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Percentage

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What is the difference between fraction and percentage?

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Any number written in the form of a fraction with 100 as the denominator is a percentage.
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What would come to mind when we talk of


Marks Division among brothers Interest
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In some situations, intuitively, we understand percentages better than fraction.

And in some cases, fractions better than percentages.


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What is the significance of 8.33% Bonus?


One months salary.

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What is the significance of 8.33% Discount?


One free on every dozen

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Express the following as fractions:


33.3%
1/3

20%
1/5 16.6%
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1/6

66.6% 2/3

75%
3/4

12.5%
1/8

8.33%
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1/12

11.1% 1/9

9.09%
1/11

6.67%
1/15

133.3%
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4/3

1.33% 1/75

6.25%
1/16

3.33 %
1/30

87.5%
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7/8

x% of a number y

= x *y / 100
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The salary of X goes up from $ 100 to $ 125. What is the percentage increase in the salary?
Increase = 125 - 100 = $ 25. % increase = 25/100 * 100 % = 25%
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If the salary had been reduced from $ 125 to $ 100, what is the %age decrease in the salary?
Decrease = 125 - 100 = $ 25 % decrease = 25/125*100% = 20%.
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% increase = Quantity increase * 100 old Quantity

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The price of petrol, which was Rs 30 has gone up by 20%. The new price is
The new price is (100+20)/100 * 30 = 1.2 * 30 = Rs 36
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The price of a Pentium PC, which was Rs 30,000 has reduced by 25%. The new price is ?
The new price is Rs 22,500
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To decrease by a certain percentage, multiply the number by the factor (100-x) 100
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Fill in the blanks for the questions that follow:

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If B is 25% more than A, then A is ____ % less than B

20
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If B is ____ % more than A, then A is 16.67% less than B


20
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If B is 10% more than A, then A is ____ % less than B


9
1/ 11

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If B is 33.33 % more than A, then A is ____ % less than B


25
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If B is 50% more than A, then A is ____ % less than B


33.33
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If B is ____ % more than A, then A is 50% less than B


100
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If B is 200% more than A, then A is ____ % less than B


66.66
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If B is ____ % more than A, then A is 75% less than B.


300
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The price of an article which was Rs 40 was by 10%. The consumption by 30%. What was the net % impact on the total income of the manufacturer?
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old price = Rs 40. New price = 1.1* 40 = 44 Let old quantity be 100 articles New quantity = 70 Old income = 4,000 New income = 3,080. % = 23%
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X carried 75% of money in TCs and 25% in cash. During a journey, X lost entire cash and spent from the TCs. At the end, X had 30% of the TCs, which amounted to Rs 1800. What was the total money that X carried?
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30% of TC = Rs 1800 100% of TCs = 100/30* 1800 = Rs 6000 Since TCs accounted for 75% of the total money that he had carried, the total money that he carried is 100/75* 6000 = Rs 8000
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The price of rice increases by 30%. In order to keep the expenses on rice constant, by what %age should a person cut down the consumption?
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Let old price = Rs 1/kg & old quantity = 100 kg Amount spent on rice = Rs100 New price of rice = Rs 1.3 New quantity = 100/1.3kgs Quantity = 100 - (100/1.3) % = approximately 23%
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A man sells 300 articles for Rs 9000 at a loss of 13%. Find the cost of each article.
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The price of one article is 30 Since he sells at a loss of 13%, SP : CP :: 87 : 100 If SP = 30 then CP =100*30/87 = approximately 34.5
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If the population of a town is 231525 and has been growing annually at 5%, what was the population 3 years ago?
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Let the population three years earlier be X 3 = 231525 X * (100+5/100) X * (105/100*105/100*105/100) = X*(21/20*21/20*21/20) = 231525 X= 231525 * (20/21*20/21*20/21) = 200,000
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A square is converted into a rectangle by increasing one side by 5% and reducing the other by 5%. What will be the % change in the area?
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Let the side = a Area = a2 Length becomes 1.05a Width becomes 0.95a. Area = 1.05a*0.95a = 0.9975a2 area = 0.0025a2 % =0.0025a2*100/a2 = 0.25%
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Toms income is 20% more than Jerrys. How much is Jerrys income less than Toms?
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Toms income = 1.2 * (Jerrys income) Let Jerrys income = 100 Toms income = 120 Jerrys income is less Toms income by 20/120* 100 = 16.67%
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There are two candidates A and B in an election. The poll turn out was 90%. 500 of the votes were declared invalid. A won by a margin of 400 votes 8/ % of the and got 48 9 registered votes. Find the total number of eligible voters.
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Let registered votes = X 8/ % = 440/9 % of X A: 48 9 = 4.4/9 X B got 4.4/9 X - 400 Total votes registered = X = A + B + Invalid votes X = 4.4/9X + 4.4/9X - 400 + 500 X = 8.8/9X + 100 So X = 4500. Total voters: 100/90*4500=5000
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What is a ratio?
A ratio is the relation between two quantities

