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THEME : MATTER AROUND US

CHAPTER 5 : CHEMICAL BONDS

My name is James Bond!!

CHEMICAL BONDS

INDUCTION SET :
Chemical bond can be simplify as : A BOY , A GIRL AND A FLOWER

How a lovely couple!.. Ehem2..

1. A boy act as an (atom). 2. He gives a flower (as electron) to his girlfriend (atom). 3. His girlfriend feel so happy and accept the flower (electron). 4. They are fallen in love since both have chemistry each other. 5. We called it as chemical

bond.

HOWS ABOUT STUDENTS IN 4 TEKUN????.. Do we have different charges among us.. Hem3

ALBY and

OR No comment..

AYUNI and

FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS

1. A COMPOUND = a chemical substance which consist of two or more elements chemically bonded together. 2. Elements often form compounds because a compound is in a more stable state than free elements.

EXAMPLE :
When chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form the compound sodium chloride, a compound so safe that we eat it every day - common table salt!

+ sodium metal (reacts so violently with water) chlorine gas (poisonous-used as a weapon in World War I ) table salt

The stability of noble gases


Group 18 elements which are extremely stable electron arrangement.

Helium Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon


Thus, chemically unreactive (exist as monoatomic gases) Since, they are already stable, they do not need to combine with other elements. But other atoms, have to/tend to accept/donate through formation CHEMICAL BOND to achieve stable electron arrangement.

FORMATION OF CHEMICAL BONDS

IONIC BONDS Are formed by TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS between METAL ATOMS + NON-METAL ATOMS

COVALENT BONDS Are formed by SHARING OF ELECTRONS between NON-METAL ATOMS + NON-METAL ATOMS

IONIC BOND

Ionic Bonds
Involves electron transfer between atom (donate/accept). Normally between Metal (G1, G2) and non metal (G16,G17) To achieve stable electron arrangement. An ION is formed when atom donate/accept electrons.

Metals in columns 1, 2, 3 are electron donors.

NonMetals in columns 5, 6, 7 receive Electrons.

FORMATION OF ION
CATION An atom that donates electrons form a positive charge (+ve). Eg : Li +, Na +
Donate electrons CATION NEUTRAL ATOM

ANION An atom that accept electrons form a negative charge (-ve). Eg. Cl-, O2Accept electrons ANION

Formation of ionic bond


Electron transfer

METAL ATOM Donates electrons

NON-METAL ATOM Accepts electrons

POSITIVE ION

IONIC BOND

NEGATIVE ION

The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.

FORMATION OF CATION (+VE ION)


1. Metals ( not stable). They will donate its electron to achieve stable electron arrangement. 2. When a metal donates its electrons, the no. of proton becomes higher than electron. A positive ion is formed.

The Sodium atom has 1 Electron in its outer shell. The Sodium donates 1 electron to achive stable electron arrangement. It is now a Sodium ion with a charge of 1+ Na
e.c: 2.8.1 Sodium Atom

(Na +)
e.c: (2.8)+ Sodium Ion

The Chlorine atom has 7 electrons in its outer shell. The Chlorine gains 1 electron to gain stable electron arrangement. It is now a Chlorine ion with a charge of 1 -

Cl (atom) e.c. 2,8,7 Atom

Cl - (ion)

e.c.

: 2,8,8)

Ion

FORMATION OF ANION AND CATION


Ionic compound NaCl is formed from one Na+ ion and
one Cl- ion: Na Na+ + 1ethis represents the formation of a Na+ octet this represents the formation of a Cl- octet

Cl + 1e-

Cl-

Na+ + Cl-

NaCl

FORMATION OF IONIC BOND


1. Ionic compound formed through IONIC BOND. 2. Example : ionic bond in NaCl.

Na----ionic bond--Cl
3. A sodium atom with electron arrangement (2.8.1) donates 1 electron. 4. This electron is transferred to a chlorine atom with an electron arrangement (2.8.7).

The Ionic Bond Chlorine atom Cl

Sodium atom Na

Sodium ion (Na +)

Chlorine ion (Cl -)

The sodium atom loses one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a positive ion (Na +). The Chlorine atom gains one electron to attain a complete outer shell and become a negative ion (Cl ). Strong electrostatic forces attract the sodium and chlorine ions.

FORMATION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE


1. The Sodium ion, Na+ and Chloride ion, Clformed are attracted to another to form a solid sodium chloride, NaCl compound. 2. This is due to existence of a strong electrostatic force between the oppositelycharged ions. 3. Thus, the attractive force called IONIC BOND @ ELECTROVALENT BOND.

Na donates one electron and Cl accepts/gains one electron as shown

FORMATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE


Ionic compound MgCl2 is formed from one Mg2+ ion and two Cl- ions Mg Mg2+ + 2 ethis represents the formation of a Mg2+ octet Cl + 1eCl times 2 represents the formation of 2Cl- octets Mg2+ + 2ClMgCl2

Mg loses two electrons, but each Cl can gain only one electron, so it takes two Cl to accept both Mg electrons

VIDEO OF CHEMICAL BONDS :


VIDEO ON IONIC BOND 1 VIDEO ON IONIC BOND 2

STRUCTURE OF AN IONIC COMPOUND

QUESTIONS : and HOMEWORK


Refer to handout given. Objective question no. 33 Structure questions : a)no. 1 b)no. 2 as (homework)

CONCLUSION
1. Chemical bonds formed for achieving a stable electron arrangement. 2. Noble gas do not combine with other elements because they already have stable duplet and octet arrangement. 3. Chemical bonds have 2 types : a) ionic bond ( metal-non metal) b) covalent bond (non-metal---non metal) 4. Ionic bond formed (transfering of electrons) donate e- and accept e-. 5. Ionic bond is hold by strong electrostatic force between oppositely charged of ions.

JAMES BOND CHEMICAL BOND MOVIE. CHEMICAL BONDING SONG.

NEXT topic : COVALENT BOND.

THANK YOU !!!..