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I S R A E L

I
S
R
A
E
L

GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE


HISTORY
PEOPLE
RELIGION
CULTURE
GOVERNMENT
ECONOMY
MILITARY
SPORT
CONTIBUTIONS
ISSUES

GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE


BORDERS
NORTH
NORTHEAST
EAST
SOUTHWEST
NORTHWEST

Lebanon
Syria
Jordan
Egypt
Mediterranean Sea

AREA
total:
20,770 sq km / 8,019 sq mi
land:
20,330 sq km
water: 440 sq km
WATER FORMS
Mediterranean Sea
Lake Tiberias
Jordan River
Dead Sea lowest point
JORDAN RIVER

GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE


LAND FORMS
Har Meron highest point
Negev Desert
Jordan Rift Valley
Ramon Crater
- the largest makhtesh or erosion cirques found
in Negev

JORDAN RIFT VALLEY

NATURAL HAZARDS
sandstorms
droughts
earthquakes

RAMON CRATER

GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE

HAIFA (COASTAL CITY)

CLIMATE
- temperate
- hot and dry in southern and eastern desert
areas
- the mountainous regions can be windy,cold,
and sometimes snowy
- coastal cities have a typical Mediterranean
climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot
summers.
- from May to September, rain in Israel is
rare.

Tirat Zvi kibbutz


- northern parts of the Jordan-valley
- highest temperature in Asia at 53.7C or 129 F in 1942

HISTORY
The birthplace of the Jewish people is the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael)
Israel is part of a historic land called Palestine, known as the
Holy Land, where both the Jewish and Christian faiths began
a significant part of the nation's long history was enacted, of
which the first thousand years are recorded in the Bible; there,
its cultural, religious, and national identity was formed
after the death of Solomon, the land was divided into two: The northern part
was called Israel and the southern part Judah.
Assyrian invasion; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).
500BC, Judah was captured by the Babylonians and many
Jews were exiled (Diaspora - the scattering of Jews from
their homeland to settle all over Europe and Asia)

HISTORY
Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Persian, Mamluk, Muslim Arabs and Ottoman
Empire invasion
in 1800, Jews aboard started Zionism, a movement to establish a Jewish state
in Palestine. Jews began to immigrate(Aliya) to Palestine, causing tensions with
Palestinian Arabs
During World War I, the British sought Jewish support in
the fight against Germany. This and support for Zionism
from Prime-Minister Lloyd-George led to British Forgein
Secretary Arthur Balfour making the Balfour Declaration of
1917, stating that the British Government viewed with
favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for
the Jewish people..."
The Jewish Legion, a group of battalions composed primarily of Zionist
volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine.

HISTORY
British rule (1917-1948), When the British
conquered the area in 1917, they named it
"Palestine" and defined the boundaries; Aliya
continues
In 1922, the League of Nations granted the
United Kingdom a mandate over Palestine for
the express of the said purpose

Rapid Jewish migration led to a large-scale Arab rebellion in Palestine


1939 White Paper restricted Jewish immigration and
promised to establish an independent Palestine under Arab
majority rule within the next ten years but this broke with
the terms of the British Mandate as decreed by the League
of Nations and the Balfour Declaration.
World War II; Holocaust in Europe.

HISTORY
In 1947, the British government withdrew from commitment to the Mandate
of Palestine, stating it was unable to arrive at a solution acceptable to both
Arabs and Jews.
The newly created United Nations approved the UN Partition Plan on
November 29, 1947, dividing the country into two states, one Arab and one
Jewish. The Jewish community accepted the plan, but the Arabs rejected it.
In 1948, the Jewish state of Israel declared itself independent
and was immediately attacked by its Arab neighbors.
A ceasefire in 1949 was followed by more Arab-Israeli wars
(4 Arab-Israeli Wars)
in the 1960s, Israel occupied Arab land on the Gaza Strip, the
West Bank, the Golan Heights, and the Sainai Peninsula.
Egypt and Israel signed an agreement in 1970 and by 1994,
Jews and Arabs were working together to establish peace

