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TURBINE OVERHAULS

A.R.SAOJI, SE, NTC

IMPORTANCE OF O/H PLANNING


A detailed planning for Capital overhaul of turbine not only helps in timely completion of overhaul but also improves the quality of maintenance activities and thus ensures better performance of set. Pre Outage Survey

Measurement of bearing vibrations Performance of Governing system/ CVs Measurement of steam parameters/ Lub Oil temperatures Thermal expansions, differential expansions and axial shift etc Leakages of steams, water and oil

Abnormal noises, vibrations of components specially near couplings and bearing pedstals.

IMPORTANCE OF O/H PLANNING


JOB PLANNING SCOP OF WORKS DURATION OF CAPITAL MAINTENANCE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT T&P SPECIAL T&P CONSUMABLES INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING

EOT CRANE SITE STORES SAND & ASH BLASTING ARRANGEMENTS QUALITY CONTROL AND DOCUMENTATION CHECK LIST AND DOCUMENTATION SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS OTHER FACILITIES

OBSERVATIONS BEFORE SHUT DOWN


Defects of temporary & permanent nature Behaviour of machine at various loads Important parameters & vibration levels Coasting down period Governor characteristics

Above records will be given to maintenance engineer, who in turn has to pay special attention towards those problems & ensure the improvement of the machine after overhauls

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES
1-2
2-3 3-4 COOLING/ PREPARATION OF BOLY HEATING REMOVAL OF TURBINE GEAR & BARRING COVER CHECK RUN OUT AND LEVEL

4-5
5-6 6-7 7-8

CHECK BEARING CLEARANCES & INTERFERENCE


DECOUPLE TG TO CHECK ALIGNMENT DECOUPLE IP-LP & CHECK ALIGNMENT SLING CHECK

8-9
9-10

REMOVE HP-IP & LP UPPER CASING


REMOVE TOP LINERS AND SEAL HOUSINGS

10-11 CHECK THRUST FLOAT & BEARING 11-12 CHECK STEAM PATH CLEARANCES 12-13 REMOVE ROTORS 13-14 BOTTOM LINERS AND DIPHRAGMS 14-15 REMOVE HP STUDS OF HP-IP-LP CASING

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES15-16 CHEK HP CAPS OF HP-IP CASING 16-17 ALIGNMENT, CHECKING BEARING

CONTINUED-1

MATCHING

&

SLING

17-18 CENTERING OF DIPRAGMS 18-19 CHECK THERMAL CLEARANCES 19-20 ASSEMBLE THRUST BEARING AND CHECK FLOAT 20-21 CHECK STEAM FLOW PATH & DO SEAL CUTTING 21-22 BOX UP HP-IP & LP CYLINDERS 22-23 FINAL ALIGNMENT, INTERFERENCES OIL CLEARANCES &

23-24 SETTING OF BEARING FOR OIL FLUSHING 24-25 OIL FLUSHING 25-26 FINAL BOXING UP OF BEARINGS 26-27 CHECK INTERLOCKS & PROTECTIONS 27-28 TURNING GEAR OPERATION AND GOVERNING SETTINGS

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES02-29 DRAIN OIL

CONTINUED-2

29-30 CLEAN TANKS, FILTERS, OIL INJECTORS 30-24 FILL UP OIL

31-08 UNBOLT PARTING PLANE


09-32 OVERTURNING OF CASINGS 32-17 CLEANING OF CASINGS & P.P. MATCHING 10-33 BOX UP HP-IP & LP CYLINDERS

33-17

OVERTURNING OF TOP LINERS & DIPHRAGMS

14-34 SAND BLASTING OF BOTTOM DIAPHRAGMS

35-36 CHECKING BEARING CLEARANCES/LEVELS 36-37 ROCKER & HYDROGEN SEAL REMOVAL 37-38 REMOVAL OF END SHIELDS 38-39 CHECK AIR GAP 39-40 CHECK RUNOUT OF SEAL COLLAR 40-41 AIR TIGHTNESS TEST OF GENERATOR ROTOR

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES42-43 THREADING OUT OF ROTOR

CONTINUED-3

41-42 PREPARATION OF THREADING OUT ROTOR 43-44 INSPECT STATOR WDG & TIGHTNESS OF WEDGES

44-45 CLEAN, WARNISH & HEAT STATOR WINDING


45-46 CHECK I.R. VALUES 46-47 THREADING IN OF ROTOR 48-23 FINAL ASSEMBLY

36-49 DISMENTLING OF COOLERS


49-50 CLEANING & HYDRAULIC TEST OF COOLERS

50-51 ASSEMBLY OF COOLERS & PIPING 52-53 REMOVAL OF CROSS OVER PIPES 53-54 REMOVAL OF INSULATION 52-55 REMOVAL OF LINKAGES 55-56 REMOVAL OF RACK & CAM ARRANGEMENTS 56-57 DISMANTLING/REVISIONING OF GOV.SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES-

