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Atomic Theory

A History

Democritus 5th Century BCE Greek philosopher


I believe that all matter is composed of very small indivisible particles.

atom comes from the Greek word atomos meaning indivisible.

John Dalton -1803 (English Chemist)


The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1803 that proved this, and called these particles ATOMS:

1. All elements are composed of small indivisible solid particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. 3. Atoms of different elements are different. 4. Compounds are formed by joining atoms of two or more elements.

J.J. Thompson 1897 (English Chemist)


I discovered the electron and proposed the plum pudding model. The atom is composed of +ive material with ive electrons scattered through it. Overall charge = 0 (+ive and ive charges balance.

Plum Pudding Model

Ernest Rutherford 1908 NZ Physicist

My gold foil experiment, indicates that the atom is mostly empty space with a small dense +ive centre -the nucleus surrounded by ive electrons.

Niels Bohr 1913 (Danish Scientist)

I proposed the planetary model that electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus.

James Chadwick - 1935

I discovered a particle in the nucleus without any charge. I called it the neutron.

The structure of the atom

NEUTRON neutral, same mass as proton (1)

PROTON positive, same mass as neutron (1)

ELECTRON negative, mass nearly nothing; very fast moving

The Spacious Atom


Atoms are mostly empty space: electron energy levels or shells Very dense contains most of the mass of the atom; +ive charge If an oxygen atom had a total radius of 100 m, the nucleus would be ~1 mm diameter sphere in the middle.

Subatomic Particles
Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass
1/2000 ~0 1

Electron
Proton Neutron

e-

-1

p+

+1

Atomic Theory
Atoms are the smallest unit of elements. Elements contain atoms with the same

number of protons.
Different elements have atoms with different numbers of protons. Each element is represented by its own symbol

Elements are arranged in the Periodic Table

Important terms
Atomic number = number of protons in the
nucleus.

Mass number = number of protons +


neutrons in the nucleus.

An atom is neutral (net charge = 0)


Number of protons = number of electrons

Atomic Number

Counts the number of protons in an atom

Mass Number
Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Learning Check
1. State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen B. Sulfur C. Barium 2. Which element has the following number of protons? A. 54 B. 20 C. 16

Element
Helium He Carbon C Carbon C Sodium Na

Atomic Mass protons neutrons electrons Number Number


2 4 2 2 2

6
6

12

6 6

6 8

14

11

23

11

12

11

Isotopes
Isotopes - atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons Isotopes of Carbon
Atomic Mass P+ Number Number 6 12 6
6 6 13 14

n
6 7

e6 6

C-12 C-13 C-14

6 6

Atomic Number on the Periodic Table

Atomic Number

11

Symbol

Na
22.99

Average Mass

All atoms of an element have the same number of protons


11 protons

11

Sodium

Na

The Periodic Table


The periodic table is read from top to bottom, left to right, as atomic number increases: 1=H, 2=He, 3=Li, 4=Be, 5=B, 6=C, and so on.

Periodic table
The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups according to their properties. Vertical columns are called GROUPS

Mendeleev

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS

Theelements are metals: Periodic Table Most of the


H Li Be

These elements are metals


B C N O F

He Ne

Na
K

Mg
Ca Fe Ni Cu Zn Ag Pt Au Hg

Al Si

Cl
Br I

Ar
Kr Xe

This line divides metals from nonmetals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table: the Earth


A small number of elements make up >99% of the solid Earth. O = oxygen S = sulfur Na = sodium Ca = calcium Mg = magnesium Fe = iron Al = aluminum Ni = nickel Si = silicon

Electrons
Electrons located in electron cloud surrounding the nucleus Arranged in shells or energy levels Number of energy level Maximum number of electrons 1 2 3

Electrons
Number of energy level Maximum number of electrons

1
2

2
8

3
8

Electrons are arranged in energy levels. Electron configuration What is the electron configuration for Carbon? Atomic Number = 6 6p+ and 6eElectron configuration = 2,4

Learning Check
1. State the number of electrons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen B. Sulfur C. Barium 2. Write the electron configurations for the following elements. A. Oxygen B. Fluorine C. Sodium

Bohr shell models of elements


x 1 p+ 0n

Element: Hydrogen Symbol:_______ H Atomic Number: 1 Mass Number: 1 Electrons: 1 e- configuration: 1

Bohr shell models of elements


x 2 p+ 2n

Element: Helium Symbol:_______ He Atomic Number: 2 Mass Number: 4 Electrons: 2 e- configuration: 2

Bohr shell models of elements


x
x 3 p+ 4n

Element: Lithium Symbol:_______ Li Atomic Number: 3 Mass Number: 7 Electrons: 3 e- configuration: 2,1

Bohr shell models of elements


x
x 4 p+ 5n

x x

Element: Beryllium Symbol:_______ Be Atomic Number: 4 Mass Number: 9 Electrons: 4 e- configuration: 2,2

