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FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT

Jemdith Lou G. Publio

DEFINITION
the

act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. distinct process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, performed

DEFINITION

force that runs the an enterprise and is responsible for its success and failure Is the performance of conceiving and achieving desired results by means of group effort consisting of utilization human talents and resource
The

THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT

FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT

DEFINITION OF PLANNING

is the function of management that involves setting objectives and determining a course of action for achieving these objectives. It is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.

THE NATURE OF PLANNING


1.

2. 3.

4.

Contribution to purpose and objectives Planning as the first basic function Planning as a function of all managers Planning for efficient organization

BASIC TERMS

Goals are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, in order to achieve some larger, overall result preferred from the system Strategies or Activities These are the methods or processes required in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals.

Objectives are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals in the plan. Objectives are usually "milestones" along the way when implementing the strategies. Tasks Particularly in small organizations, people are assigned various tasks required to implement the plan. If the scope of the plan is very small, tasks and activities are often essentially the same.

Resources (and Budgets) Resources include the people, materials, technologies, money, etc., required to implement the strategies or processes. The costs of these resources are often depicted in the form of a budget.

TYPES OF PLANS
Standing Single Production Financial Manpower Strategic Tactical Functional

Use Long Range Intermediate Short Range Marketing

PLANNING PROCESS
1. Reference Overall

Singular Purpose ("Mission") or Desired Result from System 2. Take Stock Outside and Inside the System 3. Analyze the Situation 4. Establish Goals

5. Establish Strategies to Reach Goals 6. Establish Objectives Along the Way to Achieving Goals 7. Associate Responsibilities and Time Lines With Each Objective 8. Write and Communicate a Plan Document 9. Acknowledge Completion and Celebrate Success

GUIDELINES TO ENSURE SUCCESSFUL PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION


Involve the Right People in the Planning Process Write Down the Planning Information and Communicate it Widely Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER Build in Accountability

Document

Note Deviations from the Plan and Replan Accordingly Evaluate Planning Process and the Plan Recurring Planning Process is at Least as Important as Plan Nature of the Process Should Be Compatible to Nature of Planners Critical -- But Frequently Missing Step -Acknowledgement and Celebration of Results

WHY MANAGERS FAIL IN PLANNING?


Lack of real commitment in planning Interchanging planning studies with plans Failure to develop and implement sound strategies Lack of meaningful objectives and goals Failure to see scope of plans

Failure to see planning as rational process Too much reliance on experience Lack of top management support Lack of clear delegation Lack of adequate control techniques and information

ORGANIZING
is the process of grouping together of men and establishing relationship among them, defining the authority and responsibility of personnel by using the companys other basic resources to attain predetermined goals or objectives. involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. The structure of the organization is usually represented by an organization chart, which provides a graphic representation of the chain of command within an organization.

Factors of Organization
Organization

must reflect

objectives Organization must reflect authority Organization must be manned

TYPES OF ORGANIZATION

Line Organization

Functional Organization

Line and Staff Organization

Committees

ORGANIZATION CHART
is a diagram or drawing showing the important aspects of an organizational structures, it shows the relationship among positive as to authority, responsibility and accountability and people who occupy them is a diagrammatical form which shows important aspects of an organizational including the major functions and their respective relationship it assist one to view the firms structure as a whole, shows the principal divisions and lines of formal authority and responsibility.

Types of Organizational Chart


Master

Chart Functional Personnel

Terms of Organization
Reorganization Department

Organization
Delegation Process of entrusting and transferring responsibility and authority by top management to lowest level  Elements of Delegation


Responsibility  Authority  Accountability




RESULT OF GOOD ORGANIZATION


Establishing responsibility and preventing buck passing Providing communication easier

Establishing cooperation morale Delineating promotion Preventing work

and

closer higher of of

avenues duplication

Eliminating jurisdictional disputes between individuals Helping ability develop executive

Aiding in measuring a persons performance against his charges and responsibilities Aiding in equitable distribution of work of work, functions, and /or personnel distribution

Making growth control and without literally killing top executive through overwork Aiding in wage and salary administration through forced job analysis and description Permitting expansion and contraction without seriously disrupting the structure

STAFFING
filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function. In the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. Managerial function involves manning the organizational structure through proper and effective evaluation, selection and development of people to perform the roles

PROCESS OF STAFFING
a.