PEOPLE
NATIONALITY
Israeli(s)
POPULATION
7,282,000

AGE STRUCTURE
28%
0-14 years
62.2% 15-64 years
9.8%
65 years and over
BIRTH RATE
20.02 births/1,000 population
DEATH RATE
5.41 deaths/1,000 population
SEX RATIO
total population:1 male(s)/female

PEOPLE
Israelis are known to be disciplined, brave, hard-working, spiritual and
sentimental
ETHNIC GROUPS
76%
Jewish
19%
Arab
5%
minority groups
LANGUAGES
Hebrew (official)
Arabic
English

JEWISH

ARAB

MUSLIM

EDUCATION
LITERACY RATE
total population: 97.1%
male: 98.5%
female: 95.9% (2004 est.)
Israel has the highest literacy rate in Southwest Asia
Education is compulsory in Israel for children between the ages of 3 and 18
5 types of schools (State Education Law, passed in 1953)
state secular
state religious
ultra orthodox
communal settlement schools
Arab schools
Bargut matriculation exams

EDUCATION

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Jewish National and University Library


- the world's largest repository of
books on Jewish subjects.

RELIGION
RELIGION
76.4% Jewish
16%
Muslim
1.7%
Arab Christians
0.4%
other Christian
1.6%
Druze
3.9%
unspecified (2004)

ISRAELI JEWS
55%
traditional Jews
20%
secular Jews
17%
Orthodox Jews
8%
Haredi Jews

Israel was established as a homeland for


the Jewish people and is often referred to
as the Jewish state
Muslims constitute Israel's largest religious
minority
citizenship can be granted to all Jews and
those of Jewish lineage

RELIGION
CHRISTIANITY
Christianity is based on
the life and teachings of
Jesus Christ, who was
born in Palestine (now
Israel). Christians believe
that Jesus is the Son of
God and that he rose from
the dead after being
crucified on a cross. The
Christian Bible includes
the Jewish Old Testament
and Christ's teachings, as
recorded in the New
Testament.

JUDAISM
Judaism was the first
religion to teach that there
is one God. The main laws
comes from the Torah, the
first five books of the
Hebrew Bible (the Old
Testament in Christianity).
According to tradition, the
ancient religion of the
Jews was founded by
Abraham. He was a
Hebrew who lived in
Canaan (now Israel) in
about 2000 BC.

ISLAM
Islam was founded in
Arabia by the prophet
Muhammad
in
about
622AD. The Muslims'
(followers of Islam) most
sacred book Koran, which
is the direct word of the
one God, Allah. Islamic
life is based on a set of
rules called the five pillars
of Islam. By following
these
rules,
Muslims
believe they will reach
heaven.

RELIGION
The city of Jerusalem enjoys a special place in the hearts of Jews, Muslims, and
Christians as the home of sites that are pivotal to their religious beliefs
- Western Wall
- Temple Mount
- Al-Aqsa Mosque
- Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Landmarks of religious importance


- birth place of Jesus in Bethlehem
- Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem
- Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron

BIRTH PLACE OF JESUS

WESTERN WALL

AL-AQSA MOSQUE

CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE

CULTURE
the only country in the world where life revolves around the Hebrew calendar
Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidays, and the
official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.
All Jewish holidays begin the evening before the date specified
In Hebrew calendar a "day" begins and ends at sunset, rather than at midnight.
Rosh HaShanah
Yom Kippur
Sukkot
Hanukah
Passover
Yom Hashoa
Yom HaAtzmaut
Yom Yerushalayim
Shavuot

Sep 30, 2008


Oct 9, 2008
Oct 14, 2008
Dec 21, 2008
Apr 9, 2009
Apr 21, 2009
Apr 29, 2009
May 22, 2009
May 29, 2009

Tishrei 1-2
Tishrei 10
Tishrei 15
Kislev 25
Nisan 15
Nisan 27
Iyar 5
Iyar 28
Sivan 6

CULTURE
Israeli music contains musical influences
from all over the world.
Shofar a ram's horn fitted with a reed, is
one of the world's oldest musical instruments
and is blown on Jewish High Holy days
The nation's canonical folk songs, known
as "Songs of the Land of Israel," deal with
the experiences of the pioneers in building
the Jewish homeland.

