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Unit 1 Standard and Higher

The biological approach p38-60 p38       

Nature Nature side of the nature/ nurture debate Scientific Only researches biological activity Came from medicine Is the cause/ philosophy behind modern psychiatry Genetics are important and how the brain works is important too

Debates within psychology Nature/ nurture


      

Discuss the nature/ nurture debate within psychology Gross p 732- 742 732Nativists . Knowledge is innate Empiricists . Knowledge is due to learning & experience Causes of behaviour NatureNature- genes, neurochemical & hormonal factors, brain activity NurtureNurture- born blank, learning from NW Unit 6 2007 KED 3 environment

History of BLoA
    

Scientific approach: Key assumption that all behaviour can be reduced down to biological functioning & used reductionist research methods e.g. Lab exp t, correlations (twin/family studies) t, Also uses features of science: Control, prediction, replication, manipulation of variables (need to link to research methods i.e. Lab exp t, correlations and how they do t, thisthis- briefly).

BLoA History of ......


      

Scientific discoveries E.g. Broca Hypothesised that the function of language is in the anterior lobes. & that the left hemisphere develops quicker than the rightright- this why it is more advanced Also hypothesised that b/c women s brain are lighter... That they are less intelligent then men This was widely accepeted The biological approach today, however, has evidence against this claim

BLoA history of
 Diagnosis

and treatment of mental

illness  Medical model of abnormality  All abnormal behaviour has a biological cause  E.g. Functioning of neurotansmitters, neurotansmitters, hormonal transmisson, genetic transmisson, influences, brain and its funtioning

History of BLoA
       

Medical model continued......................... E.g. Anorexia is caused by damage to hypothalamus may result in loss appetite Or genes Sz caused by excess dopmaine This means that psychological symptoms are treated physically E.g. history labotaomy Now more humane drug therapy Or less humane ECT

General learning outcome 1


 Outline

principles that define the BLoA  Command term 1

General learning outcome 2


 Explain

how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research  Command term 2

Priniciple 1


Cognitions, emotions, and behaviours are products of our anatomy and physiology or our nervous system and endocrine system

Communications in the nervous system (principle 1)


       

Neurons: ..a nerve is a bundle of neurons Chemical transmission: ..occurs at the synapses Synapses: .. release neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter: .. can be excitory or inhibitory

Principle 1
Common neurotransmitters are dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, GABA  Nervous system affects behaviour by secreting hormones  E.g. i.e. released during stress


Principle 1
 For

example  Fava et al ( 89)  Found changes in serotonin & noradrenalin in anorexics

Priniciple 2:
2. patterns of behaviour can be inherited
  

Genes .. are found on chromosomes If you inherit physical features from parents, you must also inherit psychological

Assumption 2 cont .
     

Assumed we inherit psychological problems E.g. p 7 Heston ( 66) study of genetics and schizophrenia Genetics strongly linked with bipolar depression Evolutionary theory .common phobias have a genetic basis, as they were the things that harmed us years ago & evolutionary theory of sleep

Holland et al ( 88)
Aim: Are MZ pairs more likely to develop anorexia?  N = 34 twins  1 of the pair had anorexia  Method: natural experiment  Procedure: genetic relatedness by blood group analysis or physical resemblance questionnaires  Findings: MZ: 56% DZ: 7%  Conclusion: Could be genetic vulnerability for psychiatric illnesses


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General learning outcome 3


how and why particular research methods are used in the biological LoA. LoA.  Command term 3
 Discuss

Psychosurgery Lesioning
     

Invasive (involves invading the brain) Cutting connections in brain This destroys a function of the brain Changes in behaviour are recorded Normally performed on nonnon- humans E.g. study conducted where parts of hypothalamus were removedremoved- let to rats eating more

Ablations


Area of the brain is removed completely Only conducted on non- humans non-

(+) Hetherington et al
Research method: lesioning  Lesioned lower, central part of hypothalamus  ...... This part was called ventromedial nucleus (VMN)  Found: ate to up to 3 times body weight


