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Motivation and involvement, Attitudes and Personality

Sandeep Gundeti Faculty of Marketing DMS-SAKEC

Motivation
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Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. Innate needs are physiological (biogenic); they include the needs for food, water, air, clothing, shelter and sex. Acquired needs are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment; these may include needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, power and learning. Positive and negative motivation. Rational versus emotional motives.

Dynamics of motivation
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Needs are never fully satisfied. New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied. Success and failure influence goals. Substitute goals Frustration Defense mechanism
Provide

Table 4.2 Page 113 from Schiffman 9th edition.

Hierarchy of needs
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Maslows hierarchy of needs

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Imagetakenfromwikipedia.org

Other motivational theories


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qMcClellands theory of needs qFreuds theory Psychological forces shaping peoples behaviour are largely unconscious and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. qMaslows theory Hierarchy of needs qHerzbergs theory Two factor theory
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Involvement
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Is related to the consumers values and selfconcept, which influence the degree of personal importance ascribed to a product or situation. Can vary across individuals and different situations Is related to some form of arousal.

Dimensions of involvement
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Antecedents are bases or sources that interact with each other to generate the degree of involvement the consumer will experience at any particular time.
Person,

Stimulus/Object and Situations.

Moderating factors Involvement properties


Intensity,

Direction and a level of persistence.

Response factors

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Case/Activity

Attitudes
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An attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object. The attitude object. Attitudes are a learned predisposition. Attitudes have consistency. Attitudes occur within a situation.

Tricomponent Attitude Model


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Conatio n Affe c t Cog nitio n

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Tricomponent Attitude Model


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The cognitive component:


Cognitions,

beliefs.

The affective component


A

consumers emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand constitute the affective component of an attitude.

The conative component:


Likelihood

or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particualr way with regard to the attitude object. Intention to buy

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Multiattribute Attitude Models


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The attitude-toward-object model The attitude-toward-behavior model Theory of reasoned action model

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Theory of trying-to-consume model


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Attitude-toward-the-ad models

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How attitudes are learned


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Sources of influence on attitude formation Personality factos

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Behavior can precede or follow attitude formation


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Cognitive dissonance theory Attribution theory Self perception theory Foot-in-the-door technique Attributions toward others Attributions toward things

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How we test our attributions?


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Distinctiveness Consistency over time Consistency over modality Consensus


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Personality
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Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Personality reflects individual differences. Personality is consistent and enduring. Personality can change.

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Theories of Personality
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Freudian theory (Psychoanalytic theory of personality)


Id,

superego and ego Freudian theory and product personality

Neo-Freudian personality theory


Social

relationships Style of life Feelings of inferiority

Trait theory
Consumer

innovativeness, consumer materialism and consumer ethnocentrism.

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Consumer Innovativeness and related Personality traits


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Consumer innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Sensation seeking Variety-novelty seeking

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Cognitive Personality Factors


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Need for cognition Visualizers versus Verbalizers

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Brand Loyalty
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Brand personification Product personality and gender Product personality and geography Personality and color

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Self and Self-image


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One or multiple selves The makeup of the self-image The extended self Altering the self Virtual personality or self

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Case/Activity

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