SHOFAR

Israeli literature is primarily poetry and


prose written in Hebrew
The Hebrew Book Week is held each June.
During the week, Israel's top literary award,
the Sapir Prize, is presented.
HEBREW BOOK WEEK

CULTURE
Habima Theater is Israel's oldest repertory theatre
company and national theatre founded in 1918 at Tel Aviv
The Israel Museum - is one of Israel's most important
cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea scrolls, along
with an extensive collection of Judaica and European Art
located in Jerusalem

HABIMA THEATER

Yad Vashem - Israel's national Holocaust museum,


houses the world's largest archive of Holocaust-related
information.

Beth Hatefutsoth (the Diaspora Museum)


located on the campus of Tel Aviv
University, is an interactive museum
Mishkan Le'Omanut situated on Kibbutz
Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in
the north of the country.
MISHKAN LE'OMANUT

CULTURE
Tanach - special head coverings for Jewish males over
the age of 12 in biblical time
Kippah also called yarmulke or kappel, is a thin,
slightly-rounded skullcap traditionally worn at all times by
Jewish men and/or during services and other religious
rituals. Its use is associated with demonstrating respect
and reverence for God.

KIPPAH

Tallit also known as tallis, is a Jewish prayer shawl


worn while reciting morning prayers (Shacharit) as well as
in the synagogue on Sabbath and holidays. The tallit has
special twined and knotted fringes known as tzitzit attached
to its four corners.

TALLIT

CULTURE
Shpitzel - is a headgear worn by many married Hassidic Women. It consists of a
web-net covering the women's head, often with a "braid of hair" across the front.It
is covered by a tichel.
Tichel- is a headscarf worn by some married Jewish women in compliance with
the code of modesty known as Tzenuit
Sheitel - is the Yiddish word for a wig or halfwig worn by Orthodox Jewish married women in
order to conform with the requirement of Jewish
Law to cover their hair. This practice is part of the
modesty-related dress standard called tzeniut.

TICHEL

GOVERNMENT
COUNTRY NAME
conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
GOVERNMENT TYPE
parliamentary democracy
CAPITAL
Jerusalem

CAPITAL

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
6 districts / mehozot (mehoz)
Central
Haifa
Jerusalem
Northern
Southern
Tel Aviv
sub-districts / nafot (nafa)
natural regions

JERUSALEM

GOVERNMENT
INDEPENDENCE
14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)
CONSTITUTION
no formal constitution
Declaration of Establishment (1948)
the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset)
Israeli citizenship law
SUFFRAGE
18 years of age; universal
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
LEGAL SYSTEM
Israel's legal system combines English common law, civil law, and, in personal
matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems. It is based on the principle
of stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties in the
suit bring evidence before the court.

GOVERNMENT
EXECUTIVE BRANCH
chief of state
President Shimon Peres (since 15 July 2007)
head of government / head of the cabinet
Prime Minister Ehud Olmert (since May 2006)
Deputy Prime Minister Tzipora "Tzipi" Livni
cabinet
president is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term (one-term limit)
the president assigns a Knesset member
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

SHIMON PERES

EHUD OLMERT

TZIPORA LIVINI

GOVERNMENT
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
unicameral Knesset
Knesset Speaker
Dalia Itzik
Knesset refers to the parliament members (120)
elections are held every four years by popular vote

DALIA ITZIK

A Parliament Member supported by a majority in parliament becomes the


Prime Minister, usually the chairman of the largest party.