Evaluation of psychosurgery
       

(+) Can use non- humans, indication of what parts of the brain nonare responsible for what function (+) Non- humans, cheap, easily obtainable, ethical Non(-) . But can we generalise findings to humans? just because we have the same features, it doesn t mean they perform the same function (-) Animals are under stress at being confined, may alter physiology (-) Animal ethics- do the costs outweigh the findings? ethics(-) Animals can t tell us what they really think, findings are therefore based on interpretation (unreliable) (-) Can t be 100% sure primary cause has been located

Methods used in studying genetics


   

Correlational techniques Measures the strength of a relationship between 2+ co- variables coPositive correlation: both variables increase together Negative correlation: 1 variable increases the other decreases

Correlational technique Twin studies


  

  

Mz (Monozygotic): 100% same genes Dz (Dizoygotic): 50% same Dizoygotic): genes Concordance rate established when a correlational test has been performed Compare a variable in one twin with the other twin Concordance rate= probability rate E.g. of schizophrenia, eating disorders, intelligence

Twin studies
 See

earlier study on Anorexia  Summarise Minnesota Twin study p54p54-55

Evaluation of twin studies




 

 

(+) Have produced lots of data indicating nature & nurture s important (-) Small, bias samples (-) Mz twins maybe treated more similarly than Dz twins (-) Can t establish cause & effect (-) Lack of control over extraneous variables

General learning outcome 4


ethical considerations related to research studies at the BLoA  Need to be able to evaluate ethical issues (BPS guidelines and social implications) of at least 4 studies
 Discuss

Animal ethics


Do the findings (application to humans) outweigh the ethical costs (to the animal)? (+) Non- humans, Noncheap, easily obtainable, ethical (-) Animal ethics- do ethicsthe costs outweigh the findings?

BPS guidelines
        

Must work within the laws of protecting animals Must have suitable caging Must be cared for by fully trained staff Must decided benefits outweigh costs & justifies procedure Animals should only be used from reputable suppliers Alternatives must be considered Different animals suffer different levels of pain, should consider when choosing species Surgical & stressful procedures are only allowed if hold Home Office Licence Endangered species should not be used

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Moral implications of genetic research (ethics to the person)




  

(-) Lowered self- esteem b/c told that got a gene that has undesirable selfcharacteristics i.e. low intelligence, schizophrenic, gay , alcoholic . Could affect the person s outlook on life & whether or not they fulfil their full potential can generally affect mental health & well being (-) deterministic: fixed can t change it . So going to like it for the rest of your life .. Implications from treatment (i.e. anorexic counselling wouldn t work, AA wouldn t work (this is a social implications too) therefore not giving the individual the opportunity to recover (+) Takes away the blame from the person for their disorder i.e. schizophrenia, therefore, is more positive for the individual as it is not seen as their fault they have the problem . (-) means the individual won t take responsibility for it (i.e. (alcoholism) and may use as a excuse not to stop (+) can be useful for screening vulnerability for certain illnesses i.e. cancer, heart disease so giving people the right treatment early (-) but this can further affect finances i.e. chances of getting a mortgage, life insurance
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Social implications of genetic research (ethics/ pros and cons for society)


 

 

SFP: people might for example be told they have a low IQ, they then take on this label, they start failing tests etc, thus communicating they have low IQ s to others and hence getting treated as though they have. Discrimination: behavioural change towards somebody because of their genetic makemake- up i.e. treating somebody who carries the gay gene as though they are in fact homosexual Prejudice: assuming e.g. people from different races are intelligent or thick because they belong to that race . Could encourage segregation in schools between races and reinforcing difference between groups Could lead to people with low IQ s underachieving and this low IQ label could stick with the person/ people for the rest of their lives: stigmatisation Genetic screening could lead to the prevention of treatments for certain individuals; as there s no point in treating them i.e. for aggressive behaviour/ depression/ phobias/ alcohol addiction because they will never change as it s genetically predetermined Designer babies Genetic screening: can be used to prevent illnesses

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Specific learning outcome learning outcome 5


and behaviour  Explain one study related to localisation of brain function  Command term 2  Watch pinky and the brain
 Physiology

Student activity
 Cauliflower  In

activity

pairs  Using the handout label the cauliflower  Use toothpicks and post it notes

Brain localisation p 43


   

Localization of functions in the brain can be described as how different parts of the brain carry out different functions. Examples are language, memory, movement Broca (1861) Found that damage to the frontal lobe affected speech He found stroke victims Had problems with grammargrammar- became known as Broca area.

