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PLC Basics

Fundamentals of PLC How PLC Works Various Programming Languages Programming Fundamentals and Examples

Block Diagram of Control System


PB1 M1

LS1

INPUTS
M1

LOGIC

OUTPUTS

SOL M2R

What is Logic ?
The

first step involved in automating any industrial process or machine is to determine the sequence of operation or events which are specific to its operation. This sequence is then arranged into a set of logic functions.
Then

this Logic scheme is turned into a physical system using the basic building blocks of the particular technology selected ,i.e. Mechanical, Fluidic, Pneumatic, Electromechanical, Electronics.
Most

Popular method to turn Logic into physical system are, Relay Logic Wired Logic Programmable Controllers

Which Logic System and Why ?


There are three basic system options that are open to a design engineer. Relay Logic It has for many years been the work horse of most electrical installations. Advantages: It was simple for small systems, hence cost advantages due to wide range of available coil voltages. Disadvantages: As the number of relays increases, it requires larger physical area, coupled with costly enclosures, the labour charges, the schematic and connection diagrams, escalates the final cost. Wired Logic Programmable Logic Improved installation time eliminate the need for extensive wiring of timers, relays and other components Improved flexibility enable control system changes simply by reprogramming Much more compact than relay control panels, yet enables complex, high-level control Improved reliability

Programmable Logic Controllers


Programming Device

Input Table

User Program Data Storage

Output Table

Input Devices
Processor I/O Interface

Input/Output System
Power Supply

Output Devices
Programming Device

Basic PLC Parts


Processor Central Processing Unit Memory Program Panel

Input/Output Rack

Adapter

Module

Module

Module

Module

Module

Module

Output Devices Solenoids Motor Starters Alarms Indicators D/A Logic BCD

Module

Input Devices Limit Switches Pres. Switches Prox. Switches Temp. Switches Push Buttons A/D Logic

Module

Power Supply

PLC Definition

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) defines a PLC as a digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control through digital or analog I/O [Input/Output] modules various types of machines or processes A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is is a solid state device that uses soft wired logic contained in the controllers memory to duplicate the functions of relays and hardwired solid state control devices. In operation, the memory unit sequentially scans inputs( sensors, limit switches, push buttons, photocells) in cyclic fashion to determine which outputs( contacts, motor starters, solenoids, pilot lights, converters, etc.) should be turned on or off.

PLC Advantages

Reliability Flexibility Advanced Functions Communications Speed Diagnostics Ease of programming Ease of maintenance Designed for industrial environment Quick installation Adaptable to change

Traditional PLC Application


Packaging Bottling and canning Material Handling Power Generation HVAC/building control systems Security Systems Automated Assembly Water Treatment Food and Beverage Chemicals Pulp and Paper Pharmaceuticals Metals

Virtually any application that requires electrical control can use a PLC

How PLC Works


Programming / Communication Devices

I n p u t

C i r c u i t s

Central Processor

O u t p u t

C i r c u i t s

CR???????

Optical Isolation Barrier

MEMORY
program data
Low Voltage POWER SUPPLY

Optical Isolation Barrier

PLC Operation

During the input scan PLC examines the external input devices -On or Off. The status of the inputs is temporarily stored in an input image memory file.

The PLC scans the instructions in the ladder logic program, uses the input status from the input image file & determines if an output will be energized. The resulting status of the outputs is written to the output image memory file.

Based on the data in the output image file the PLC energizes or de-energizes its output circuits, controlling external devices.

Speed of PLC through-put time


The throughput time includes the time for actuation of the physical input ; time for PLCs input circuit to sense the signal, time for input scan, program scan and output scan; time for actuation of the output circuit & corresponding field device, and time for the CPUs housekeeping or overhead functions.

