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Crystal Defects

An ideal crystal can be described in terms a three-dimensionally periodic arrangement of points called lattice and an atom or group of atoms associated with each lattice point called basis.

Crystal = Lattice + basis


However, there can be deviations from this ideality. These deviations are known as crystal defects.

Point Defects
a)Vacancies/schottky defect

b)Interstitialcies/Frankel defect c)Compositional defects


1)substitutional impurity

2) interstitial impurity
d) Electronic defects

VACANCY OR SHOTTKEY DEFECT

INTERSTICIALCIES OR FRANKEL DEFECT

Frenkel defect

Schottky defect

In ionic crystals, an ion displaced from a regular site to an interstitial site is called Frankel imperfection.

A pair of one cation and one anion can be missing from an ionic crystal. Such a pair of vacant ion sites is called schottky imperfection.

Line Defects 1.Edge dislocation

2.Screw dislocation

In a perfect crystal, atoms are arranged in both vertical and horizontal planes parallel to the side faces

A PERFECT CRYSTAL OF VANADIUM

If one of these vertical planes does not extend to the full length, but ends in between, within the crystal, it is called edge dislocation.

EDGE DISLOCATION

Edge dislocation

t
Dislocation line

Dislocation can be considered as the boundary between the slipped and the unslipped parts of the crystal lying over a slip plane The intersection of the extra half-plane of atoms with the slip plane defines the dislocation line (for an edge dislocation) Direction and magnitude of slip is characterized by the Burgers vector of the dislocation
(A dislocation is born with a Burgers vector and expresses it even in its death!)

The Burgers vector can be determined by the Burgers Circuit Right hand screw (finish to start) convention is usually used for determining the direction of the Burgers vector As the periodic force field of a crystal requires that atoms must move from one equilibrium position to another b must connect one lattice position to another (for a full dislocation) Dislocations tend to have as small a Burgers vector as possible Dislocations are non-equilibrium defects and would leave the crystal if given an opportunity

2 3

Burgers vector b

Slip plane

slip

no slip

boundary = edge dislocation

Burgers vector: The magnitude and the direction of the slip is represented by a vector b called the Burgers vector,

Mixed dislocations Dislocations with mixed edge and screw character


As we had noted, except in special circumstances, dislocations have mixed edge and screw character In a curved dislocation the edge and screw character change from point to point Typically in a dislocation loop only points have pure edge or pure screw character Edge: b t Screw: b || t

b
Vectors defining a dislocation

t
b
+ve Edge
Slip Plane

RHS

Red line is the loop

ve Edge

LHS

Geometric properties of dislocations


In a edge dislocation : b is perpendicular to t In a screw dislocation : b is parallel to t Other properties are as in the table below Dislocation Property Relation between dislocation line (t) and b Type of dislocation Edge Screw ||

Slip direction
Direction of dislocation line movement relative to b Process by which dislocation may leave slip plane

|| to b
|| climb

|| to b
Cross-slip

t
b || t

Model of Screw Dislocation

SCREW DISLOCATION

This is a line defect called an EDGE DISLOCATION

S F
9
8 7 6 5

10

1 1

12

13 14 15

16
1 2

4
3 2 1 16 15 14 13 12

A closed Burgers Circuit in an ideal crystal

3 4 5 6 7 8

9
1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

F
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

10 1 1

12 13

14 15

16 1 2

Map the same Burgers circuit on a real crystal

3
4 5 6 7 8 9

16 15

14

13

12

1 1

10

RHFS convention

Let us consider a quarter of a loop

E S

Pure screw

Pure Edge

Except for points S and E the remaining portion of the dislocation line has a mixed character

Glide of an Edge Dislocation

crss

crss is
critical resolved shear stress on the slip plane in the direction of b.

crss

SCREW DISLOCATION

BURGERS VECTORFOR SCREW DISLOCATION

Surface Defects

Twinning
Rational symmetrically-related intergrowth
Lattices of each orientation have definite

crystallographic relation to each other A variety of planar structural defect

TWIN BOUNDARY

Twinning
Aragonite twin
Note zone at twin plane which is common to each part
Although aragonite is orthorhombic, the twin looks hexagonal due to the 120o O-C-O angle in the CO3 group

Redrawn from Fig 2-69 of Berry, Mason and Dietrich, Mineralogy, Freeman & Co.

GRAIN BOUNDARY

TILT BOUNDARY

Internal surface: grain boundary


Grain Boundary

Grain 1

Grain 2

A grain boundary is a boundary between two regions of identical crystal structure but different orientation

Grain Boundary: low and high angle


One grain orientation can be obtained by rotation of another grain across the grain boundary about an axis through an angle
If the angle of rotation is high, it is called a high angle grain boundary If the angle of rotation is low it is called a low angle grain boundary

Stacking fault
C B A C B A C B A
FCC A C B A B A C B A FCC

Stacking fault

A twin boundary happens when the crystals on either side of a plane are mirror images of each other. The boundary common to the two planes is a twin boundary