One study: Raine et al


Don t use Phineas Gage DO NOT USE PHINEAS GAGE IN TEXTBOOK...... It is too old and not a great study  http://www.holah.karoo.n et/raine.htm  Use this link to summarise the study


Raine

Raine s results: left: control, right: murderer

Any ethical issues of Raine s study?

Quiz on Raine study


 http://www.holah.karoo.net/rainemulti.

htm  Raine s web page  http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~raine/ http://www http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes /if/4102371.stm  BBC article on Raine

Learning outcome 10
the use of brain imaging technologies  Command term 3
 Discuss

Brain scanning page 44- 45 44         

CAT: X- ray moves around head Slides of brain at work Computer puts together slides PET: Radioactive tracers used Puts together slices of brain MRI & NMR: Uses magnetic fields & radio waves for image of brain E.g. Raine s study

Evaluation of brain scanning


Useful for detecting causes of illness Useful in understanding states of awareness Causes no permanent damage Tend to be accurate ReliableReliable- can be repeated Relies on interpretation Expensive & lack of availability

EEG (Electrophalogram) (Electrophalogram)


      

NonNon- invasive MicroMicro- electrodes are attached to scalp Detects electrical activity in parts of the brain EOG (Electroculogram) Measures activity in eyes EMG (Electromyogram) Measures muscle activity

Evaluation of EEG
 (+)

Useful in understanding states of awareness  (-) . but can t tell us much about precise regions of the brain  (+) Non- invasive- few ethical problems Non- invasive (-) EEG may change electrical activity in brain

Specific learning outcome 6


 Using

one or more examples, explain the effects of neurotransmitters on human behaviour  Command term 2

neurotransmitters
   

 

Dopmaine: Dopmaine: ........ Inhibitory.... Linked to learning, arousal, pleasure (euphoria). Noradrenaline: ........ Excitatory.... Linked to emotions and acts as a hormone to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system Serotonin: ........ Inhibitory.... Linked to sleep, arousal, emotions.

dopamine
 

 

High levels of dopamine is linked to schizophrenia Sz drugs used block dopamine receptors at synapses suggest due to excessive dopamine in the brain & post- mortems show high postdopamine levels in Sz

Dopamine and Sz


(+) symptoms worsened by amphetamines these activate dopamine (Angrist (Angrist et al, 74, van Kammen at al , 91, 82)

Serotonin and depression


Low levels of serotonin is linked to clinical depression  Serotonin is correlated with emotions  (+) Delgardo et al ( 00)  Found abnormal levels of noradrenaline & serotonin in major depressed patients.


Noradrenaline and depression


Depression also linked to noradrenaline  (+) Janowsky  Pp ts that were given a drug that decreased noradrenaline levels became extremely depressed.


Serotonin/ noradrenaline & anorexia




Fava et al ( 89) Found changes in serotonin & noradrenalin in anorexics

Evaluation point (s)


There is just a link between these neurotransmitters and behaviour  We can not establish cause and effect as the data collected is correlational  ... Just shows a link between i.e. Sz and dopamine  In addition... Does the disorder cause the neurotransmitters to be abnormal or is it the neurotransmitters that cause the abnormal behaviour?


Specific learning outcome 7


 Using

one or more examples, explain the functions of 2 hormones in human behaviour

The effect of adrenaline on arousal/ fight or flight response


The sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system  The adrenal medulla (part of the adrenal glands).... Secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline  These hormones promote physiological arousal as prepares body for the flight or flight response  Have increased alertness, energy, blood flow to the muscles, increased heart beat, breathing, reduced activity in digestive system, increased release of blood clotting systems to stop intense bleeding in case you get injured.


The effects of adrenaline are...


