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Performance Analysis of Power Plant

Condensers
A Device Which makes Power Plant A True Cycle..
A Device Solely Responsible for Recycling of
Working Fluid
Flow Cycling : A Holistic Process in for A Power
Plant
A Device to Convert Dead Steam into Live Water
Water ready to take
Rebirth
Dead Steam
Layouts of A Condenser
Layouts of A Condenser
An Integral Steam Turbine and Condenser System
Steam Condenser
Steam condenser is a closed space into which steam exits the turbine
and is forced to give up its latent heat of vaporization.
It is a necessary component of a steam power plant because of two
reasons.
It converts dead steam into live feed water.
It lowers the cost of supply of cleaning and treating of working fluid.
It is far easier to pump a liquid than a steam.
It increases the efficiency of the cycle by allowing the plant to operate
on largest possible temperature difference between source and sink.
The steams latent heat of condensation is passed to the water flowing
through the tubes of condenser.
After steam condenses, the saturated water continues to transfer heat
to cooling water as it falls to the bottom of the condenser called,
hotwell.
This is called subcooling and certain amount is desirable.
The difference between saturation temperature corresponding to
condenser vaccum and temperature of condensate in hotwell is called
condensate depression.
Two-Pass Surface Condenser
Thermal Processes Occurring in Condensers
The condenser never receives pure seam from the turbine.
A mixture of steam and non-condensable gases (Air-steam mixture)
enters the condenser.
The ratio of the quantity of gas that enters the condenser to the quantity
of steam is called the relative air content.
s c
air
m
m
,

The value of , depends on type, capacity, load and design


dimensions of the condenser plant.
Variation of Steam-air Mixture Parameters
air s c
m m

+
,
a ir s t ea m c
p p p +
ste am c
p p
e
s
p
e
a
p
sat
T
e
s c
T T

'

Using Dalons Law:

Gas laws:

Volumes and temperatures are same.


a s c
p p p +
s s
s s
s a a
a a
a
T R m v p T R m v p

&
622 . 0

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

s
a
s
a
s
a
m
m
R
R
p
p
622 . 0 1+

c
s
p
p
At the entry to condenser the relative content of air is very low
and partial pressure of steam is almost equal to condenser
pressure.
As air-steam mixture moves in the condenser, steam is
condensed and the relative content of air increases.
Accordingly, the partial pressure of steam drops down.
The pressure in the bottom portion of condenser is lower than
that of the top portion.
The pressure drop from inlet to exit of condenser is called steam
exhaust resistance of a condenser.
The partial pressure of air at the bottom of the condenser
cannot be neglected.
e
c c c
p p p

The temperature of steam is a


function of condenser pressure.

As the air-steam mixture moves


through the condenser and the
steam is condensed, its
temperature deccreases owing
to decreasing partial pressure
of saturated steam.
This is due to increase in
relative content of air in the
mixture.
The pressure also decreases
due to resistance to flow of
steam.
The zone of intensive
condensation.
The zone of cooling of air-
steam mixture.
st eam c
p p
e
s
p
e
a
p
sa t
T
e
s c
T T

'
s
T
c
T
Effect of Air Leakage & Irreversibilities On Condenser
Performance
air s c
m m

+
,
a ir s t ea m c
p p p +
ste am c
p p
e
s
p
e
a
p
sat
T
e
s c
T T

'
Variation of Steam Partial Pressure & Saturation Temperature
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2 3 4 5 6
Inlet
exit
Saturation Temperature,
0
C
Steam Partial Pressure, kPa
T
cw,in
T
cw,out
Condensate Depression

The temperature of condensate is always a few degrees


lower than the coincident condensing steam
temperature.

Subcooling of condensate is undesirable on two accouts:

It lowers the thermodynamic efficiency of the power


cycle.

It enhances the propensity of the condensate to


reabsorb non-condensibles.
Energy Balance of A Condenser
Energy balance:
The temperature rise of cooling water:
6 to 7 degree C for single pass.
7 to 9 degree C for single pass.

10 to 12 degree C for four pass.


( ) ( )
Wi We W
CW
e
c c
c
T T C m h h m

A Device to Convert Dead Steam into Live Water
Water ready to take
Rebirth
Dead Steam
Effect of Air Leakage on Condenser Pressure
Cooling water Inlet Temperature
10
30
20
40 50
C
o
n
d
e
n
s
e
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

m
m

o
f

H
g
Condenser controlling the back pressure
Air pump controlling the back pressure
Air pump controlling the back pressure
Condenser controlling the back pressure
Power Loss Due to Excess Back Pressure
Performance Loss Due to Scaling & Fouling
in s steam
T m
,
&

out s steam
T m
,
&

in cw cw
T m
,
&

out cw cw
T m
,
&

Thermal Model of A Steam Condenser


Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for the
Condenser
The overall heat transfer coefficient for clean surface (U
c
) is given by
Considering the total fouling resistance, the heat
transfer coefficient for fouled surface (U
f
) can be
calculated from the following expression:
Cooling Water Outlet Temperature
Calculation
The outlet temperature for the fluid flowing through
the tube is
The surface area of the heat exchanger for the fouled condition is :
( )

