiration is glucose Glucose is oxidised in stages to produce energy,carbon dioxide and water Oxygen is used in oxidation Each stage is catalysed by enzyme. Most of the energy produced is used to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP (adenosine diphospate). Some energy is lost as heat.

anaerobic respiration in yeast cell


Anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm of yeast during the absence of oxygen or inadequate oxygen The main substrate for anaerobic respiration is glucose Glucose is broken down to produce ethanol,energy and carbon dioxide. This reaction is catalysed by zymase enzyme. Anaerobic respiration in yeast cells is called fermentation.

Anaerobic respiration in human muscles


Occurs in human muscles during vigorous activities During vigorous activities, oxygen need to be transported faste no ugh to the muscles for rapid cell respiration This will enablethe release of sufficient energy for the vigorous muscle activity The breathing rate and heart rate are increasedto supply more oxygen quicklytothe muscles for rapid muscular contraction However,the supply of oxygentothe muscles is still insufficient andthe muscles haveto carry out anaerobic respirationto release energy

COMPARISON BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND BREATHING MECHANSIM IN HUMANS

Consist of nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & lungs Air enters through the nostrils & passes through the pharynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles & end in alveolus

The trachea is supported by rings of cartilage (C-shaped) to prevent the tube from collapsing The lower end of trachea divides into 2 tubes called bronchi. The bronchi branches repeatedly into smaller tubes called bronchioles. Each bronchioles ends in a cluster of air sacs called alveoli.

Inner surface of alveoli is lined with a layer of moist epithelial cells Outer surface of alveoli is covered by a network of blood capillaries

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND BREATHING MECHANISM IN INSECTS

INHALATION:
The abdominal muscle relax and the valve of spiracles open. The pressure in trachea decrease Air is forced into the body through the spiracles.

EXHALATION:
The abdominal muscle contract The pressure in tracheae increase. The air is forced out of the body through spiracles

TRACHEAL SYSTEM
Consist of a network of air tubes called as tracheae which open to the outside through small pores called spiracles. 10 pairs of spiracles on the thorax and abdomen Each spiracles is protected by valves which control the opening & closing of the spiracles Each tracheae is supported by chitin rings to prevents the air tube from collapsing The tracheae branches into finer tubes called tracheoles which are in direct contact with the insects tissues & organs Gases exchange occurs between tracheoles & cells by diffusion Larger insects such as grasshopper have air sacs to speed up the movement of gases to & from the insects body

TRACHEAL SYSTEM

INSECTS

FISH (GILLS)