Therefore the formula is -PLC input circuit filter time + Input scan time + housekeeping time + program scan time (addition of instruction execution times when all instructions are True) + Output scan time + PLC output circuit turn on time

Program Execution
Start of Sweep Housekeeping I/O Enabled No ? Yes Input Scan Run No Mode ? Yes Logic Solution I/O No Enabled ? Yes Output Scan Programmer Communications User Program Checksum Calculation
The total loop is the throughput time of the PLC. Housekeeping

Scan time of PLC

Data Input Program Execution Data Output

Programmer Service Diagnostics

Start of Next Sweep

Central Processing Unit


CPU,the primary component is made of a microprocessor & a memory system. CPU has an executive program or system memory that directs & performs operation activities of the internal functions of the CPUs. This System Memory is Programmed by the manufacturer cannot be accessed by the user. CPU reads the inputs,executes logic as dictated by the APPLICATION PROGRAM,performs calculations & controls the outputs accordingly. PLC users work with 2 areas of the CPU : Program Files & Data Files.

Program File stores an user application program,subroutines & the error files. Data files store data associated with the program,such as I/O status, counter/timer preset /accumulated values & other stored constants or variables.

PLC Memory

Memory is a physical space inside the CPU where the Program files & Data information are stored & manipulated. MEMORY Memory are 2 types -- volatile & nonvolatile. Volatile memory can be easily altered or erased, it can be written to & read from.Without backup,the programmed contents will be lost in absence of Power. Best known form is RAM & is typically backed up by battery or capacitor. Non-volatile memory retains its programmed contents without a backup. The EEPROM offers the same flexibility as RAM.

DATA FILES

PROG RAM FILES

Memory Distribution
The application memory can be divided into 5 memory zones : the application data is always in internal RAM, the application program (application comments and executable task code) the constants, initial values and configuration in internal RAM or on the PCMCIA card, backup for the application program, constants and configuration values backup backup of internal words

Program Data Backup

Power Supply

PLC Power supplies are typically designed to meet normal operation of +10 to -15%. Fluctuation in voltage. Converts the incoming voltage to a useable form for the internal electronics Protects the PLC s components from voltage Operates either on 120VAC/ 240 VAC/ 24VDC. PLCs Power Supply is designed to meet short power losses without affecting the operation of the system. PLC can operate for several ms without line power before the PS signals the processor that it can no longer provide adequate DC Power to the system. The CPU executes a controlled shut down which saves the users program & data in memory The other factor affecting the function of the PLC is EMI or electrical noise.Use an isolation transformer, take care of shielding from Drives, ensure proper earthing & cabling practices.

Programming Devices

Personal Computer Run PLC Programming Software It creates, edits, document, store and troubleshoot ladder diagrams, and generates printed reports. Hand Held Programmer Mainly a troubleshooting tool. On factory floor you can modify the program, store the program and transfer the program to multiple machines.

These products communicate with the PLC through a Serial communication port.

Input Devices

Pushbuttons Selector Switches Limit Switches Photoelectric Sensors Proximity Sensors Motor Starter Contacts Relay Contacts Thumbwheel Switches Transducers/Transmitters Encoders/Tachos/Resolvers Level/Pressure/Temperature Switches

Input Devices

Can be Discrete or Analogue. Can be varying voltages/ currents.


24 V DC/AC. 110 V DC/AC. 230 V AC 4-20 mA, 0-10 V DC, T/C, RTD, mV etc.

Field signals are unfiltered. Conditioning of the signals are required because the internal components of a PLC operate on 5V DC. This minimizes the possibility of damage by shielding them. To electrically isolate the internal components from the input terminals, PLC employ an optical isolator -- a device which uses light to couple signals from one electrical device to another. The field signal needs to be qualified as valid which means it needs to be distinguished from the electrical noise. This activity is done by Input Filters which determine the validity of the signal of a signal by its duration -- they wait to confirm that a signal is a reference from an input device rather than an electrical noise.

Output Devices

Valves Motor Starters Solenoids Control Relays Alarms Lights Fans Horns

Output Devices

Can be Discrete or Analogue. Can be varying voltages/ currents.


24/110 V DC. 24/110/230 V AC. 4-20/0-20 mA, +/-10 V, 0-10 V DC.