CONTINUED-4

57-24 ASSEMBLY OF GOVERNING SYSTEM 56-58 DISMANTLING & OVERHAULING OF E.S.V. 58-24 ASSEMBLY OF E.S.V. 56-59 DISMANTLING & OVERHAULING OF C.V.s

59-26 ASSEMBLY OF C.V.s


54-08 OPENING PIPE JOINT CONNECTED TO TOP CASING 22-60 HEAT TIGHTENING OF HP-IP 23-61 PICK UP SETTING

LMW (LENINGRAD M WORKS) & KWU (KRAFTWERKUNION) TURBINES

WORKING PRINCIPLE

When steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, it absorbs the kinetic energy at the cost of enthalpy (heat energy). This kinetic energy of steam is changed into mechanical energy when steam moves over the turbine blades. Motive force to the turbine is not produced due to static pressure of the steam or from any impact of the steam jet. The blades are so designed that the steam will glide on and off the blade without any tendency to strike it. When steam moves over the Rotor blades its direction is continuously changing and centrifugal pressure is exerted on the blade, normal to the blade surface at all the points. The total motive force acting on the blades is thus the resultant of all the centrifugal force plus the change of momentum. This causes the rotational motion of the blades.

TYPES OF TURBINE
According to the principle of action of the steam, turbine can be classified as:

a) Impulse Turbine b) Reaction Turbine

a) Impulse Turbine : The steam is expanded in the fixed nozzles. Thus the velocity of steam is increased at the cost of reduction in pressure. This high velocity steam moves over the rotor blade and imparts its kinetic energy to the rotor blade. No pressure drop takes place when steam glides over the blade.

TYPES OF TURBINE

b) Reaction Turbine : In this type pressure drops both in fixed as well as moving blades. In other words steam expands on both, fixed and moving blades. Fixed blades work as nozzles where as steam expansion on moving blade produces reaction. The expansion on moving and fixed blade is the result of the design of blade profile.

DEGREE OF REACTION
I0 - enthalpy of the steam at the entrance to the fixed blade. I1 - at the outlet of fixed blade which enters on the moving blade with the same enthalpy. I2 - is the enthalpy at the outlet of the moving blade.

Then the factor A is known as degree of Reaction.

I1 - I2 A= I0 - I2 If A < 0.5 then the turbine is known as Impulse turbine. If A > 0.5 then the turbine is a reaction Turbine.

COMPOUNDING
Steam velocity becomes very high if steam is allowed to expand in a single stage (single row of nozzle and blade). Hence the rotational speed of the turbine becomes very high and impracticable. So energy conversion of steam is done in number of steps to achieve the practicable desired speed of the turbine.

This is known as compounding.

TYPES OF COMPOUNDING
a) Velocity Compounding : In this type of compounding entire steam pressure drop takes place in one set of nozzle. The kinetic energy so converted in nozzle is utilised in number of row moving and guide blades. The role of guide blade is just to change the direction of steam jet and guide it to next row of moving blades. This types of turbine is also called curtis turbine.

B)

PRESSURE COMPOUNDING :

In place of single nozzle ring, numbers of nozzle ring arranged alternatively after moving in blade wheels. Thus instead of allowing the pressure drop in one step, It is done in no of steps. Steam is passed through one nozzle ring in which it is partially expanded. It then passes over the first moving blade wheel, where most of its velocity is absorbed. Then this steam passes through second nozzle ring. The velocity so obtained, is again absorbed by the second moving wheel and so on, the process is repeated till whole of the pressure is absorbed. This type of turbine is also called Rateors turbine after its Inventor.

C)

PRESSURE VELOCITY COMPOUNDING

This is the combination of both previous methods It has the advantage of allowing a higher pressure drop in each stage and so less stages are necessary. Hence for a given pressure drop the turbine will be shorter. But the diameter of Turbine is increased at each stage to allow for the increasing volume of steam. This type was very popular. But it is rarely used now as efficiency is quite low.

TURBINE
TURBINE SUPPORTS & CYLINDER EXPANSION TURBINE CASINGS DIAPHRAGMS AND LINERS ROTORS TURBINE BEARINGS SEALING GLANDS BARRING GEAR

TURBINE SUPPORTS & CYLINDER EXPANSION


TURBINE SUPPORT: Complete turbine assembly is mounted on foundation frames, pedestals and sole plates so designed that the components are free to expand or contract. FRONT BEARING PEDSTAL SUPPORT: It houses a journal bearing, main oil pump and most of governing system elements. It is held transversely in sole plate by axial guide key. Pedstal is prevented from getting lifted by four inverted L-shaped clamps.