KNESSET BUILDING

GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL BRANCH
Magistrate Courts (lowest level)
District Courts
Supreme Court (Jerusalem)
Supreme Court President
Dorit Beinisch
DORITH BEINISCH

justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee


Marriage and divorce are under the jurisdiction of the religious courts:
Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian.

GOVERNMENT
Israel has 6 districts and 14 sub districts

GOVERNMENT
Israel has a total of 72 cities:
17 NORTH
12 SOUTH
12 HAIFA
19 CENTER
10 TEL AVIV
2 JERUSALEM

NORTH

SOUTH

Within Israel's system of local government, an urban municipality can be


granted a city council by the Israeli Interior Ministry when its population exceeds
20,000.

HAIFA

CENTER

TEL AVIV

JERUSALEM

GOVERNMENT
MAJOR CITIES

Jerusalem is Israel's largest city, both in population and area

GOVERNMENT
ANTHEM
Hatikvah (The Hope)
written by Naftali Herz Imber
The melody was arranged by Samuel Cohen
Hatikva expresses the hope of the Jewish people, that they would someday
return to the land of their forefathers as prophesied in the Hebrew Bible.
HEBREW
Kol od balevav p'nimah
Nefesh Yehudi homiyah
Ulfa'atey mizrach kadimah
Ayin l'tzion tzofiyah
Od lo avdah tikvatenu
Hatikvah bat shnot alpayim
L'hiyot am chofshi b'artzenu
Eretz Tzion v'Yerushalayim

ENGLISH
As long as deep ion our heart,
The soul of a Jew yearns,
And forward to the East
To Zion, an eye looks
Our hope will not be lost,
The hope of two thousand years,
To be a free nation in our land,
The land of Zion and Jerusalem

GOVERNMENT

EMBLEM

FLAG
A white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed
linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield
of David) centered between two equal
horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom
edges of the flag
This design was first displayed in RishonLeZion in 1885
adopted officially on October 28, 1948 (25
Tishre, 5709)

EMBLEM
A seven branched-candelabrum, called
Menorah, flanked by two olive branches.

FLAG

GOVERNMENT
DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION
Ambassador in the Philippines
Ambassador Zvi A. Vapni
Ambassador to Israel
Ambassador Antonio C. Modena
ZVI A. VAPINI

ECONOMY
Israel is considered one of the most advanced countries in Southwest Asia in
human development, press freedom, economic competitiveness and industrial
development.
Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its
agricultural and industrial sectors
In 2007, Israel had the 44th-highest gross domestic product and 22nd-highest
gross domestic product per capita at US$232.7 billion and US$33,299
Israel has a technologically advanced market economy
LABOR FORCE
2.894 million (2007 est.)
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
7.3% (2007 est.)
POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE
21.6% ($7.30 per person per day (2005)

ECONOMY
AGRICULTURE - PRODUCTS
citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
INDUSTRIES
high-technology projects (including
aviation, communications, computeraided design and manufactures, medical
electronics, fiber optics), wood and
paper products, potash and phosphates,
food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic
soda, cement, construction, metals
products, chemical products, plastics,
diamond cutting, textiles, footwear

ECONOMY
EXPORT - COMMODITIES
machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds,
agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and
apparel, pharmaceuticals, military technology
IMPORT - COMMODITIES
raw materials, military equipment, investment
goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer
goods
DEBT - EXTERNAL
$89.95 billion (31 December 2007)
CURRENCY
New Israeli Shekel (ILS)
1 ILS = 12.20 PHP

NEW ISRAELI SHEKEL

ECONOMY

Israel is a global leader in water conservation and geothermal energy

developed and cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the


life sciences
Tourism, especially religious tourism, is another important industry in Israel,
with the country's temperate climate, beaches, archaeological and historical
sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists.

