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Water in Landscape

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LECTURE CONTENT
INTRODUCTORY WATER IN LANDSCAPE
The use of water

As process As resource As design elements Pools & ponds Channels Cascades & waterfalls Water jets

WATER FEATURES

THE USE OF WATER


ECOLOGICAL FORCES Water as one of ecological forces for: Land & Landform climate control Water bodies recreation Plants transportation
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ESSENTIAL TO HUMAN BEING AND TO LIFE sustenance irrigation and industry

THE USE OF WATER


LANDSCAPE EXPRESSION Sites designer most versatile tool LANDSCAPE VISUAL RESOURCES Able to stimulate the mind and to captivate attention

THE USE OF WATER


BASIC PALETTE OF LAND DESIGN MATERIAL Water bodies, especially natural and site existing elements will be incorporated as design material e.g: lakes, ponds, waterfalls,etc. By planners, landscape architect or architects.
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TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES May determine design potentials for example, Water features technology for special design for example theme parks

WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN

AS PROCESS

WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


AS PROCESS Limited resource on, above and below the surface of the earth Medium where life processes occur living things need water to sustain life

WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


AS PROCESS

The process is called water cycle elements are highly integrated with each other and their ecological systems
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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN

AS RESOURCE
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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


AS RESOURCE
The worth of:

WATER QUALITY & QUANTITY

Management of Watershed & surface components the whole system involved is Flooding, the effects of draught, necessary:

erosion & sedimentation & pollution

Disseminate water resource ethic (management attitude) to public


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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


Water Resource Ethic Surface water
Responsible development would recognize the ability of the water resource to serve human needs. The pattern and nature of the development would respond to this ability, locating development outside the prime agriculture lands of the flood plain and allowing flooding to occur and replenish the landscape

Ground water
Retention structures have the the added benefit of increasing recharge to the ground water reservoir. As such they are important ground water management tools

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


Water Resource Ethic Wetlands
Stream banks, lakeshores and wetlands are rich habitats that provide shelter and food for birds and animals. They are invaluable to ecological system. Their continuity (and that of their valuable vegetative communities), is dependent upon existing hydrologic relationships. Development should not adversely affect these valued habitats.

Recreations
Water is unparalleled recreational resources. It provides for fishing, swimming and boating as well as associated activities such as camping and hiking. Development should allow public access to this resource and maintain it in adequate quality and with a quality conducive to health,safety and welfare.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


Water Resource Ethic Drainage pattern
In order to fully utilize the water resource, development should avoid reshaping the land in the area of the drainage way. The banks should remain undisturbed when possible, with their surface matting of intertwined roots intact. The form and surface cover should be retained so that they can continue to resist the forces of surface flow

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN

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AS DESIGN ELEMENTS

WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements
Norman Booth, 1983 Basic Elements of Architectural Design Water by itself has no distinct design properties other than that it is liquid all the visible characteristics of water are directly dependent on exterior factors (plastically, motion, sound, reflectivity, slope, container size, shape and roughness, temperature, wind and light) that bear on and reflect it. Water must depend on its environmental context for its particular qualities. Change the forces in the environmental setting an you also after the characteristics of water in that setting.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as element of visual design Line Form Colour Texture Line
Water expresses its surface as line. Rhythmic line of waves that move across the surface under the influence of wind and the lines that pulse outward when something impacts the surface. By shaping the edge over which water falls, the water can become a rhythmic vertical line, accentuating the vertical direction and implying connection between the earth and sky.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as element of visual design Form
Water features can be linear, accentuating water movement and flow characteristics. Can be compact in form and convey a sense of centrality and arrival Can be a complex combination of differing characters, thereby pulling together disparate elements Can be consistent and convey a more unified sense.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as element of visual design Line Form Colour Texture Colour
Good quality colour has little colour. Colour is imparted by the reflection carried upon its surface, by its diffusing character and by the colour of its container.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as element of visual design Line Form Colour Texture Texture
Waters surface texture is determined by its container, depth and flow characteristics.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as sensual quality in design
Sensual quality and water effect depends on the design intent and context. INTENTION: Initially by deciding design intent, including functional aspects, desired mood, and aesthetic and sensual character CONCEPTUAL /SCHEMATIC: Then, Identification of appropriate water effects to achieve the desired character, mood and function. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: Finally, the shaping of the container and the environment context to achieve these effects

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as sensual quality in design
Splattering water creates sound which masks noise while cooling the air through evaporation and enhancing visual quality

Sensual quality and water effect depends on the design intent and context.

Smooth sheet flow enhances visual character of street

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as movement
Moving water can be subtle or dynamic It can move almost imperceptibly or can rush like a torrent.

It can make scarcely audible, gurgling sounds or loud splattering ones It can convey brute force and can mask the loudest of urban noise

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as Symbolic
Water can be design as symbolic or indirect reference. The interpretation of mountain stream, river, flood plain and braided stream can make reference to the natural environment with forms compatible with the urban context It can serve as SYMBOL to concentrate the meanings of the natural condition and to transpose these into the landscape areas, especially in urban context.

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE DESIGN


As Design Elements Water as ethic
The landscape designer communicates an ethic (moral) through design. For instance: The use of great volumes and velocity of water to overpower the observer symbolizes an anthropomorphic view of the world; a man as conqueror and controller of nature A small volume of water extended through an elaborate series of sensual experiences conveys an appreciation of the scarcity and value of water

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WATER FEATURES

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POOL & PONDS CHANNELS WATER JETS CASCADES & WATERFALLS

WATER FEATURES POOLS


Bodies of still water Architectonic approach Function primarily reflecting surfaces as

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WATER FEATURES PONDS


Bodies of still water Naturalistic line quality, usually with plant materials. Usually located at the lowest elevation of the landform to reinforce the equilibrium with gravity Pastoral and vernacular mood of a place

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WATER FEATURES CANNELS

Conduits contain flowing water Sensual effect depends on: water volume, flow rate, channel size, shape and steepness Linear in form to convey movement and to decentralize meaning

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WATER FEATURES CASCADES


Involves falling water Falling water depends on: Volume and rate of flow condition of edge where water falls height and nature of the fall the surface terminating the fall

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WATERFALLS

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WATER FEATURES WATER JETS


Large volume of water forced through small apertures result in high velocities of flow Serves to draw attention punctuates the landscape, reinforces special points Points of energy in bucolic setting (country and natural setting) Types; single orifice jet, aerated jet, spray jet and formed multi-jets

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WATER IN LANDSCAPE by NURUL HIDAYAH

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end of lecture