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# OPTIMAL ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING

## By SUNIL KUMAR K.P. IEM, BMSCE.

Introduction
The manufacturing assembly line balancing was first introduced in the early 1900s. There are 2 types of assembly line balancing problems. -SALBP-1. -SALBP-2. The tabu search (TS) is one of the most powerful AI search techniques,which is used to solve the assembly line problems.

## What is Assembly Line Balancing (ALB)?

ALB is the procedure to assign tasks to workstations so that: Precedence relationship is complied with.
No workstation takes more than the cycle time to complete. Operational idle time is minimized.

Definition of ALB:
An Assembly line is a sequence of work stations connected together by material handling. Goal of ALB: -minimize number of work stations. -minimize work load variance. -minimize idle time. -maximize the line efficiency.

## Assembly line Principles:

Division of labor principle.
Interchangeable parts principle. Material workflow principle. Line pacing principle.

## How to Balance a Line:

Specify the task relationships and their order of precedence. Draw and label a precedence diagram.
Calculate the desired cycle time (Cd). Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations (N).

## How to Balance a Line(contd)

Group elements into workstations recognizing cycle time & precedence. Evaluate the efficiency of the line (E).
Repeat until desired line efficiency is reached

Cycle Time :
Calculate the desired cycle time (Cd).
If Joes Sub Shop has a demand of 100 sandwiches per day. The day shift lasts 8 hours.

Cd = Cd =

Cd = 4.8 minutes

## Minimum Work Stations:

Calculate the theoretical minimum number of workstations (N).
If Cd = 4.8 minutes

N=

ti i =1
Cd

## Cd = desired cycle time

Line Efficiency:
Evaluate the efficiency of the line (E).
If Cd = 4 minutes and N = 4 work stations.

E=

ti i =1
N Cd

## Cd = actual cycle time

N = actual number of
workstations

## A Tabu Search Procedure:

For SALBP-1:Given the cycle time c, minimize the number N of work stations.
For SALBP-2: Given the N of work stations, minimize the cycle time.

Ts algorithm:
Step1. Initialize a search space (), TL, search radius (R), count, and countmax. Step2. Randomly select an initial solution So from a certain search space . Let So be a current local minimum. Step3. Randomly generate N solutions around So within a certain search radius R. Store the N solutions, called neighborhood, in a set X.

Ts algorithm (contd):
Step4. Evaluate a cost function (or the objective value) of each member in X via the objective function. Set S1 as a member that gives the minimum cost in X. Step5. If f(S1) < f(S0), put S0 into the TL and set S0 = S1, otherwise, store S1 in the TL instead. Step6. If the termination criteria are met (count = countmax) stop the search process. S0 is the best solution, otherwise go back to step 2.

## Case Study:a company of the Fiat group

a company of the Fiat group, plays a leading role in the production of industrial Vehicles and diesel engines. This group includes Lancia special vehicles, Unic, & Magirus. it manufactures many types of industrial vehicles, fire fighting & military vehicle

## The Solution: By Fiat group.

Guided definition of assembly constraints based on product characteristics.
Establishment of optimal sequence for assembly lines, using appropriate GA. Easy & quick modeling of new products and implementation for new plants. The simple and user-friendly interface allows for visual review of planning effectiveness.

Conclusion:
Simply Assembly Line Balancing is a valid method to optimize assembly lines. By using tabu search we can easily optimize the ALB problems. balanced assembly line help to increase the productivity of organization.

THANK YOU

References:
[1] ISSN 1750-9653, England, UK International Journal of Management Science and Engineering Management Vol. 3 (2008) No. 1, pp. 3-18. [2] www.springerlink.com, SPRINGLERLINK. Istanbul technical University, Istanbul turkey(16/02/09).