Recruitment Step 1. Studying the different jobs in the company and writing job description and specification Step 2. Requisition of new employees Ste 3. Actual recruitment of employee

PROCESS OF STAFFING
b. Selection Step 1. Reception of Applicants Step 2. Preliminary Interviews Step 3. Application form Step 4. Employment Test Step 5. Final Selection by immediate supervisor or department head Step 6. Physical and Medical Examination Step 7. Hiring Step 8. Orientation/Induction/Indoctrination

COMMON TYPES OF TRAINING


1.On the job training and job rotation 3. Apprenticeship 4.Classroom 5. Programming Instruction 6. Management Development Program 7. Understudy assignment 8. Coaching
9. Experience 10. Job Rotation 11. Special Projects and Committees assignments 12. Lectures 13. Case Study 14. Role Playing 15. In basket technique 16. Business management games 17. University and professional association seminars

DIRECTING
is

influencing people's behavior through motivation, communication, group dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives. Refers to the process of motivation, communication and leadership

MOTIVATION
Theories

of Motivation y Traditional Theory y The hierarchy of needs y Achievement power-affiliation theory y Motivation-maintenance Theory y Mc Gregors Theory of X and Y y Achievement Theory

COMMUNICATION


a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs, perceived better as a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas (energy) towards a mutually accepted goal or direction (information).

COMMUNICATION MODEL

Communication
Types

of Communication 1. Formal 2. Informal 3. lateral

WAYS TO COMMUNICATE
Memoranda Telephone
Conference/

calls Interoffice News Letters Reports

Conventions Meetings Bulletin Board Notices Exhibits and Displays Visual Aid

BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION
Distance Distortion Semantics Lack

of leveling Lack of trust In accessibility

Lack of clear responsibilities Personal incompatibility Refusal to listen Failure to use proper media Communication gap Lack of direction

LEADERSHIP

and Science of influence of influencing people so that they willingly move toward the achievement of the group goals The ability to obtain and influence them o being the person in charge of a group and (2) showing the way, providing direction
Art

LEADERSHIP STYLE

Dictatorial

Laissez faire

Autocratic

Management Skills
Technical Human Conceptual

INTERPERSONAL

Figured head

Liaison

Leaper

INFORMATIONAL
Dessiminator

Spokesperson

Monitor

DECESIONAL
Intrepreneur Disturbounce handler Resources allocator Negotiator

Controlling
checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards. Controlling consists of three steps, which include establishing performance standards, comparing actual performance against standards, and taking corrective action when necessary four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary

THE CONTROL PROCESS


Establishing

Standards Measuring Performance Against Established Standard criteria quality, quantity, time and cost Comparison of actual performance Taking corrective action when and where Deviations from standards occur Follow through

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL
Attuned to the activity Deviations must be identified quickly Control must be looking forward Control must be strategically oriented

Control should be flexible Control should be economical Control be easy to understand Control should indicate corrective actions

CONTROL METHODS

Time related charts and techniques

Direct observation

Written reports

Audits

REFERENCES

^ Oxford English Dictionary ^Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. Page 51. ^ Administration industrielle et gnrale - prvoyance organisation - commandement, coordination contrle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal.

FURTHER READING:

Anderson, P., and M. Pulich. "Managerial Competencies Necessary in Today's Dynamic Health Care Environment." Health Care Manager 21, no. 2 (2002): 111. Carroll, Stephen J., and Dennis J. Gillen. "Are the Classical Management Functions Useful in Describing Managerial Work?" Academy of Management Review 12, no. 1 (1980): 3851. Fayol, Henri. General and Industrial Administration. London: Sir Issac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1949. Koontz, Harold, and Cyril O'Donnell. Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1955. Lamond, David. "A Matter of Style: Reconciling Henri and Henry." Management Decision 42, no. 2 (2004): 330356.