Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

Chapter 7 Implementing Strategies: Management & Operations Issues

Strategic Management: Concepts & Cases 13th Edition Global Edition Fred David

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -1

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -2

Strategy Formulation vs. Implementation




  

Strategy Formulation Positioning forces before the action Focus on effectiveness Primarily intellectual Requires good intuitive and analytical skills Requires coordination among a few people

Strategy Implementation  Managing forces during the action  Focus on efficiency  Primarily operational  Requires special motivation and leadership skills  Requires coordination among many people
Ch 7 -3

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Nature of Strategy Implementation


Management Perspectives


Shift in responsibility
Divisional or Functional Managers

Strategists

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -4

Management Issues Central to Strategy Implementation


   

 

Establish annual objectives Devise policies Allocate resources Alter existing organizational structure Restructure & reengineer Revise reward & incentive plans Minimize resistance to change

 

Match managers to strategy Develop a strategysupportive culture Adapt production/operations processes Develop an effective human resources function Downsize & furlough as needed Link performance & pay to strategies
Ch 7 -5

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Purpose of Annual Objectives


Basis

for resource allocation for management evaluation

Mechanism Major

instrument for monitoring progress toward achieving long-term objectives


Establish

priorities (organizational, divisional, and departmental)

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -6

Annual Objectives

Horizontal consistency of objectives Vertical consistency of objectives

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -7

Policies


Policies set boundaries, constraints, and limits on the kinds of administrative actions that can be taken to reward and sanction behavior

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -8

Resource Allocation
Four Types of Resources
1. Financial resources 2. Physical resources 3. Human resources 4. Technological resources

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -9

Managing Conflict
   

Conflict not always bad Lack of conflict may signal apathy Can energize opposing groups to action May help managers identify problems

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -10

Managing Conflict


Approaches for managing and resolving conflict Avoidance Defusion Confrontation

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -11

Matching Structure with Strategy


Structure dictates how objectives and policies will be established  Structure dictates how resources will be allocated  Changes in strategy often lead to changes in organizational structure

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -12

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -13

Basic Forms of Structure


  

Functional Structure Divisional Structure Strategic Business Unit Structure (SBU) Matrix Structure

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -14

Functional Structure

Group tasks and activities by business function

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -15

Functional Structure

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -16

Divisional Structure
 Can

be organized in one of four ways:


By geographic area By product or service By customer By process
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -17

Divisional Structure

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -18

Strategic Business Unit Structure (SBU)


 Group

similar divisions into strategic business units and delegate authority and responsibility for each unit to a senior executive who reports directly to the chief executive officer
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -19

Matrix Structure
 The

most complex of all designs because it depends upon both vertical and horizontal flows of authority and communication

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -20

Matrix Structure

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -21

Restructuring, Reengineering, and E-engineering


Restructuring

is called

Downsizing Rightsizing Delayering


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -22

Restructuring, Reengineering, and E-engineering

Cornerstones

of Reengineering

Decentralization Reciprocal interdependence Information sharing


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -23

Tests for Performance-Pay Plans Does the plan capture attention? Do employees understand the plan? Is the plan improving communication? Does the plan pay out when it should? Is the company or unit performing better?
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -24

Managing Resistance to Change

Force change strategy  Educative change strategy  Rational or self-interest change strategy


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -25

Creating a Strategy-Supportive Culture


1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

Formal statements of organizational philosophy Design of physical spaces Deliberate role modeling, teaching, and coaching Explicit reward and status system Stories, legends, myths, and parables
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -26

Creating a Strategy-Supportive Culture


6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

What leaders pay attention to Leader reactions to critical incidents and crises Organizational design and structure Organizational systems and procedures Criteria for recruitment, selection, promotion, leveling off, retirement, and excommunication of people
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -27

Production/Operations Concerns

processes typically constitute more than 70% of a firms total assets

Production

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -28

Production/Operations Decision Examples


Plant

size / Inventory control

Inventory Quality Cost

control

control innovation
Ch 7 -29

Technological

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Human Resource Concerns


Assessing Furloughs Developing ESOPs Worklife Matching

staffing needs/costs

performance incentives

balance issues managers with strategy


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education Ch 7 -30

Corporate Wellness Programs

Wellness of employees has become a strategic issue for many firms

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -31

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

Ch 7 -32