       

Have increased alertness, energy, blood flow to the muscles, increased heart beat, breathing, reduced activity in digestive system, increased release of blood clotting systems to stop intense bleeding in case you get injured, Increase in blood pressure

(+) Ax ( 53)
 Found

adrenaline is associated with certain emotions  i.e. Stress and fear

Second hormone: melatonin


 High

levels makes you sleep  Argued high levels is linked with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Circadian rhythms
 Repeats

itself once  E.g. sleep/ wake cycle  Controlled by activating neurotransmitters e.g. noradrenaline, serotonin in cycles  & hormones: melatonin

Internal (endogenous) stimuli


     

Cells in the hypothalamus produces circadian rhythms from light levels These light levels are received by the retina Cells (in hypothalamus) regulate melatonin production Increases in melatonin = decrease in arousal Darkness causes pineal gland to secrete melatonin Daylight inhibits production

Role of melatonin
    

High levels makes you sleep Low levels awake Secreted when dark Peaks in the middle of the night .... Decreases towards the morning

Evidence (+)
    

Rosenthal ( 87) Link between high levels of melatonin and SAD (seasonal affective disorder) SAD: feel sleepy and lethargic .. Also crave carbs ... Also evidence in support that people that live in Scandinavia get SAD.... As is dark for month in winter

(+) Evidence: Danilenko ( 94)


 Researchers

have found that this system is disrupted in people with SAD.  SAD patients were compared with healthy controls  found that the SAD patients had consistently higher daytime melatonin levels during the winter months  Argued this is what causes SAD

Specific learning outcome 9


 Discuss

two effects of the environment on physiological processes

Stress and physiology


    

An emotion State of tension and physiological arousal caused by a stressor Stressor is a demand These can be physical or psychological and threaten physical or psychological well- being wellStress response: innate, defensive reaction, response: promotes survival

The physiological response to stress


theory 2:General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)  Selye 1936 p 224- 225 224

1 Alarm reaction
     

Prepares animal to respond to a demand H- P- A axis activated, sympathetic branch ANS aroused Breathing, hear rate, blood pressure etc. increases Release hormones, adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucocorticoids Ready for fight or flight as stess Inquiry exercise: Google the above hormones

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The alarm reaction (physiological response)


Stressor  Hypothalamus



(Produces hormones with stimulates)

Produces CRF




Pituitary gland
Secretes ACTH: stimulates




Adrenal glands
Secretes steroids

(Master gland, directs endocrine system) Adrenal cortex


Secretes cortisol

Adrenal Medulla  Arousal ANS








Secretes adrenaline/ noradrenalin

Liver releases stored glucose


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or Flight

Health Psychology Yr 13 Unit 5b 2008

Stage 2 of GAS: Resistance


 Body

must adapt whilst chemicals produced to bring body back to normal (homeostasis)  While coping with stressor  Hormones produced at a lower level

as stess

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Stage 3 GAS: Exhaustion


 Resources

become exhausted  Shows effects of prolonged resistance to stressor  Psychosomatic illness (panic attacks)  Immune system collapses

as stess

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Evaluation of the stress and the physiological response


Made up of: white blood cells (leucocytes)- including (leucocytes)T- cells  which multiply to respond to infection  Adrenalin inhibits production





Common cold: supporting evidence (+)

Cohen et al  High stressed participants were 2x likely to develop common colds than low stressed  Hence it appears that stress has a negative effect on health and the body s physiology.
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Stress & Ulcers


Brady s Executive monkeys  Supporting evidence (+)  Died of ulcers caused by stress rather than shocks  Most damage- rest periods damage Shows that the immune system is influence by stressful situations  Stress increases hydrochloric acid in the body  and reduces gastrointestincal tract  which causes ulcers are this study demonstrates.
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Homework activity
 Evaluate

Brady s monkeys  1) according to generalisability issues  2) ecological validity (in real life psychology studies are not made up of a sample of monkeys, and the way tested stress is unrealistic (i.e. Shocks) of everyday life  3) animal ethics

Stress and the immune system


     

Supporting evidence KiecoltKiecolt- Glaser et al ( 84) N = 75 1st yr medical student volunteers Findings: T- cell activity significantly lower during exams TLowestLowest- most lonely & depressed/ anxious Implies that during stressful periods immune functioning is lowered, and this supports GAS b/c it shows that the exhaustion stage may correct. If a study agrees with the theory it means that the theory is valid (accurate in what it is saying- so GAS is correct in saying sayingthat the immune system is effected by prolonged stress). It is also reliable, as it has supporting evidence which makes the theory consistent, hence reliable
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Evaluation of the physiological theories:


  

Reductionism (-) studies just show a link; can t establish cause and effect bad b/c don t know if illness is cause of stress or the result of it,... Can t control this so it makes conclusions impossible (-) other indirect factors can effect health i.e. smoke more when stressed, take drugs etc... etc... Which are social aspects of stress... So makes HPAA invalid (inaccurate)
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Evaluation of the physiological theories:


 

Reductionism (-) individual differences in stress i.e. personality type, differences in secretion of stress hormones... So makes HPAA invalid... And not generalisable to everyone

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Second effect: Jet lag


  

 

Circadian rhythms expect one time of day but body s faced with different time of day so your sleep- wake cycle sleepin drastically changed therefore our internal body clocks have become desynchronised Jet lag causes physiological problems . Because we have to adjust different zeitgeber e.g. time differences

Jet lag continued


 So

your body passes through a 24 hour cycle every day... From day to night  But when you travel it is expected to catch up quickly  It has to re- establish itself re-

Jet lag cont.....




 

Consequences being: fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, insomnia, low energy levels (much similar to shift work) WestWest- east = lose time EastEast- west = delay body clock as you are chasing the sun . Implications for cabin crews/ pilots

Jet lag cont....


 

  

Secretion of melatonin reaches a peak during the night After a long- haul flight the circadian rhythm of the longsleepsleep- wake (internal body clock)..... Stays locked in the home country for a few days So tired in the day and can t sleep at night So jet lagged .... Also appetite is erratic i.e. Hungry at night and not in the day

Schwartz (95)
      

A study of American baseball teams 1 team- East coast team1 team- West coast team2 hour time difference between locations F: The West coast team lost significantly more away games in the East, compared to the East coast team when they were playing the West due to the direction of travel

Harma et al (1994 a. b) & Suvanto et al ( 93)


      

N = 40 female ppt s 4 day flight, crossed 10 time zones F: ppt s sleepy for 4 days Poor sleep ReturnedReturned- resumed quickly Attention/ cognitive skills controlled endogenous rhythm Body temp & melatonin desynchronised

How to reduce the effects of jet lag


  

Take melatonin tablets do this a few days before you travel it resets the SCN

Evidence on melatonin tablets to reduce jet lag




   

(+) jet lagged volunteers who took melatonin reported feeling less jet lagged than ppt s that were given a placebo (-) Evidence against Spitzer ( 99) 257 Norwegian doctors travelled to New York for 5 days and back F: 63% still had jet lag when they returned

Evaluation of jet lag as an effect on physiological processes



    

Reductionsm
(-) Melatonin- helps body clock adjust, don t know how it works Melatoninexactly (-) Many factors associated with jet lag not just due to sleep deprivation I.s. Stress of travelling & general stress levels, how much alcohol consumed on plane, diet, dehydration, sleep deprivation (-) doesn t effect everyone all the time... Individual differences in the effects of jet lag More likely to effect those that have regular sleep patterns

Evaluation of jet lag


  

(+) Social implications: Advice on how to reduce the effects of jet lag i.e. Melatonin tablets, stay awake until it is dark in new destination, don t fall asleep when internal body clock suggests (-) Could be because of diet- not much dietevidence

Learning outcome 10
 Examine

the interaction between cognition and physiological in terms of behaviour  Evaluate 2 studies

Amnesia
interaction we will be focusing on is amnesia and physiology  The 2 studies we will be evaluating are Clive Wearing and HM
 The

Amnesia
Amnesia: Amnesia: the inability to learn new information or retrieve information that has been already stored in memory  Anterograde amnesia... can t form any new amnesia... memories after accident/ damage  ... So can t form any new long term memories (LTM)  Retrograde amnesia... Can t remember incidents before the trauma..... Like when you have concussion can t remember what happened before you hit your head.


Anterograde amnesia
     

The multi- store model argues that STM and LTM are multidistinct That there are these 2 memory stores. ... And they are distinct from in other (in different parts of the brain) So if have brain damages one store may be affected and the other not. Anterograde amnesia is caused by transfer information from STM to LTM & retrieval problems from LTM

Retrograde amnesia
   

Caused by head injuries, ECT, carbon monoxide poisoning, stress. STM is in tact ..... Retrograde amnesia is caused by a disruption to consolidation Consolidation: when new information is in LTM but needs time to be physically placed into the brain.

