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Approaches to Systematic Study of IR Dunlops Industrial Relations System Dunlop (1981) defined industrial relations as a complex of inter-relationships among

managers, workers or their organisations & government agencies. These actors combine to create a complex of rules & practices, which ensure that they function together without constant conflict. The actors are:

a hierarchy of workers & their organisations, a hierarchy of managers & their associations, government agencies

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS - DUNLOPS MODEL


International Environment National Environment Value System Economic Factors
Government

Business Labour

Socio-political Factors

Technological Factors

Industrial Relations in India- Basic Characteristics


(1)

Indian unions are restricted to the organized sector - multiplicity political affiliations. Management styles differ greatly from sector to sector, multinationals, traditional private sector, public sector - age of units, technology & location also play a part in management styles. Excessive State intervention - major characteristic of the Indian IR system, although we can see signs of this decreasing, Although labour legislation is copious, there are major lacunae & important provisions are missing, such as clauses on recognition of unions or on collective bargaining. There are also restrictions on exit of labour. Disputes are varied although many of them still relate to wages, increasing diversity -although total numbers show a declining trend.

(2)

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Methods of settlement still dependent upon conciliation & adjudication, with voluntary arbitration playing an insignificant role. Collective bargaining, however, has been gaining popularity.

(7)

Still no specific or stated national policy on industrial relations & much of the governments interventions are ad hoc.
The attempts at a wage policy have fallen through & now not even attempts are being made to have any such policy. Heterogeneity of work force makes it difficult to generalize on the attitudes of either workers or managers

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No clear pattern in terms of industrial relations institutions. Collective bargaining has developed spontaneously without much statutory backing. Labour management cooperation, particularly through quality circles, have also emerged voluntarily.

Industrial Relations-Dimensions

Largest chunk of unorganized labour -mainly agricultural workers & cultivators including small & marginal farmers, badly in need of legal/social protection, remain left out from organized IR process.

Statistics reveal that out of 314 million employees in India 92% work in unorganized sector.
One sixth of the total population of the country are either unemployed or chronically under-employed. Millions of man-days lost due to work-stoppages caused by industrial disputes between workmen & employers. India records highest number of man-days lost & highest rate of absenteeism. Smooth IR helps public in general - Prices/Productivity/National Income

Collective Bargaining
It is a process through which labour & management agree over terms & conditions of work.

It is defined in some ILO publications as: "Negotiation about working conditions & terms of employment between employer, a group of employers or one or more employers' organizations, on the one hand & one or more representative workers' organizations on the other with a view to reaching agreement. For labour, it means the wages & benefits that will accrue to them & to management it signifies how work is to be done.

Lockout - refusal by the employer to provide opportunities to work

Strikes - withdrawal of labor Economic strike results from a failure to agree on the terms of a contract Unfair labor practice strikes protest -illegal conduct by the employer Wildcat strike - unauthorized strike occurring during the term of a contract Sympathy strike - one union strikes in support of the strike of another

Industrial Conflict-Nature & Causes


Denial of Rights-Legal & Contractual
(a)

Non-implementation of labour laws & regulations, standing orders, adjudication awards & so on. Violation of collective agreements, wage boards recommendations, customer rights & privileges & the like.

(b)

Industrial Relations - Major Issues Involved

Directly employment related- wages, dearness allowances, bonus, fringe benefits

Working conditions related- leave, working hours, health, safety & welfare;

Non-employment issues: job security, manning & employment impact of work changes

Personnel issues: discipline, promotional opportunities, recognition of trade unions.

Month-wise Number of Mandays Lost on Account of Work Stoppages in India


(2008 to 2010-upto February) Number of Mandays Lost on Account of Reasons Other than Industrial Disputes Month January February March April May June July August September October November December 2008 (P) 1183867 1289416 1110471 1203539 1105384 967459 964610 1327367 1349714 884854 1232969 4856044 2009 (P) 2010 (P) 248267 211423 Industrial Disputes 2008 (P) 581354 586406 561777 606471 619566 578429 548274 539367 553990 512922 546872 599432 2009 (P) 593828 580551 563183 564698 554777 562802 39569 26751 22771 10476 7206 2010 (P) 1750 4000 -

1078336 906250 1012079 410168 293006 409593 353316 473636 291744 355499 44825 40938

Disputes by Strikes, Lockouts and Gheraos in India


(1994 to 1998 and 2000 to 2009) Strikes Lockouts Gheraos

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008P 2009P$

Number 808 732 763 793 665 426 372 295 255 236 227 243 211 250 91

Workers Involved (' 000) 626 683 609 637 801 1044 489 900 1011 1903 2723 1712 611 -

Mandays Lost (' 000) 6651 5720 7818 6295 9349 11959 5563 9665 3206 4829 10801 5318 15163 7.02* 2.05*

Number 393 334 403 512 432 345 302 284 297 241 229 187 164 182 31

Workers Involved (' 000) 220 307 331 344 488 374 199 199 805 169 191 98 86 -

Mandays Lost (' 000) 14332 10570 12467 10738 12713 16804 18204 16921 27050 19037 18864 15006 12351 10.46* 0.84

Number 1 1 2 1 1 -

Workers Involved (' 000) @ @ 5 @ @ -

Mandays Lost (' 000) @ @ 5 @ -

Labour and Industrial Law


Industrial Employment ( Standing Order) Act, 1946 Payment of Wages Act, 1936 Apprentice Act, 1961 Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 Employees Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 Employee State Insurance Corporation Act, 1948 Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 Trade Union Act, 1926

Contract Labour ( Regulation & Abolition ) Act, 1970


Factories Act, 1948 Workmens Compensation Act, 1923