Bohr shell models of elements


x
x 5 p+ 6n x Element: Boron Symbol:_______ B Atomic Number: 5 Mass Number: 11 Electrons: 5 e- configuration: 2,3

x x

Bohr shell models of elements


x
x 6 p+ 6n x Element: Carbon Symbol:_______ C Atomic Number: 6 Mass Number: 12 6 Electrons: e- configuration: 2,4

x x

Bohr shell models of elements


xx
x 7 p+ 7n x Element: Nitrogen Symbol:_______ N Atomic Number: 7 Mass Number: 14 Electrons: 7 e- configuration: ____ 2,5

x x

Bohr shell models of elements


xx
x 8 p+ 8n x Element: Oxygen Symbol:_______ O Atomic Number:___ 8 Mass Number: 16 8 Electrons: e- configuration:____ 2,6

x xx

Bohr shell models of elements


xx
x 9 p+ 10 n x x x xx

Element: Fluorine Symbol:_______ F Atomic Number:___ 9 Mass Number: 19 Electrons: 9 2,7 e- Configuration:____

Bohr shell models of elements


xx
x 10 p+ 10 n x x x xx

x x

Element: Neon Symbol:_______ Ne Atomic Number:___ 10 Mass Number: 20 Electrons: 10 2,8 e- configuration:____

Bohr shell models of elements


x xx x x x x xx x x 11 p+ 12 n

Element: Sodium Symbol:_______ Na Atomic Number:___ 11 Mass Number: 23 Electrons: 11 e- configuration:____ 2,8,1

Bohr shell models of elements


x xx x x x x xx x x 12 p+ 12 n

Element: Magnesium Symbol:_______ Mg Atomic Number:___ 12 Mass Number: 24 Electrons: 12 e- configuration:____ 2,8,2

Element: Aluminium Symbol: Al __________ 13 Atomic Number: _________ Mass Number: 27 13p+, 14n, Electron Configuration: 2,8,3 _____________ 13 eElement: Phosphorous Symbol: P _________ 15 Atomic Number: _________ Mass Number: 31 15p+, 16n, Electron Configuration: 15 e2,8,5 __________ Element: Chlorine Symbol: Cl _________ 17 Atomic Number: __________ Mass Number: 35 Electron 2,8,7 Configuration:__________ 17p+, 18n, 17 e-

Element: Silicon Symbol: _________ Si 14 Atomic Number: _______ Mass Number: 28 14p+, 14n, Electron Configuration: 14 e2,8,4 __________ Element: Sulphur Symbol: S __________ 16 Atomic Number: _________ Mass Number: 32 2,8,6 Electron Configuration: ________ 16p+, 16n, 16 eElement: Argon Symbol: Ar _________ 18 Atomic Number: __________ Mass Number: 40 Electron Configuration: 2,8,8 ____________ 18p+, 22n, 18 e-

Bohr shell models of elements


x xx xx x x x x x x xx xx x x x x 19 p+ 20 n

Element: Potassium Symbol:_______ K Atomic Number:___ 19 Mass Number: 39 Electrons: 19 e- configuration:____ 2,8,8,1

Bohr shell models of elements


x xx xx x x x x x x xx xx x x x x x 20 p+ 20 n

Element: Calcium Symbol:_______ K Atomic Number:___ 20 Mass Number: 40 Electrons: 20 e- configuration:____ 2,8,8,2

Periodic Table - Main block elements 1-20

electron configurations
IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA

1 H

He 2

1
2 Li 3 Be 4 B 5 C 6 N 7 O 8 F 9

2
Ne 10

2,1
3 Na 11

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5 2,8,5

2,6

2,7

2,8
Ar 18

Mg 12 Al 13 Si 14 P 15

S 16 Cl 17

2,8,1 2,8,2
4 K 19 Ca 20

2,8,3 2,8,4

2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8

2,8,8,1 2,8,8,2

The Periodic Table


alkali earths

Elements in columns (groups) have similar outer-electron configurations, and so tend to behave similarly.

transition metals

halogens

rare earths

noble gases

actinides

The Periodic Table


Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell (this correspond to their group number)
H Li N a K B e M g C a Fe Ni C u A g Zn B Al C Si N P O S F Cl H e N e Ar

Br Kr I Xe

E.g. all group 1 metals have __ electron in their outer shell

Pt These elements have u g __ electrons in their outer shells

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shell

The Periodic Table


Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added:
E.g. Lithium has 3 electrons in the H configuration 2,1
Li N a K B e M g C a B C Si N P O S F Cl

H e N e Ar

Sodium has 11 electrons in the Fe configuration 2,8,1Ni

Al C u A g Zn

Br Kr I Xe

Pt Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__

A u

H g

the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY.
H Li Be B C N O F He Ne

The Periodic elements in Table Fact 4: (Most important) All of the

Na
K

Mg
Ca Fe Ni Cu Ag g Zn

Al

Si

Cl
Br I

Ar
Kr Xe

E.g. consider the group 1Hmetals. They all: Pt Au 1) Are soft 3) React with water

2) Can be easily cut with a knife