Output circuits operate in a manner similar to the input circuits signals from the CPU passes through an isolation barrier before energizing outputs. Output Circuits can be

-- ..Relays ---can be either for AC/DC, handle higher amp,slow, wear & tear. --- Transistors --Switches DC Power,Fast,lower Amp handling typically 0.5A. Triacs -- Switches AC Power,other features same as Transistors. -- Solid State Outputs ( Triacs & Transistors) can be damaged by over voltage or over current.

Note

Various Programming Languages

What is a Program

A Program is a user developed series of instructions or commands that directs the PLC to execute actions. A Programming Language provides rules for combining the instructions so that they produce the desired actions. The latest standard (IEC 1131-3) has tried to merge plc programming languages under one international standard. We now have PLCs that are programmable in function block diagrams, instruction lists, C and structured text Various Programming Languages are, Ladder Logic Function Block Structured Text Instruction List. Sequential Function Chart

Ladder Logic Programming

Ladder Logic Programming

The most commonly used Programming Language is LADDER LOGIC Ladder Logic is evolved from electrical ladder diagrams, which represents how electrical current flows thru the devices to complete an electrical circuit. The Ladder logic programming language is an adaptation of an electrical relay wiring diagram, also known as ladder diagram. Ladder Logic is a graphical system of symbols and terms even those not familiar with relay wiring diagram can easily learn it.

Ladder Logic

Each electrical circuit in the diagram is considered a rung. Each Rung must be connected to Power Line on Left side. Each Rung must contain at least one control instruction on Extreme Right Side. Every rung has two components It contains at least one device that is controlled It contains the condition(s) that control the device.

Ladder Logic

Connecting Objects

All contacts can be connected in sequence (AND-BOOL) All contacts can be connected in parallel (ORBOOL) All contacts can be connected in both, parallel and sequence The network must be connected to the power rail The power rail refers to the data type BOOL FFB's can be inserted at any position of the network Coils have to be connected to contacts or FFB-outputs The right and left side of a coil always has the same value! At coils with negation or transition the value will be stored in the associated variable

Function Block Programming

Function Block Programming


The primary concept behind a FBD is data flow. In these types of programs the values flow from the inputs to the outputs, through function blocks. A FBD program is constructed using function blocks that are connected together to define the data exchange. The connecting lines will have a data type that must be compatible on both ends.

FBDs use data flow from left to right through function blocks Inputs and outputs can be inverted Function blocks can have variable argument list sizes When arguments are left off default values are used

Understanding FBDs
Execution order Value Passed without declaring Programmer Selected Instance Name

Output can be linked to multiple inputs Variable Passed by linking and declared

Inverted (Normally Closed) Input. Outputs can also be inverted.

Various Function Blocks

Basic Logic Functions

Basic Timing Functions

Basic Math Functions

Various Function Blocks

Basic Latches and Comparisons

Basic Counters

FBD Program Example

Structured Text Programming

Structured Text Programming


ST is a high level language, similar to PASCAL or BASIC. ST is a distinct language that has been specifically developed for industrial control applications. Fairly straight forward and easy to learn and to use. Compact formulation of a complex programming task. Powerful constructs for controlling the instruction flow. Useful for complex mathematic solutions. Simple solutions for difficult problems in FBD, LD or IL.

Understanding ST

Statements, Expressions and Operators

A structured text program contains: statements. A statement contains: Expressions Keywords An expression contains one or more: Operators with Operands

Statements must close with semicolons (;) One line may contain several statements, separated by (;)

Understanding ST Statements
The following statements are available:
VAR ... END_VAR Function Block Calls IF ... THEN ... END_IF ELSIF ... THEN Declaration of FFB's Invoking of FFBs Conditioned execution of statements Conditioned execution of statements, if the preceded expression is not fulfilled (false). Execution of statements, if expressions of preceded statements are not fulfilled (false). A list of statements with given labels. Execution, if the label is true. Repeated execution of statements up to a given number. Repeated execution of statements up to preceded condition = 0. Repeated execution of statements up to succeeded condition = 0. To terminate repeat statements (FOR, WHILE, REPEAT) condition is true.

