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Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon understudy. Research refers to the systematic method of collecting the facts ,analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions of a problem. The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology

Pure research: - For sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. - Undertaken out of curiosity - Not necessary problem oriented Applied research - Aims at finding a solution to immediate problem - 2 types - More practical Exploratory : which structures and identifies new problems, clarify

concept, gather explanation, gaining insight

Descriptive: describes data and characteristics about the population or

phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how.

Experimental Historical research Primary research Secondary research

Formulating research problem Extensive literature survey Developing hypothesis Deciding research design Designing sample design Data collection Analysis of data Hypothesis testing Generalization & interpretation Preparation of research report

Formulating research problem

Decide what u want to find out? Sources of research problems:

Reading Academic experience Daily experience

Exposure to field situation

Consultations Brainstorming Research

interest, manageable, level of expertise, relevance, availability of data, feasible, researchable, ethical.

Considerations while selecting problems:


Extensive literature survey

A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study. The review of literature involves looking over what other researchers have done in relation to the topic to be studied. Purpose: The review of literature can broaden the researchers knowledge base in research area; It is a means of ensuring originality in the conduct of ones research; It is a way of ensuring clarity and focus on ones study; It can also provide the researcher insights on the weaknesses and strengths of studies; It can provide findings and conclusions of past studies, which a researcher can use in relating to his own study. It can help the researcher in formulating the theoretical and conceptual framework for his research problem

Sources of literature:

Search for existing literature in the library

web Book Government reports journals and periodicals

unpublished material Examine each material, then decide which ones will actually be included in your review

Developing hypothesis
It is a tentative answer to a research question Hypotheses is a tentative proposition which can be put to test to determine validity. WHEN IS AN HYPOTHESIS FORMULATED? It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical background to the problem. THE PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF AN HYPOTHESIS : 1. It offers explanations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically tested 2. It gives direction to an investigation. 3. It structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the examination of the problem. Types of hypotheses Descriptive Relational Causal Working hyp Commonsense Statistical

Deciding research design

Research design is the plan, structure, & strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions & to control variance. Provides guidelines to the researchers Planning research design: Determining work involved in project:
To formulate marketing problem Determine information required Identify information sources
Detail plan for execution of project( forms required, staff required) It is needed for the selection of appropriate techniques for data collection.

Estimating cost involved Preparing time schedule Verifying results

Preparation of research design?

What is the study about?
What are the objectives of the study? When or in what place study will be conducted? What kind of data are needed?

What sampling techniques can be used?

How the data can be collected? How the data can be processed? What technique of analysis are to be adopted?

What types of reports to be prepared?

What is the time limit in which whole work will be complete? What is the cost involved?

Designing sample design

The process of obtaining information from a subset (sample) of a larger group (population) The results for the sample are then used to make estimates of the larger group Faster and cheaper than asking the entire population Two keys 1. Selecting the right people Have to be selected scientifically so that they are representative of the population 2. Selecting the right number of the right people To minimize sampling errors

What is the purpose of sampling? To draw conclusions about populations from samples Advantages: - Saves times - Money - Better supervision on data collection

Designing sample design

Probability sampling A probability sampling scheme is one in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Stratified sampling Area sampling

Non-probability sampling Convenience sampling Judgment Quota Snowball

Steps in Sampling Process

1.Define the population 2.Identify the sampling frame: (how will you reach sample) 3.Select a sampling design or procedure 4.Determine the sample size 5.Draw the sample

Data collection
Methods: Primary methods: Observation 1. Participant obs 2. Non-participant Direct Indirect Structured Unstructured

Interview - Personal interview Structured Unstructured Semi-structured Focused Depth - Field investigation Mail survey Telephonic survey PI Consumer panel

Visual Projective techniques - Rorschach test - TAT - Rosenzweigh cartoon test - Picture frustration test Verbal techniques - Word association - Sentence completion - Story completion Expressive technique - play, drama, painting

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Questionnaire method Steps Preliminary decisions Informal interviewing Drafting questionnaire Piloting questionnaire Deciding final form of questionnaire

Form of questionnaire response

Open ended Dichotomous Multichotomous

Types Structure non-disguised que: List of question framed to get facts It is in pre arranged order Aware of purpose of collecting information Structured disguised: Does not reveal the purpose Non structured non disguised: Questions are not structured Researcher is free to ask questions Respondent is told about the purpose of inquiry Non structured disguised

Good questionnaire Short & simple Easily understandable Specific & relevant Logical arrangement of questions Provide adequate space for answers Purpose of inquiry should be made clear to respondent

Secondary data - Trade journals - Directories - Publications of banks & FI - Company reports - Specialised libraries Internal sources - Periodical statement - Reports & statistical data for research - Past research reports, files, documents.