MIDDLE BEARING PEDESTAL SUPPORT


Rests on sole plate secured to foundation block. Pedestal is free to move in axial direction. Traverse movement is restricted by axial key. Any tendency for pedestal to lift is prevented by Lshaped clamps.

HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDER SUPPORT


Outlet end of HPC is supported on FBP and inlet end is supported on MBP. Four lugs (2 at inlet end & 2 at outlet end) are cast integral with bottom half cylinder flange at horizontal joint. To maintain correct alignment and guiding for vertical expansion, vertical keys are provided between cylinder & pedestal.

INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE CYLINDER SUPPORT


Four lugs (2 at inlet end & 2 at outlet end) are cast integral with bottom half cylinder flange at horizontal joint. Inlet end of IPC rests on the transverse keys secured on the pads machined on the rear end of the MBP. Exhaust end of IPC is supported on the transverse keys secured to the LPC bottom half.

LP CYLINDER SUPPORT
LPC is supported on foundation frames positioned around bottom halves of exhaust casing. These are joined by special bolts with spherical washers and clearances between the bolt head and spherical washers allows for free expansion of LPC. The anchor point of the turbine is located at the rear end of front exhaust part of LPC.

HP CASING

HPC is made of Creep Resisting Chromium-Molybdenum Vanadium steel casting. Top & bottom halves of casing are secured together at the flange joint by heat tightened studs. Four steam chests, two on top and two on sides are welded to the nozzle boxes which in turn are welded to casing at MBP end. The steam chests accommodate four control valves to regulate flow of steam to the turbine according to load requirement. HPC has 12 stages, 1st stage being governing stage. Each turbine stage consists of a diaphragm and a set of moving blades mounted on a disc.

INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE CASING


IPC of the turbine is made of two parts. Front part is made of Creep resisting Cr-M-V steel casting and exhaust part is of steel fabricated structure. Two parts are connected by a vertical joint. Each part consists of two halves having vertical joint. Horizontal joint is secured by studs & nuts. Four Control valves are mounted on casing itself. There are 11 stages in the IP turbine. Fist stage is of welded construction and is directly mounted in casing. Next two stages are also housed in casing while other 8 diaphragms are housed in three liners which in turn are mounted on casing. From IPC steam is carried by two Cross Over pipes to LPT. Cross Over pipes are provided with compensator for taking care of thermal expansion.

LOW PRESSURE CASING


LPC consists of three parts i.e. one middle part and two exhaust parts. These are fabricated from welded mild steel. Exhaust casings are bolted to middle part by vertical flange. LPC has eight stages, 4 on either side. Last but one stage on each side are Baumanns stages. They expand a part of steam down to condenser pressure and allow rest of the steam to expand through the last stages.

ATMOSPHERIC RELIEF VALVE


To protect LPC against excessive internal pressure, four relief valves are provided in the exhaust hood. Each assembly has 1 mm thick gasket 525/755, clamped between valve seat and valve disc. If due to some reason the pressure at exhaust hood rises to 1.2 abs, then the valve disc tries to lift and thereby ruptures the gasket ring.

DIAPHRAGMS AND LINERS


HP Diaphragms & Liners: HP diaphragms are housed in
liners which are in turn located in HPC. All liners are in two halves connected at horizontal joints by bolts. All diaphragms, designed for minimum deflection, are divided at horizontal joint.

IP Diaphragms & Liners: First two diaphragms are directly


housed in casing. The other 8 diaphragms are housed in three liners which are in turn located in the grooves of the casing. Diaphragms from 14th to 22nd Stages are of welded construction. 23rd stage diaphragm is machined from High grade cast iron castings with cast in guide blades.

LOW PRESSURE DIAPHRAGMS


These diaphragms are machined from high grade cast iron casting. All diaphragms are divided on the horizontal joint fitted with keys to maintain accurate alignment. On each side, the first three diaphragms are fitted through liners while last one is mounted directly in the casing.

ROTORS
HP ROTOR:

It is machined from single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs. The blades are attached to respective wheels by T: root fastening. In all moving wheels, balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference which results in reduction in axial thrust. First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shrouding riveted to blade periphery. The number of blades connected by single strip of shrouding is called a blade packet and number of blades per packet is decided from vibration point of view.

ROTORS
IP ROTOR:

It has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. The shaft is made of Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. The blades on integral discs are secured by T root fastenings while shrunk fit discs by fork root fastening. Except the last two wheels, all other wheels have shroudings riveted at the tips of the blades. To adjust the frequency of the moving blades, lashing wires have been provided in some stages.

ROTOR
LP ROTOR:

LP Rotor has shrunk fit discs on the shaft. The shaft is made of Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. The blades are secured by fork root fastening. To adjust the frequency of the moving blades, lashing wires have been provided in all the stages. In last two rows stellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet steam erossion.