Amnesia cont...
 Amnesia

can be caused by an infection (Clive Wearing)  Brian injury  Alcohol abuse  Google Korsakoff s syndrome

homework
 Evaluate

Clive Wearing and HM case studies of brain damaged patients.

Learning outcome 11
 Genetics

and behaviour  With reference to relevant research studies to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour?

Genes and behaviour


    

Argued that if we inherit our physical characteristics must also inherit psychological i.e. Sz, An, depression, personality, intelligence etc. Nature side of nature nurture debate Behaviour is fixed and can t be changed due to genes Uses twin studies/ family studies (correlations)

You research one area


Genes and? The extent that they are linked with.......  Anorexia  Phobias  Evaluate using nurture theories


Genetics and psychological disorders


 Medical

model of abnormality argues psychological disorders are linked to genes  E.g. Sz linked to chromosomes 6 & 13  Anorexia: Twin studies show on average 50% concordance rates in Mz twins

Schizophrenia and genetics

  

Cognition lacks emotion Psychosis Rate: 1% all cultures & countries (supports genetic cause)

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Symptoms of Sz
Positive symptoms 1. Thought disturbance  Hallucinations, delusions, disorganised thinking (slip of track from a topic/ strange words used) 2. Negative symptoms  Withdrawal, apathy, reduced ,motivation, flattened & inappropriate affect
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Symptoms of Sz cont ..

3. Psychomotor disturbances  Cataonia: immobility, bizarre statues Cataonia:  Sterotypy: rocking Sterotypy:  Frenetic activity: strange grimaces 4. Language impairment  Repeated sounds, inventing words

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(+) Supporting evidence


    

Twin studies (+) Gottesman ( 91) Summarised 40 studies (large number) Concordance rate 48% Mz and 17% Dz Implies large genetic component

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Evaluation of twin studies


    

(-) Generalisability: not everyone is a twin... Maybe different findings for non- twins non(-) Kamin ( 74) small samples, twins normally spend a lot of time together Validity: (-) Should be 1.00 concordance rate in (genetic lower = significant environmental component (-) Correlation, one doesn t cause the other to happen, could be 3rd factor involved e.g. Environment

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(+) Adoption studies


      

Tienari ( 91) Compared 155 adopted children who s mums were Sz to ...... 155 control (mums not Sz) Sz mum group 10.3% developed Sz in adulthood Compared to 1.1% control Implies some genetic cause . But not a huge influence . Maybe environment i.e. family arguments, stress played a part

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Family studies
       

(+) Gottesman ( 91) Reviewed concordance rates Both parents Sz 46% chance Sz 1 parents 16% chance Siblings 80% Random 1% Kendler et al ( 85) 1st degree relative Sz 18x more likely to develop disorder
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Against genetics Social cultural LOA Social causation hypothesis


 SzSz

lower social class more stressful so more vulnerable to

Sz  Low level of education  Lack of rewards  So life experiences is the cause of Sz


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Supporting evidence for social causation hypothesis


   

(+) evidence Sz lower social class b/c suffer more stress (+) Sz twice as high in the lowest social class than the middle class (+) supported by cross- cultural studies in crossU.K, Denmark, Norway (Kohn, 68) (+) Brown and Birley (1968) found evidence that stress is associated with the onset of schizophrenia; stressful life events may precipitate the condition in vulnerable individuals (genetically vulnerable).
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(-) Nurture argument Social cultural LoA: LoA: Double bind theory
Caused by poor communication in families Parents give out mixed messages Confuses child Laing (quote): it s a sane response to a disordered environment (+) Mischler et al ( 68) Observed mums F: mum s of Sz daughters were unresponsive compared to normal daughters  (-) Can t establish cause & effect- Sz causes poor effectcommuincation or vice versa
       
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DiathesisDiathesis- stress model


 Genetic

predisposition combined with .  Stress i.e. environment

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Evaluation of genetics and Sz


 Approach  ( -)

contradicted by nurture approaches

Evaluation of genetics and Sz


 Reductionism  Reduced

all disorders down to biological cause & functioning  ignores other (nurture) causes  (-) Since there is a concordance rate of only 50% in MZ twins, this implies factors other than genetics are important.