ELSE ...

CASE ... OF ... END_CASE FOR ... TO ... BY ... DO ... END_FOR WHILE...DO...END_WHILE REPEAT ... UNTIL ... END_REPEAT EXIT before the end

Understanding ST - Operators

Operators are generic, i.e. they automatically adjust to the data type of the operand. The evaluation of an expression consists of applying the operators to the operands in the order defined by the rule of precedence of the operators. The operator with the highest rule of precedence in an expression will be executed first. Operators with the same precedence are executed from left to right, as described in the expression. This order can be changed through the use of parenthesis.

Understanding ST Operators
Operator
() FUNCNAME ** NOT ANY_BIT * / MOD + < > < = ANY_ELEM > = ANY_ELEM = <> &, AND XORANY_BIT OR ANY_BIT

Operand
Expression ANY REAL, ANY_NUM ANY_NUM Complement ANY_NUM or TIME ANY_NUM ANY_NUM ANY_NUM or TIME ANY_NUM or TIME ANY_ELEM ANY_ELEM Less or equal Greater or equal ANY_ELEM ANY_ELEM ANY_BIT Logic exclusive OR Logic OR

Significance
Bracketing Function editing (call) Raising to a power Negation Multiplication Division Modulo Addition Subtraction Less than Greater than 7 7 Equality Inequality Logic AND 10 11

Precedence
1 (highest) 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7

8 8 9

All operands also: Expression, literal, variable, direct address

Structured Text Example


ST Example

Comment FFB-Declaration AND-Function with Allocation FFB call with Allocation AND-Function with Allocation FFB call with Allocation

Instruction List Programming

Instruction List (IL)


Instruction List (IL) is a low level textual language which has a structure similar to a simple machine assembler. The IEC has developed IL by reviewing the many low level languages offered by PLC manufacturers. IL provides a wide range of operators that represent those most commonly found in proprietary instruction list languages of current day PLCs

Understanding IL

With IL the following operations can be executed:

logical (AND...), arithmetic (ADD...), compare (GT...) operations and assignments (ST, S, R). Jumps within a section unconditioned / conditioned (JMP / JMP C, JMP CN) Functions and function blocks unconditioned / conditioned (CAL / CAL C, CAL CN)

Before invoking an FFB, it has to be declared using VAR and END_VAR. Each FFB instance must be invoked once. FFB-call:

with CAL and a list of input parameters or with CAL and Load/Save of the input parameters or by using the input operators.

Understanding IL Operators
Operator Modifier Operand / Significance

LD N Loads the value of the operand into the Accumulator Literal, variable, direct address from data type ANY ST N Saves the value of the Accumulator in the operand Literal, variable, direct address from data type ANY S Sets the operand to 1 if the Accumulator content is 1 Literal, variable, direct address from data type BOOL R Sets the operand to 0 if the Accumulator content is 1 Literal, variable, direct address from data type BOOL AND N, N(, ( Logic AND OR N, N(, ( Logic OR XOR N, N(, ( Logic exclusive OR ADD ( Addition SUB ( Subtraction MUL ( Multiplication DIV ( Division GT ( Compare : > EQ ( Compare : = NE ( Compare : <> LT ( Compare : < JMP C, CN Jump to label CAL C, CN FBNAME (name of instance) Invoking a FFB FUNCNAME Executing a function Literal, variable, direct address (data type is subject to function) ) Editing reset operations

Understanding IL Rules

When entering keywords, separators and comments, there is an immediate spell check If a keyword, a separator or a comment is detected, it is identified with a color shading. If unauthorized keywords (instructions or operators) are entered, this will be identified through color shading as well. Spaces and tabs have no effect on syntax, they can be used anywhere.

