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PROCESSING DENTURES

1-FLASKING

Purpose of flasking:
To produce a mould of the waxed-up denture for packing and processing of the acrylic material.

Preparation of dentures for flasking


1-The teeth waxed securely into place. 2-The dentures sealed to the casts 3-The casts separated from articulator and trimmed (tapered).

Selection of flask
A big flask, allowing at least half an inch between the teeth and the flask edge. The rim of the cast should flush with the bottom half of the flask. The teeth are not too high in relation to the top of the flask.

Technique of Flasking

Dental stone is the best material for flasking. The lower flask is filled with plaster or dental stone, and the model is placed in. Excess plaster is wiped away and smoothed.

A separating medium painted over plaster The top part is placed in position. Dental stone is placed over the teeth wax surfaces. The top section is filled with plaster excess plaster is wiped away and the sections closed together.

the and and two

2- WAX ELIMENATION

Wax elimination
The flask is placed in boiling water for 5 minutes. then opened.
Prolonged heating

will case molten wax to penetrate the flasking plaster.

Wax washing
Wax is washed by boiling water Care is taken to avoid loss of teeth

Wax washing

Upper and lower flask parts after wax washing

Upper flask with teeth

Sharp edges of plaster removed

3- PACKING OF ACRYLIC RESIN

Separating medium application


Tin foil substitutes is applied by brush. Examples of the separating medium are:
water glass (sodium silicate 60 per cent

in water) sodium solutions Vaseline.

alginate

Mixing of acrylic resin


The hands washed, mixing vessel cleaned. The polymer to monomer 3.5 to 1 by volume. 6-8 c.c. of monomer is placed in the mixing container. The polymer added slowly, tapped and stirred. The vessel covered.

Packing of acrylic resin:


Packing done when:
The

resin has consistency

reached

dough

-The plaster surfaces in the flask are cold


Separating medium is applied.

A-The injection method


In this method a sprue arrangement with a suitable flask is used. Acrylic resin is constantly fed into the mould during processing through a plunger and spring tension system.

Sprue placement

Sprue for upper denture

Sprue for lower denture

The injection system

B-The open flask method


Excess resin is placed into tooth section of flask The flask is closed gradually under bench press. Then the flask is opened and excess resin is removed

The open flask method


The cast is painted with a separating medium and the flask is closed The flask placed in flask press which is firmly closed for 30 minutes before curing.

4- Curing of acrylic resin

Curing of acrylic resin


The packed flask is heated in an oven or water-bath The temperature and time of heating must be controlled. If the material is under-cured the denture have a high residual monomer content.
a) Free monomer irritate the oral tissues. b) Residual monomer make the resin

weaker.|

.The rate of temperature rise must be gradual. Monomer boils at 100.3 degree C. Polymerization reaction is exothermic. Thus if a large mass of unreacted material is suddenly plunged into boiling water, the temperature of the resin may rise above 100.3 degree C So vaporizing the monomer occurs. This causes gaseous porosity.

A-Long curing cycle


A constant temperature At 74 C For 8 hours or 9 hours With no terminal boil. No degradation of resin properties occurs.

B-Short curing cycle


Heat at 740 c For 1.5 hours Boiling for an additional one hour.

C-Rapid curing method


Rapid heating in boiling water for 20 minutes.

Cooling
The flask is cooled slowly on the bench to room temperature Slow cooling permits relief of stresses to avoid distortion (warp) of the acrylic.

5- DEFLASKING

Deflasking
1-The investing plaster is removed in one block from the flask. Investing plaster is cut down from the cast. Then the model is removed from the denture.

Deflasked denture; no porosity or contaminations

6- FINISHING AND POLISHING

Finishing
The excess flush at the periphery is removed with a large stone or bur. The surfaces are shaped until it is smooth and cleans. Particular care must be taken to make the peripheries rounded The fitting surface small pimples is removed with a small stone or bur.

Finishing

Overheating during finishing cause burn mark

Polishing
Polish first with pumice The final polish with:
A rag wheel, brush wheel and felt cone with pumice

Finished and polished denture with rounded border, festooning and stippling

Processing errors of acrylic resins

1. Porosity
Porous denture is difficult to clean, esthetically objectionable and weak

Large voids

A- SHRINKAGE POROSITY
It appears as irregular voids throughout the surface of the denture due to under packing.
Causes: Lack of dough in the mold at the time of final closure. Lack of adequate pressure during polymerization. Packing the resin in a sticky rather than doughy stage. .

B- GASEOUS POROSITY
It appears as fine uniform bubbles particularly in thick sections of the denture. Cause: Thick denture bases heated too rapidly

2. Tooth movements
Causes: The use of plaster instead of stone in investing the trial denture. Incomplete closure of the flask. Excessive and rapid pressure during trial closure. Over packing of the mold with resin material before final closure.

3. Denture base and teeth breakage during deflasking.


Causes: Knife blade hit teeth when removing stone cap. Hammer used to tap denture out of the flask.

4. Crazing of acrylic resin base or acrylic teeth:


Causes: Stresses induced by the contraction of the resin around the tooth by rapid cooling. The use of solvents to remove wax from the mold before packing.

5. Bleaching of acrylic resin


Causes: Undercured acrylic resin. Incorporation of the tinfoil substitutes with the acrylic resin.

Causes: Improper mixing of the monomer and polymer. Contamination of the resin mix with dirty hands or instrument. Adding resin material in layers during packing.

6. Color streaks in the resin material

Metallic denture base construction

Palatal plate wax pattern

Spruing the wax pattern

Palatal plate sprue

Mandibular plate Sprue

Investing and casting The wax pattern is invested and cast int chrome cobalt.

Completed cast framework

Record block on framework

Mounting and setting up of teeth

Waxed up denture

Finished denture