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M.

Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011


Last Lecture:
Wave Equation
Interference

Todays Lecture
diffraction
Beam Optics
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Diffraction
When light passes through aperture, it spreads out, its
intensity distribution changes due to diffraction.
aperture
Int. profile
For rectangular aperture of height D
x
and width D
y
I (x,y) = I
o
sinc
2
d
x

x
D
d x
y Dy


sinc
2
First zero occurs at x = + d/D
x
; y = + d/D
y

M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Gratings
Gratings are multiple slits
Grating equation
Gratings are used for wavelength separation
beam splitter
beam reflector
reflection
( ) u u m d
i d
= sin sin
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Diffraction
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
2-D Micromachined Periodical Structure
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011


Diffraction Pattern of 2-D Micromachined Sample
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Butterfly Image
SPONSOR: ALCOA Corp. & CIT
d
m
Sin Sin
d i

u u = +
( ) u
2
1
- m or cos 2 m d n
f f
=
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
SEM Micrograph
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
SEM Micrograph
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
TEM Image of Crossection
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Multilayer thin-film interference
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Paraxial Waves
Waves with wavefront normals making small angles with
the z axis are called paraxial waves. Important solution
of paraxial Helmholtz equation is Gaussian beam
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Gaussian Beam
Helmholtz Equation
Solution (1) Plane wave

(2) Spherical wave

(3) Paraxial wave

( ) ( ) , 0
2 2
= + V r U k r U
( )
jkz
Ae r U

=
( )
jkr
e
r
A
r U

=
( ) ( )
jkz
e r A r U

=
k=2/c
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
(Gaussian Beam Parameters)

( )
2 / 1
2
0
0
1
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
z
z
W z W
( )
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
0
1
z
z
z z R
( )
0
1
tan
z
z
z

= ,
2 / 1
0
0
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
z
W
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(

+
(


= ) (
2
exp exp
2
2
2
0
0
z j
z R
jk
jkz
z W z W
W
A r U ,

(Complex Amplitude of
Gaussian Beam )
W
0
is waist radius, 2W
0
is spot
size
Z
0
is Rayleigh length and


2
= x
2
+y
2

M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Gaussian Beam Properties
I. Intensity
( ) ( )
2
r U r I =
as a function of axial (z)
and radial distance()
( )
( ) ( )
(

=
z W z W
W
I z I
2
2
2
0
0
2
exp ,

, 0 =
( )
( )
2
0
0
2
0
0
1
, 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

=
z
z
I
z W
W
I z I
at
0
5 . 0 I I =
at
0
z z =
86% Power in
) (
2 2 2
y x + =
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
II. Power
Power contained in circle of radius
0

( ) ( )
}

= =
0
2
0 0

2
1
2 , W I d z I P t t
( )
( )
}
(
(

=
0
0
2
2
0
2
exp 1 2 ,
1


t
z W
d z I
P
( ) z W =
0

Power contained within a circle of radius


Is about 86% of total power
Beam power = Peak intensity. Area
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Beam Radius
Dependence of beam radius on z
( )
2 / 1
2
0
0
1
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
z
z
W z W
minimum value
0
W
in plane
0 = z
0
2W
spot size
,
0
z z =
at
( )
0
2W z W =
( ) z z
z
W
z W
0
0
0
u = =
0
z z >>
for
0
0
W t

u =

t
2
0
0
2
2
W
z =
depth of focus
exercise 31-1
Beam
waist
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Light is an Electromagnetic wave and propagates
In the form coupled electric field wave and magnetic
Field wave. EM field is described by electric field
and magnetic field
I. Maxwells equations in free space
Electric and magnetic fields in free space satisfy
Maxwells equations:

Where and are electric permittivity and
permeability of free space
= conductivity

Electromagnetic Optics
( ) t r,
( ) t r, H
0
c
0

o
(constants).
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011





Maxwells Equations in free space
t
H
c
c
= V
0
x
0 = V
0 = V H
t
x
c
c
= V

c
0
H
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Wave Equation
from vector algebra
so,
wave equation
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
V = V V
t
x x x
H
0

( )
2
0 V V V = V V x x
( ) H x
t
V
c
c
= V
0
2

2
2
0 0 0 0
2
t t t c
c
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+ = V

c

c
2
2
2
2
1
t C c
c
= V

M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011


Wave Equation (cont)
1. Each component of satisfied above

2. Principle of superposition applies i.e. if two sets
of are solutions then their sum is also a
solution

M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011


Maxwells equation in a medium
t
x
D
H
t
x
B

0 = V D
0 = V B
(Amperes)
(Faraday)
(Coulombs)
(Gausss)
in a medium
( ) t r, D
( ) t r, B
- electric flux density
- magnetic flux
density
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Maxwells equation in a medium (cont)
P + = c
0
D
M
0 0
+ = H B
In free space
0 = P
0 = M
H B
0
=
c
0
= D
-Polarization density (sum
of electric dipole moments)
-magnetization density
and
and can obtain free space easy
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Intensity
where P is Poynting vector
Power flow is along the direction of P i.e. orthogonal
to both and . The optical intensity is the
Magnitude of the time-averaged P.
Boundary conditions
(1) Tangential components of fields and
must be continuous at interface
(2) Normal components of and must
be continuous

H = P

H
D
B
M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011
Medium
(1) Linear if P is linearly related to
(2) Isotropic medium looks same in all directions
relationship between P and is in independent
of direction
(3) Homogenous relationship between P and is
independent of position
(4) Nondispersive if its response is instantaneous i.e.
P at t is determined by at t
So, form of Maxwells equation will depend upon the
type of medium.

M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011


M. Gupta, ECE 6501 (Photonics) Fall 2011