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PACKAGING Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and

nd use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.

VARIOUS DEFINITIONS GIVEN BY DIFFERENT DICTIONARIES The Oxford Dictionary: The business or process of packing goods or the presentation of a person or thing in an advantageous way. The American Heritage Dicitonary: The manner in which something, such as a proposal or product, or someone, such as a candidate or author, is presented to the public. Collins English Dictionary: The presentation of a person, product, television programme, etc., to the public in a way designed to build up a favorable image. Babylons Dictionary: The wrapping in which an item is presented for sale.

HISTORY OF PACKAGING The first packages used the natural materials available at that time: Basket of reeds, wineskins, wooden boxes , pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass and bronze vessels. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology

LEVELS OF PACKAGING 1Primary 2secondary 3transportation

PRIMARY PACKAGING The customer actually handles the product in its primary packaging. This level of packaging may be the one that the consumer sees. It is kept till it is opened or throughout the products life. Examples ,Paste, Chocalate

SECONDARY PACKAGING The Secondary packaging provides information to the consumer about the product. Additional layers of protection that are kept till the product is ready for use.

TRANSPORTATION PACKAGING It Refers to the further packaging components necessary for : Storage, Identification, Protection against damage and Durability.

NECESSITIES OF PACKAGING Packaging is a very important marketing strategy to glamorize your product in order to attract the consumers attention. Sometimes packaging is so important that it cost more than the product itself in order to lure the consumers to buy it. Most consumers judge a product by its packaging before buying. So it is logical to say attractive packaging is crucial in order to get the first time buyers to buy your products. Packaging should definitely be included in the 4 major Ps of marketing (Product, Place, Promotion and Price).

FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING Product Identification:- Packaging greatly helps in identification of products. Product Protection:- Packaging protects the contents of a product from spoilage, breakage, leakage, etc. Facilitating the use of product:- Packaging should be convenience to open, handle and use for the consumers. Product Promotion:- Packaging is also used for promotional and attracting the attention of the people while purchasing.

PACKAGING MACHINES A choice of packaging machinery includes: technical capabilities, labor requirements, worker safety, maintainability, serviceability, reliability, etc

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

SYMBOLS USED ON PACKAGES Many types of symbols for packaging are nationally and internationally standardized. For consumer packaging, symbols exist for product certifications, trademarks, proof of purchase, etc. Examples