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When people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation and some unity

binds them together .This sense of collective belonging among the people came through the experience of united struggles.

In 1915,Mahtama Gandhi returned to India. He had come from South Africa where he successfully fought the racist regime. He decided to launch a struggle against discrimination and humiliation through SATYAGRAH. The idea of Satyagrah emphasized the power of truth against injustice.

It was the method of protest based on Truth and NonViolence. He believed that this method of Non-Violence could unite all Indians and can win a battle by appealing to the conscience of the oppressors or by using moral force. The three successful Satyagrah Movements in India were: CHAMPARAN IN BIHAR, 1916 KHEDA IN GUJARAT,1917 AHEMADABAD,1918

In 1919 Rowlatt Act was passed which was based on the basis of Rowlatt Commission. This Act was passed through Imperial Legislative Council despite opposition of the Indian members . Main features of this Act: It gave power to the government to put the people into jails without trials for two years. It gave power to government to repress political activities. It deprived the people of their civil rights.

Gandhi ji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagrah through Civil Disobedience against this Act. Many Indian members resigned from the Imperial Legislative Council . A Hartal was organized on 6th April ,1919. Rallies, agitation and meetings were organized in various cities. Workers went to strikes in railways workshops and many shops were closed. People started to use khadi .

On 12th April 1919 ,Martial Law was imposed and General Dyer took command. on 13th April 1919,crowd of villagers had come to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer and his troops attacked the peaceful gathering of villagers in the Jallianwala Bagh. He blocked all the exit points and ordered firing and about hundreds of innocent people were killed.

It aroused the fury of the Indians .There were strikes ,clashes with police and attacks on government buildings. British government replied with brutal repressions ,seeking to humiliate and terrorize people. This massacre marked a turning point in the history of the struggle for freedom and failed to crush the moral effect on the people. Gandhi ji decided to launch a broad based movements i.e. Khilafat and NonCooperation movement.

In 1920,at the Calcutta session two movement were joined together i.e. khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement against the government and to attain swaraj. A movement was launched all over the country and reduced the mistrust between Hindu and Muslims. Students left school & colleges , teacher resigned and lawyer gave up their legal practices. Foreign goods were boycotted and foreign cloth were burnt.

The new Tory government in Britain constituted a Commission under Sir John Simon. The Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India. All members of the commission were Britishers. It had no Indian member. When Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928,it was greeted with slogan Go back Simon .

On 31st Jan 1930,Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands, the most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate ,so Gandhiji started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers.

The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day . On 6th April ,he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law ,manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.

People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with British ,but also to break the colonial laws. Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law manufacturing salt They demonstrated it in front of the government salt factories. Foreign clothes were boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay the revenue.

Foreign clothes were boycotted and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay the revenue. Many leaders were arrested and newspapers were banned. The frightened government adopted harsh measures like firing and lathi charge. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked ,women and children beaten and about one lakh people were arrested.

In 1928,the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) was founded at Ferozeshah Kotla ground in Delhi. Amongst its leader was Bhagat Singh. In a series of dramatic actions in different parts of India ,the HSRA targeted some of the symbols of British powers. In April 1929,Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta threw bomb in the legislative assembly.

In the same year there was an attempt to blow up the train that Lord Irwin was travelling in. Bhagat Singh was 23 when he was tried and executed by the colonial government . During his trial ,Bhagat Singh stated that he did not wish to glorify the cult of the bomb and pistol but wanted a revolution in society.

Today india stands at a great place in world. India has 2nd fastest growing GDP in world. India have its own law and order. In india there are many successful businessmen like L N mittal , ambanis , vijay mallya etc. Now we are able to beat any country in every field. India is nationalised and liberlised country.