Instruction List Example


IL example

Comments FFB-Declaration

AND-Function Assignment FFB call Assignment AND-Function FFB call Assignment

Sequential Function Chart

Sequential Function Chart (SFC)


A Sequential Function Chart is a graphic method of representing a sequential control system by using a sequence of steps and transitions. Each step is a command or action that is either active or inactive. The flow of control passes from one step to the next through a conditional transition that is either true or false.
Step
S_2_1

SFC - Elements

Jump
S_2_1

Transition

Alternative Branch

Parallel Branch

Alternative Joint

Parallel Joint

Understanding SFC

SFC Rules
1. A Sequential Flow Chart section must have an Initial Step and only one Initial Step.

2. A Transition must follow a Step.

3. A Step must follow a Transition.

Understanding SFC

SFC - Elements: The Step


Step types are the initial step or steps. A step becomes active when the prior transition has been satisfied A step becomes inactive when the succeeding transition has been satisfied AND the step delay time has elapsed. None, one or multiple actions, with qualifiers, can be declared for each step. A supervision time can be defined for each step.

Understanding SFC

SFC - Elements: The Transition A transition is the condition that transfers control from one step to another. Only transitions following active steps are solved / evaluated. When a transition is True on the next scan: The preceding step(s) is deactivated The following step(s) is activated The True transition between the steps is no longer solved The transition following the new active step is solved

Understanding SFC

SFC - Elements: The Jump The jump allows the program to continue from a different location. A jump can be used in two ways: sequence jump sequence loop

Jumps into or out of a parallel sequence area are not possible.

SFC Example
Start

Up Limit SW Slow Speed Limit SW Bottom Limit SW

Wait Start Pushbutton Pressed


Start

Up Limit SW Slow Speed Limit SW Bottom Limit SW

Lower Fast, drill motor on Slow Speed Limit SW reached


Start

Up Limit SW Slow Speed Limit SW Bottom Limit SW

Lower Slow, drill motor on Bottom Limit SW reached


Start

Up Limit SW Slow Speed Limit SW Bottom Limit SW

Raise Drill, drill motor on Up Limit SW reached

Programming Example

Objective
Here, we want the fill motor to pump lubricating oil into the tank until the high level sensor turns on. At that point we want to turn off the motor until the level falls below the low level sensor. Then we should turn on the fill motor and repeat the process. Here we have a need for 3 I/O (i.e. Inputs/Outputs). 2 are inputs (the sensors) and 1 is an output (the fill motor). Both of our inputs will be NC (normally closed) fiber-optic level sensors. When they are NOT immersed in liquid they will be ON. When they are immersed in liquid they will be OFF.

PLC

Oil Tank

Motor

Drain

Design
Here we have a need for 3 I/O (i.e. Inputs/Outputs). 2 are inputs (the sensors) and 1 is an output (the fill motor). Both of our inputs will be NC (normally closed) fiber-optic level sensors. When they are NOT immersed in liquid they will be ON. When they are immersed in liquid they will be OFF. Input Address :
PLC

Low : 0000 High : 0001 Output Address : Motor : 0500

Oil Tank

Motor Drain

Internal Utility Relay : 1000

The Logic Electrical Diagram

K1-1

Low High

K1-2

Aux. Contactor K1

Motor Contactor

The Logic Ladder Logic


Low High Temp. Bit

0000

0001

1000

1000

Motor

1000

0500

Program Scan
1st Scan Start 1st Scan Complete

0000 1000

0001

1000

0000 1000

0001

1000

Low 0000 High 0001 Temp. Bit 1000

1000

0500

1000

0500

Motor 0500

Program Scan
2st Scan Start 2st Scan Complete

0000 1000

0001

1000

0000 1000

0001

1000

Low 0000 High 0001 Temp. Bit 1000

1000

0500

1000

0500

Motor 0500

Program Scan
X Scan Start X Scan Complete

0000 1000

0001

1000

0000 1000

0001

1000

Low 0000 High 0001 Temp. Bit 1000

1000

0500

1000

0500

Motor 0500

Program Scan
X+1 Scan Start X+1 Scan Complete

0000 1000

0001

1000

0000 1000

0001

1000

Low 0000 High 0001 Temp. Bit 1000

1000

0500

1000

0500

Motor 0500

Questions . . .? ? ? ?