A02 cont
  

Social implications (-)Labelling (-) implies Sz is fixed and can t be changed

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Learning outcome 13
 Discuss

ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour

Moral implications of genetic research




(-) Lowered self- esteem b/c told that got a gene that has undesirable selfcharacteristics i.e. low intelligence, schizophrenic, gay , alcoholic . Could affect the person s outlook on life & whether or not they fulfil their full potential can generally affect mental health & well being

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Moral implications
 (+)

Takes away the blame from the person for their disorder i.e. schizophrenia, therefore, is more positive for the individual as it is not seen as their fault they have the problem  . (-) means the individual won t take (responsibility for it (i.e. alcoholism) and may use as a excuse not to

Moral implications
 (+)

can be useful for screening vulnerability for certain illnesses i.e. cancer, heart disease so giving people the right treatment early  (-) but this can further affect finances i.e. chances of getting a mortgage, life insurance

Moral implications
 ( -)

deterministic: fixed can t change it . So going to like it for the rest of your life .. Implications from treatment (i.e. anorexic counselling wouldn t work, AA wouldn t work (this is a social implications too) therefore not giving the individual the opportunity to recover or stop.

Social implications of genetic research


 Discrimination:

behavioural change towards somebody because of their genetic make- up i.e. treating makesomebody who carries the gay gene as though they are in fact homosexual

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Social implications


 

(-) Genetic screening could lead to the prevention of treatments for certain individuals; as there s no point in treating them i.e. for aggressive behaviour/ depression/ phobias/ alcohol addiction because they will never change as it s genetically predetermined (-) Designer babies (+) Genetic screening: can be used to prevent illnesses

Social implications


(-) SFP: people might for example be told they have a low IQ, they then take on this label, they start failing tests etc, thus communicating they have low IQ s to others and hence getting treated as though they have. (-) Prejudice: assuming e.g. people from different races are intelligent or thick because they belong to that race . Could encourage segregation in schools between races and reinforcing difference between groups (-) Could lead to people with low IQ s underachieving and this low IQ label could stick with the person/ people for the rest of their lives: stigmatisation

Genetics and intelligence (optional)


Nature  Intelligence is genetic  IQ tests measure intelligence this way  Twin studies

       

McGue et al ( 81) Reviewed studies, concordance rates Mz 0.85 Dz 0.58 Shields ( 62) Compared MZ IQ s Reared together or apart Concordance rates Mz together 0.77, Mz apart 0.76
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Adoption studies
      

Skeels et al ( 49) N = 100 adopted children & natural mum s Age 4- IQ correlation 0.28 4Age 13- 0.44 13Effects environment seem to decrease with age Implies that nature is more important than nurture (-) Adoptions tend to 6be KED made to similar NW Unit 2007 environments

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(-) against the role of genetics: nurture arguments


   

Adoption studies Scarr et al ( 77) Adopted average higher IQ s (10- 20 points), (10than natural parents (-) Adoptive families tend to be wealthier & better educated, exaggerates environmental influences (+) Early adopted do better than late, suggests environments important
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Diet
 

Benton et al ( 91) IQ scores increased by 7.6 when children were given vitamins rather than placebos
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Enrichment
 Operation

Head Start  IQ s increased at first, but short lived  If IQ s were genetically fixed enrichment programmes wouldn t work

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Genetics & intelligence


     

BurtBurt- IQ 80% genetic Justified 11+ exams Selection naturally bright for jobs Special education at an early age Immigration USA Countries low IQ, sterilizedsterilizedprevent spreading low intelligence to society Later research, 50% inherited intelligence
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Genetic research & intelligence


1.

  2.

Majority early research on intelligence was politically motivated by genetic beliefs .. & carried out by nature biased researchers AimAim- to control selection Based on poorly controlled studies & ethnocentric IQ tests

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Learning outcome 13
 Discuss

ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour

The moral & social implications of genetic research & behaviour


1.

