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Excretory System


The Mammalian Kidney Transport Processes in Mammalian Nephron Ammonia, Urea, and Uric Acid Hormones Control Homeostatic Functions

Vertebrate Kidney

Kidney is made up of thousands of repeating units (nephrons), each with the structure of a bent tube. Blood pressure forces the fluid in blood past a filter, glomerulus, at the top of each nephron. Water and small molecules pass through filter and into the nephron tube. Sugars and ions are removed by active transport.

Vertebrate Nephron Organization

The Mammalian Kidney

Each kidney receives blood from a renal artery, and produces urine. Urine drains from each kidney through a ureter which carries urine to urinary bladder. Within the kidney, mouth of ureter flares to form renal pelvis. Divided into renal cortex and renal medulla.

Urinary System of a Human Female

The Mammalian Kidney

Nephron structure and function Blood is carried by an afferent arteriole to the glomerulus. Blood is filtered as it is forced through porous capillary walls. Glomerular filtrate enters Bowmans capsule. Moves to the proximal convoluted tubule.

The Mammalian Kidney

Fluid then moves down the medulla and back into the cortex in a loop of Henle. After leaving the loop, the fluid is delivered to a distal convoluted tubule in the cortex that drains to a collecting duct. merges with other collecting ducts to empty its contents into the renal pelvis

Mammalian Kidney Nephron

The Mammalian Kidney

Reabsorption and secretion Most of the water and dissolved solutes that enter the glomerular filtrate must be returned to the blood. Reabsorption of glucose and amino acids, is driven by active transport carriers. Secretion of waste products involves transport across capillary membranes and kidney tubules. Excretion

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Bowman's capsule Filtration Glomerulus

Fig. 49.18(TE Art)

Reabsorption to blood

Secretion from blood

Renal tubule



Transport Processes in the Mammalian Nephron

Some mechanism is needed to create an osmotic gradient between the glomerular filtrate and the blood, allowing reabsorption. Proximal convoluted tubule Approximately two-thirds of NaCl and water filtered in Bowmans capsule is immediately reabsorbed across the walls of the proximal convoluted tube.


Transport Processes in the Mammalian Nephron

Loop of Henle Descending limb is permeable to water, thus water leaves via osmosis. Water loss in the descending limb multiples concentration achieved at each loop. + Ascending limb actively extrudes N and Cl follows. NaCl pumped out of ascending limb is trapped within surrounding interstitial fluid. countercurrent multiplier system

Transport Processes in the Mammalian Nephron

Distal tubule and collecting duct Permeability of the collecting duct to water is adjusted by antidiuretic hormone (ADH vasopressin). Kidneys also regulate the balance of electrolytes in the blood by reabsorption and secretion.


Reabsorption of Salt and Water


Hormones Control Homeostatic Functions

Antidiuretic hormone Stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys.


Hormones Control Homeostatic Functions

Aldosterone Promotes reabsorption of NaCl and water across the distal convoluted tubule and the secretion of K+ into the tubule. Atrial natriuretic hormone decreases NaCl reabsorption


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Low blood pressure

Fig.Low blood 49.22(TE Art) flow

1 2 Angiotensinogen 3 Renin 4 Proximal convoluted tubule Angiotensin II 5 Adrenal cortex
Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Negative feedback

Distal convoluted tubule Afferent arteriole Glomerulus

9 Increased blood volume

Efferent arteriole Bowman's capsule

Loop of Henle

6 Aldosterone

Increased NaCl and H2O reabsorption