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The ratio between two quantities a and b is written as a/b or a : b a/b is called fractional form; a : b is called linear form.
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In a joint family, there are 2.2 females for every 2 males. If there are a total of 84 people, how many are females?
2x + 2.2x = 84; x = 20 Females = 2.2*20 = 44
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Speed limit in UK is 150 km/h, but in US it is 80 miles / hour. What is the ratio of the speed limits?
= 150 / 80 = 15:8 150 / (80*1.6) = 75 : 64
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The ratio of two numbers is 3:5 and their sum is 640. The numbers are :
Let the numbers be 3x and 5x. 3x + 5x = 640, So x = 80 Numbers: 240 & 400.
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In an examination, the no. of students who passed was 4 times the no. of those who failed. If there had been 35 fewer candidates and 9 more had failed, the numbers would have been in the ratio 2:1. Find the total no. of candidates.
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total = 5x. Pass: failed = 4x:x number 35 fewer = 5x-35, 9 more failed = x+9, Passed then would be 5x-35-(x+9)=(4x-44) (4x-44) : (x+9) = 2 : 1 5x = 155 - The total number of students in the class.
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A family divides $ 7000 in the following way food:shelter :: 4:5: and shelter:savings :: 10:7 How much does the family spend on each of these?
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Food : shelter ::8 : 10 and shelter : savings ::10:7. food : shelter : savings ::8:10:7 food = (8/25)*7000 = 2240 shelter = (10/25)*7000 = 2800 savings = (7/25)*7000 = 1960.
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Machine X can produce 1,000 bolts in 4 hours and machine Y can produce them in 5 hours. In how many hours can both working together produce 1,000 bolts?
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1/4 + 1/5 = production per hour = 9/20 Working together, machines X and Y can produce 1,000 bolts 2/ hours. in 2 9
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If 6 litres of cows milk that cost Rs. 12 per liter are mixed with 2 liters of Buffalo milk that costs Rs. 16 per liter, what is the cost/ litre of the mixture?
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The total cost of the 8 liters of milk is 6(12) + 2(16) = 104. The cost per liter is 104 / 8 = 13
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How many litres of a solution that is 15% salt must be added to 5 litres of a solution that is 8% salt so that the resulting solution is 10% salt?
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0.15n + 0.08(5) = 0. 10(n + 5) 15n + 40 = 10n + 50 n = 2 liters

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A, B and C divide their profit of 1.7 millions in the following way: 2 times As share = 7 times Bs share = 6 times Cs share. How much did A get?
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42 / As share = 42 / Bs share = 42 / Cs share Therefore, A: B: C = 21 : 6 : 7 Hence, As profit = (21 / 34)*1.7 = 1.05 million
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XYZ Paints mixes yellow and blue in the ratio of 5:4. 18 litres of the mixture is removed and same quantity of blue is added. Now the ratio is reversed. What is the capacity of tank?
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Let tank capacity = 9x In 18 litres there was 10 yellow and 8 blue. New mixture, yellow = 5x - 10 and blue = 4x + 10 5x - 10 : 4x +10 = 4 : 5 25x - 50 = 16x + 40 9x = 90 litres.
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The expenses are partly fixed and partly variable. The charge/ head is $100 when there are 60 people and $90 per head when there are 80. Find the charge/ head when there are 100 people.
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F + 60V = $6000 for 60 people F + 80V = $7200, for 80. V = $60, F = $2400. total cost for 100 people = 2400 + 100*60 = $8400 cost/person = $84.
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A, B and C start a partnership by investing $3000, $4000 and $5000 respectively. B increases his investment to $5000 after 3 months and C withdraws 20% of his contribution after 9 months. What should be the ratio for profit sharing?
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Bs capital in the venture = (4000*3 + 5000*9) / 12 = 4750 Cs capital in the venture = (5000*9 + 4000*3) / 12 = 4750 Therefore, the capital of A,B and C are in the ratio of

3 : 4.75 : 4.75.
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