Assumption, most behaviour has a genetic basis  Debate- how strong these Debateinfluences are  Conclusions based on misinterpretation of findings

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Moral implications of genetic research




  

(-) Lowered self- esteem b/c told that got a gene that has undesirable selfcharacteristics i.e. low intelligence, schizophrenic, gay , alcoholic . Could affect the person s outlook on life & whether or not they fulfil their full potential can generally affect mental health & well being (-) deterministic: fixed can t change it . So going to like it for the rest of your life .. Implications from treatment (i.e. anorexic counselling wouldn t work, AA wouldn t work (this is a social implications too) therefore not giving the individual the opportunity to recover (+) Takes away the blame from the person for their disorder i.e. schizophrenia, therefore, is more positive for the individual as it is not seen as their fault they have the problem . (-) means the individual won t take responsibility for it (i.e. (alcoholism) and may use as a excuse not to stop (+) can be useful for screening vulnerability for certain illnesses i.e. cancer, heart disease so giving people the right treatment early (-) but this can further affect finances i.e. chances of getting a mortgage, life insurance
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Social implications of genetic research


 

 

 

SFP: people might for example be told they have a low IQ, they then take on this label, they start failing tests etc, thus communicating they have low IQ s to others and hence getting treated as though they have. Discrimination: behavioural change towards somebody because of their genetic makemake- up i.e. treating somebody who carries the gay gene as though they are in fact homosexual Prejudice: assuming e.g. people from different races are intelligent or thick because they belong to that race . Could encourage segregation in schools between races and reinforcing difference between groups Could lead to people with low IQ s underachieving and this low IQ label could stick with the person/ people for the rest of their lives: stigmatisation Genetic screening could lead to the prevention of treatments for certain individuals; as there s no point in treating them i.e. for aggressive behaviour/ depression/ phobias/ alcohol addiction because they will never change as it s genetically predetermined Designer babies Genetic screening: can be used to prevent illnesses

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Learning outcome 12
 Examine

one evoluntionary explanation of behaviour  Command term 3:  Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue

Evolutionary psychology
 Social

behaviour is caused by evolution  .... Controlled by genes

Features of evolutionary psychology


    

People are different because of their genes There is competition between people for scarce resources Survival of the fittest.... Fittest are most likely to reproduce People are favoured over others i.e. Naturally selected to reproduce Environmental change means that new characteristics (i.e. Behaviours) are being selected

Evolutionary theory of anorexia


 Years

ago when people were migrating when their food ran out they instinctively moved to another place  When food is scarce and starvation begins, most animals and people demonstrate intense hunger, low activity levels and a single-minded singlesearch for food.

Evolutionary theory of anorexia


 Anorexics

are different  individuals with a genetic tendency toward anorexia feel sated, full of energy and unfazed by starvation (DSM-IV) (DSM (Shan Guisinger, 09) Guisinger,

Evolutionary theory of anorexia


 

Years ago.. When food was scarce those that could fight hunger may have become leaders Guisinger argues that this ancient adaptation, which was likely an advantage at the time, today continues to cause anorexia in people who have a genetic predisposition to it.

Evolutionary theory of anorexia


   

Starvation is an adaptive response to stress Anorexia is linked to girls who are maturing earlier So detailed maturation by not eating as causes amenorrehea Another argument is that anorexia delays reproduction in females who may have difficulties having children So delays reproduction until better prepared to carry a baby.

Evaluation of evolutionary explanation of anorexia


    

Approach (-) contradicted by nurture approaches E.g. SLT says that Anorexia is caused by modelling i.e. Imitate skinny models/ celebrities in the media Contradicts so makes evolutionary theory unreliable and invalid

Evaluation of evolutionary explanation of anorexia


 Reductionism  ( -)

does not explain male anorexia, which is on the increase.  .... As males do not need to delay maturation or reproducing  ..... Only can explain female anorexia which makes it reductionist

Evaluation of evolutionary explanation of anorexia


 

 

Evidence (-) impossible to find supporting evidence for.... How do we test for an anorexic evolutionary gene? Makes the approach unscientific as it can t be tested through rigorous scientific techniques & if it is caused by the past how can we test for this?

Cultural differences in anorexia


 This

contradicts evolutionary theory as anorexia rates should be the same across cultures