MILITARY
MILITARY BRANCHES
Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
Israel Naval Forces (INF)
Israel Air Force (IAF)
MILITARY SERVICE AGE AND OBLIGATIONS
-18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druzes) and
voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military
service
- both sexes are obligated to military service
- conscript service obligation
36 months for enlisted men
21 months for enlisted women
48 months for officers
- reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), 24 (women)

Israel Defense Forces (IDF)

Israel Air Force (IAF)

Israel Naval Forces (INF)

MILITARY
The involvement in major wars and border conflicts has made it one of the
most battle-trained armed forces in the world
Sherut Leumi - national service, is an alternative for those who receive
exemptions on various grounds. This involves a program of service in hospitals,
schools and other social welfare frameworks.

The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed


and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports.
The United States is a particularly notable
foreign contributor; they are expected to
provide the country with military aid
between 2008 and 2017
Arrow Missile is one of the world's
only operational anti-ballistic missile
systems designed by the Israeli and U.S.
ARROW MISSLE

MILITARY
Ofeq program - a network of reconnaissance
satellites developed by Israel, making it one of seven
countries capable of launching such satellites.
Merkeva the main battle tank, developed and
owed by Israel
Mamad - a reinforced security room impermeable
to chemical and biological substances.
OFEQ SATTELITE

MERKEVA

Israel has spent a significant portion of its gross


domestic product on defense

MAMAD

SPORTS
Sports and physical fitness have not always been paramount in Jewish culture
Maimodines
- a rabbi and a physician
- emphasized the importance of physical activity and keeping the body in shape
Physical Culture Campaign (Abraham Isaac Kook)
"the body serves the soul, and only a healthy body can ensure a healthy soul"
The Maccabiah Games
- 1930
- an Olympic style event for Jewish
athletes
- held every four years since then
In 1964 Israel hosted and won the Asian
Nations Cup

MAIMODINES

RAMAT GAN STADIUM

SPORTS
In the 70s, Israel was excluded from the
1978 Asian Games following the organizers'
refusal to invite the country as a result of
pressure by participating middle eastern
countries.
In 1994 UEFA agreed to admit Israel and
all Israeli sporting organizations now
compete in Europe.

PARALYMPICS

Beersheba has become a national chess


center and home to many chess champions
To date, Israel has won 7 Olympic medals
since its first win in 1992
Israel has won over 100 gold medals in the
Paralympic Games and is ranked about 15th
in the all time medal count.

OLYMPICS

CONTRIBUTIONS
1. MONOTHEISM
- faith in one God
- polytheism, animism, idolatry
2. JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANISM
3. BIBLE
- world's largest selling book
- 1st book printed (Gutenberg)
- the holy book of Jews and Christians

4. NOTABLE PEOPLE
Religious figures
Jesus Christ
prophets & disciples

CONTRIBUTIONS
Artists
-Rembrandt
-Isaac Stern

Writers
-Saul Bellow
-Isaac Singer

Philosophers
-Sigmund Freud
-Karl Marx

Scientists
-Albert Einstein
-Selman Waksman

CURRENT ISSUES

ENVIRONMENTAL
limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints;
desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater
pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
ILLICIT DRUGS
increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in
country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center

CURRENT ISSUES
DISPUTES - INTERNATIONAL
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through
further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation
barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its
settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West
Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the
Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the
UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor
ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from
escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region

CURRENT ISSUES
DISPUTES INTERNATIONAL (a short history)

1994
1995
2002
2005
2006

2007

Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip


Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in Gaza Strip.
Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in response to massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
Israel carries out the Disengagement Plan, ending Israel's presence in the Gaza Strip.
Israel carried out military operations against Palestinian terrorists in Gaza after kidnapping of
Israeli soldier.
Israel declares Gaza hostile territory following Hamas violent takeover of Gaza Strip.

REFERENCES
BOOKS:
Zaide, Sonia M., History of Asian Nations 5th Edition. Manila, All Nations
Publishing Co., 1999.
Circling the Globe: A young People's Guide to Countries and cultures of
the World. Canada,S.S. MAX International , 1995.
INTERNET SITES
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/is.html
http://www.science.co.il/
http://coinmill.com/ILS_PHP.html#ILS=1
http://google.com