Merits: Available easily & economically Can be collected quickly i.e less time consuming Supports primary data collected directly Demerits: May not be specific May not be reliable Needs modification To much dependence can be harmful

Attitude measurement

Attitude is one of the most pervasive notions in all of the marketing

Many marketers believe that attitudes directly affect purchase decisions and their purchase and use experiences, in turn, directly affect their subsequent attitudes toward the product or service
Attitudes are state-of-mind constructs It explain how ready is one to do something

Attitude do not change much over time

It can be related to preferences


if predisposition is favorable, it is assumed that the consumer is likely to purchase the product or service



Beliefs about the object of concern, such as its strength or economy Emotional feelings about the object such as like and dislikes And readiness of the individual to respond behaviorally to the object that is to buy it


Attitudinal studies are useful in Market segmentation Advertisement effectiveness Brand positioning or Repositioning


measurement tends to focus on measurement of beliefs

about a products (services) qualities and emotional feelings about those qualities

Attitude can be measured by following procedure:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Observation of behavior Indirect techniques Performance of objective task Psychological reactions


Measurement can be defined as a standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of the objects of interest. Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort. Researchers engage in using the measurement process by assigning either numbers or labels Peoples thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and characteristics The features or attributes of objects The aspects of concepts / ideas


WHAT IS AN OBJECT ? It refers to any tangible item in a persons environment that can be clearly and easily identified
Sight sound touch smell taste
Age sex occupation status color of eye Horsepower style color stereo system of an Automobile etc.

Attitudes towards a product Brand loyalty High involvement purchases Emotions Intelligence, personality, risk taker

Scaling ??

Scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits. Scale development is designing questions to measure the properties of an object

Scales classification bases

Subject orientation Response form Degree of subjectivity Number of dimension

Primary Scales of Measurement

Scale Figure 8.1 Nominal Numbers
Assigned to Runners
7 8 3



Rank Order of Winners

Third place Second place First place



Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale

Time to Finish, in Seconds








Scaling techniques

Paired comparison scale Ranking scale method Constant sum scaling Rating scales Differential scales (thurstone-type scales) Summated scales (likert-type scales) Semantic differential scale

Paired comparison
A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. Paired comparison scaling is the most widely used comparative scaling technique. Taste testing is paired comparison

Paired- comparison
Indicate which trait you feel is more important for being a sales person


Ranking scale method: A Rank Order scale gives the respondent a set of items and asks them to put the items in some form of order

Constant Sum Scaling

Respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the name of the scale.

Relative Advantages of Comparative Scales

Small differences between stimulus objects can be detected. Easily understood and can be applied. Involve fewer theoretical assumptions. Tend to reduce halo or carryover effects from one judgment to another.

Rating scales:

A rating scale is a set of categorize designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute.
Measuring an attribute of object or persons by judgement Continuous rating scales/graphical rating scale:

The respondents are asked to give a rating by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a continuous line. They are used to measure the attitude towards a given concept or construct.

Itemized rating scale:

For this purpose a large number of statements are collected that relate to the concept or construct being measured

How does employee get along the fellow worker?

1. 2. 3. 4. -

Involved in some frictions

Like odd man out Sometimes involved in friction Rarely involved in friction More point, more sensitive measurements

Summated scales (likert-type scales)

one of the most widely used itemized scales

end points are typically strongly agreed and strongly agree

respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement by checking one of five response categories easy for the researcher to construct and administer this scale easy for the respondent to understand suitable for mail, telephone, personal, and electronic interviews disadvantage takes longer to complete than other itemized rating scales BE CAREFUL OF WORDING

Survey Questions Part III Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement by placing an X beside a number from 1 to 5 where 1 Strong Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neither Agree nor Disagree 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Neither Agree nor Disagree 3 Agree 4 Strongly Agree 5

The school newspaper reports high quality stories The school newspaper needs better adds I like to read the school paper

I do not like the stories that are reported in the school paper

Semantic differential scale

It is a seven point rating scale on which the end points are adjectives representing opposites negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears on the left side of the scale and sometimes on the right individual items on a semantic scale may be scored on either a 3 to +3 or a 1 to 7

Semantic differential scale

1 2 3 4 5 6 7


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Convenient location inconvenient location High prices low prices For me not for me Warm atmosphere cold atmosphere Wide menu limited menu Fast service slow service High quality food low quality food A special place an every day place

Stapel Scale
Typically presented vertically, with one adjective appearing at the midpoint of a scale ranging from plus five to minus five respondent is not allowed a neutral response, as no zero point is offered many believe is confusing and difficult to apply

Please evaluate how accurately each word or phrase describes ABC College.

+5 +4

+5 +4

+5 +4

+5 +4

+2 +1 Friendly -1

+2 +1 Educational -1 Safe

+2 +1 Athletic -1

+2 +1 -1

-3 -4 -5

-3 -4 -5

-3 -4 -5

-3 -4 -5

Select a plus number by placing an X beside it for the phrases you think describe the college accurately. The more accurately you think the phrase describes the College, the larger the positive number you should choose. You should select a negative number for phrases you think do not describe the college accurately A large negative number indicates that the phrase does not describe the college at all.