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Implementing Active Directory

Lesson 2

Skills Matrix
Technology Skill Installing a New Active Directory Forest Establishing and Maintaining Trust Relationships Configuring Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Objective Domain Configure a forest or a domain Configure trusts Objective # 2.1 2.2

Configure Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) Configure the Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC)

3.1

Configuring a Read-Only Domain Controller

3.3

Server Manager Located in Administrative Tools.


Can also be accessed by right-clicking My Computer and selecting Manage.

Allows you to:


Add roles such as DNS server or Active Directory Domain Services role. Perform system diagnostics. Configure system services. Drill down into specific administrative tools.

Server Manager

Requirements for Active Directory


A server running Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition (Full version or Server Core). An administrator account and password on the local machine.

Requirements for Active Directory


An NT file system (NTFS) partition for the SYSVOL folder structure.
200 MB minimum free space on the previously mentioned NTFS partition for Active Directory database files. 50 MB minimum free space for the transaction log files. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) must be installed and configured

An authoritative DNS server for the DNS domain that supports service resource (SRV) records.
Recommends to support incremental zone transfers and dynamic updates.

Installing Active Directory


To install Active Directory, you will need to first add the Active Directory Domain Services role using Server Manager.

Installing Active Directory

Installing Active Directory


The Active Directory Installation Wizard, dcpromo, will guide you through any of the following installation scenarios:
Adding a domain controller to an existing environment. Creating an entirely new forest structure. Adding a child domain to an existing domain. Adding a new domain tree to an existing forest. Demoting domain controllers and eventually removing a domain or forest.

Choosing the Deployment Configuration

PostPost-Installation Tasks Upon completion of the Active Directory installation, you should verify a number of items:
Application directory partition creation. Aging and scavenging for zones. Forward lookup zones and SRV records. Reverse lookup zones.

Application Partitions

Aging and Scavenging of DNS Records Aging and scavenging are processes that can be used by Windows Server 2008 DNS to clean up the DNS database after DNS records become stale or out of date. Without this process, the DNS database would require manual maintenance to prevent server performance degradation and potential disk-space issues.

Aging and Scavenging of DNS Records

DNS Records Make sure Forward Lookup zone is created. Make sure Host (A) record is created for your server. Make sure DNS domains are created:
_msdcs _sites _tcp _udp

DNS Records

Raising the Domain Functional Level Open Active Directory Domains and Trusts from the Administrative Tools folder. Right-click the domain you wish to raise and select Raise Domain Functional Level.

Raising the Forest Functional Level Open Active Directory Domains and Trusts from the Administrative Tools folder. Right-click the Active Directory Domains and Trusts icon in the console tree and select Raise Forest Functional Level.

Raising the Forest Functional Level If your domains have not all been raised to at least Windows Server 2003, you will receive an error indicating that raising the forest functional level cannot take place yet. If all domains have met the domain functionality criteria of Windows Server 2008, you can click Raise to proceed.

Removing Active Directory Click the Start menu, key dcpromo and then press Enter.

Schema Management Console


Some commercial applications such as Microsoft Exchange will modify the schema as a part of their installation process. You can also extend the schema manually using the Active Directory Schema snap-in. To modify the schema manually, you must be a member of the Schema Admins group. The Active Directory Schema snap-in should be installed on the domain controller holding the Schema Master Operations role.

Installing the Schema Management Snap-in Snap From a command prompt, key regsvr32 schmmgmt.dll. Close the Command Prompt window, click Start, and then select Run. Key mmc /a in the dialog box and click OK. Click the File menu and select Add/Remove Snap-in.

Trust Relationship Trust relationships exist to make resource accessibility easier between domains and forests. Many trust relationships are established by default during the creation of the Active Directory forest structure. Trust relationships can be created using the Active Directory Domains and Trusts from the Administrative Tools folder.

Trust Relationships
Four trust types can be manually established in Windows Server 2008:
Shortcut trusts - Used to shorten the tree-walking process for users who require frequent access to resources elsewhere in the forest. Cross-forest trusts - Allows you to create two-way transitive trusts between separate forests. External trusts - Used to configure a one-way nontransitive trust. Realm trusts - Allows you to configure trust relationships between Windows Server 2008 Active Directory and a UNIX MIT Kerberos realm.

Revoking a Trust Using Netdom Open a command prompt and type the following text: Netdom trust TrustingDomainName /d:TrustedDomainName /remove Press Enter. Repeat these steps for the other end of the trust relationship.

User Principal Name (UPN) The name of a system user in an e-mail address format. username@domainname Based on Internet RFC 822.

Changing the Default Suffix for User Principal Names Open Active Directory Domains and Trusts from the Administrative Tools folder. Right-click Active Directory Domains and Trusts and choose Properties. Click the UPN Suffix tab, key the new suffix, and click Add. Key more than one suffix if your forest has more than one tree and then click OK.

Summary Active Directory requires DNS to be installed. DNS does not have to be installed on a Windows Server 2003 machine, but the version of DNS used does need to support SRV records for Active Directory to function. Planning the forest and domain structure should include a checklist that can be referenced for dialog information required by the Active Directory Installation Wizard.

Summary
Verification of a solid Active Directory installation includes verifying DNS zones and the creation of SRV records.
Additional items, such as reverse lookups, aging, and scavenging, also should be configured.

Application directory partitions are automatically created when Active Directory integrated zones are configured in DNS.
These partitions allow replica placement within the forest structure.

Summary System classes of the schema cannot be modified, but additional classes can be added. Classes and attributes cannot be deleted, but they can be deactivated. Planning forest and domain functionality is dependent on the need for down-level operating system compatibility.
Raising a forest or domain functional level is a procedure that cannot be reversed.

Summary Four types of manual trusts can be created: shortcut, external, cross-forest, and realm trusts. Manual trusts can be created by using Active Directory Domains and Trusts or netdom at a command line.

Summary UPNs provide a mechanism to make access to resources in multiple domains userfriendly. UPNs follow a naming format similar to email addresses. You must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group to add additional suffixes that can be assigned at user object creation.