,
,
, in cw
cw p cw
steam
out cw
T
c m
h m
T +

[ ] h m LMTD F U A Q
f surface transfer


Correlations for Condensing Heat Transfer

Choice of a correlation depend on whether you are looking


at horizontal or vertical tubes, and whether condensation is
on the inside or outside.

Preliminaries

The condensate loading on a tube is the mass flow of


condensate per unit length that must be traversed by the
draining fluid.

The length dimension is perpendicular to the direction the


condensate flows;

the perimeter for vertical tubes,

the length for horizontal tubes.


Condensate Loading
This can be used to calculate a Reynolds number
Perimeter
condensate of flor Mass

tubes. al for vertic
0
d
m
condensate


tubes. horizontal for
tube
condensate
L
m


film
on condensati

4
Re

Flow is considered laminar if this Reynolds number is less than 1800.

The driving force for condensation is the temperature difference


between the cold wall surface and the bulk temperature of the saturated
vapor
The viscosity and most other properties used in the condensing
correlations are evaluated at the film temperature, a weighted mean of
the cold surface (wall) temperature and the (hot) vapor saturation
temperature
surface vapour wall sat driving
T T T T T
( )
4
3
4
3
driving
sat wall saturation sat film
T
T T T T T


Wall Temperatures
It is often necessary to calculate the wall temperature by
an iterative approach.
The summarized procedure is:
1. Assume a film temperature, T
f

2. Evaluate the fluid properties (viscosity, density, etc.) at this
temperature
3. Use the properties to calculate a condensing heat transfer
coefficient (using the correlations to be presented)
4. Calculate the wall temperature. The relationship will
typically be something like
( )
coolant sat
o o
sat wall
T T
A h
UA
T T

'

'


1
1
5. Use the wall temperature to calculate a film
temperature
6. Compare the calculated film temperature to that
from the initial step. If not equal, reevaluate the
properties and repeat.
Laminar Flow Outside Vertical Tubes
If condensation is occurring on the outside surface of vertical tubes, with
a condensate loading such that the condensate Reynolds Number is less
than 1800, the recommended correlation is:
( )
3
1
2
3
3
Re
47 . 1

'

'

f
v f f f
on condensati
cond
g k
h

Since the vapor density is usually much smaller than that of the
condensate film, some authors neglect it and use the film density
squared in the denominator.

The presence of ripples (slight turbulence) improves heat transfer,


so some authors advocate increasing the value of the coefficient by
about 20%.
Another form of writing h is :
( )
3
1
3
925 . 0

'

'

f
v f f f
cond
g k
h


this may also be compensated for rippling (0.925*1.2=1.11).
Turbulent Flow Outside Vertical Tubes
When the condensate Reynolds Number is greater than 1800, the
recommended correlation is :
( )
3
1
2
3
4 . 0
Re 0076 . 0

'

'

f
v f f f
cond
g k
h


Laminar Flow Outside Horizontal Tubes
When vapor condenses on the surface of horizontal tubes, the flow is
almost always laminar.
The flow path is too short for turbulence to develop. Again, there are two
forms of the same relationship:
The constant in the second form varies from 0.725 to 0.729.
The rippling condition (add 20%) is suggested for condensate Reynolds
Numbers greater than 40.
( )
3
1
2
3
3
Re
51 . 1

'

'

f
v f f f
on condensati
cond
g k
h


( )
4
1
0
3
725 . 0

'

'

d T
gh k
h
driving f
fg v f f f
cond


Condenser tubes are typically arranged in banks, so that the
condensate which falls off one tube will typically fall onto a tube
below.
The bottom tubes in a stack thus have thicker liquid films and
consequently poorer heat transfer.
The correlation is adjusted by a factor for the number of tubes,
becoming for the Nth tube in the stack
( )
4
4
1
0
3
725 . 0
N
h
d T N
gh k
h
top
driving f
fg v f f f
cond

'

'


Splashing of the falling fluid further reduces heat transfer, so some
authors recommend a different adjustment
( )
6
4
1
0
3
725 . 0
N
h
d T N
gh k
h
top
driving f
fg v f f f
cond

'

'


Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for the
Condenser
The overall heat transfer coefficient for clean surface (U
c
) is given by
Considering the total fouling resistance, the heat
transfer coefficient for fouled surface (U
f
) can be
calculated from the following expression: