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IT 605

Computer Networks

Networking Layers

Prof . Anirudha Sahoo


KReSIT
IIT Bombay

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.1


Network Architecture (OSI)

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.2


TCP/IP Layers
• Physical:
– transmitting bits over a
communication channel
• Data Link:
– transforming the raw physical layer
into a ‘link’ for the higher layer

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.3


TCP/IP Layers
• Network:
– addressing and routing of packets
• Transport:
– end-to-end connection characteristics
• Application:
– “application” protocols

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.4


Physical Layer
• Moves bits from one end to other
• Bandwidth, latency, S/N ratio

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.5


Bandwidth

• Amount of data that can be


transmitted per unit time
– expressed in cycles per second,
or Hertz (Hz) for analog devices
– expressed in bits per second
(bps) for digital devices
– KB = 2^10 bytes; Mbps =
10^6 bps
• Link v/s End-to-End Introduction
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay 1.6
Bandwidth v/s bit width

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.7


Latency (delay)
• Time it takes to send message from
point A to point B
– Latency = Propagation + Transmit +
Queue
– Propagation = Distance /
SpeedOfLight
– Transmit = Size / Bandwidth

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.8


Latency
• Queuing not relevant for direct links
• Bandwidth not relevant if Size = 1 bit
• Process-to-process latency includes
software overhead
• Software overhead can dominate when
Distance is small

• RTT: round-trip time

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.9


Delay X Bandwidth Product
• Relative importance of bandwidth
and delay
• Small message: 1ms vs 100ms
dominates 1Mbps vs 100Mbps
• Large message: 1Mbps vs 100Mbps
dominates 1ms vs 100ms

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.10


Delay X Bandwidth Product

• 100ms RTT and 45Mbps


Bandwidth = 560 KB of data

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.11


Application requirements
• Best-effort: FTP
• Bandwidth guarantees: Video
– burst versus peak rate
• Delay guarantees: voice
– jitter: variance in latency (inter-
packet gap)

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.12


Physical Layer –
Media dependent
components
• Copper: Coaxial/Twisted Pair
– Typically upto 100 Mbps
• Fibre: Single/Multi Mode
– Can transmit in Gigabits/second
• Satellite:
– Channels of 64 kbps, 128 kbps

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.13


Physical Layer –
Media independent
• Connectors: Interface between
equipment and link
• Control, clock and ground signals
• Protocols:
– RS 232 (20 kbps, 10 ft)
– RS 449 (2 Mbps, 60 ft)

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.14


Data Link Layer
Controls a single physical link
Service interface to network layer

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.15


Data link functions
• Grouping of bits into frames
• Dealing with transmission errors
• Regulating the flow of frames
– so that slow receivers are not
swamped by fast senders
• Regulating multiple access to the
medium

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.16


Data Link Layer –
Logical link control (LLC)
• Framing (start and stop)
• Error Detection
• Error Correction
• Optimal Use of Links (Sliding Window
Protocol)
– Examples: HDLC, LAP-B, LAP-D

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.17


Data Link Layer –
Medium access control
(MAC)
• Multiple Access Protocols
• Channel Allocation
• Contention, Reservation, Round-robin
• Examples: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3),
Token Ring (802.5)

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.18


Example: Ethernet (IEEE
802.3)
• Ethernet Address (48 bits)
– Example: 08:00:0D:01:74:71
• Ethernet Frame Format

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.19


Ethernet medium access:
CSMA/CD
• Carrier Sense:
– Wait for medium to become free
• Multiple Access:
– Persistent: Transmit immediately
– Non-Persistent: Wait for some
(random) time, before trying!
• Collision Detection

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.20


Collision detection and
resolution
• Listen while transmitting
– Minimum transmission time is needed
to detect collision
• Upon collision detection
– Backoff and retry
– Binary exponential backoff

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.21


Network Layer
• Need for network layer
– All machines are not Ethernet!

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.22


Network layer goals
• Hide type of subnet (Ethernet, Token
Ring, FDDI ... )
• Hide topology of subnets

• Uniform addressing scheme


• Routing

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.23


Network layer functions
• Internetworking
– uniform addressing scheme
• Routing
– choice of appropriate paths from
source to destination
• Congestion Control
– avoid overload on links/routers

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.24


Network layer services
• Provides an end to end logical link
– Provides packet forwarding,
segmentation and reassembly
• end system needs to only format a
packet with the specified header and
destination address

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.25


Connection Oriented
service
• Network layer at sender must set up
a connection to its peer at the
receiver
• Negotiation about parameters,
quality, and costing are possible
• Avoids having to choose routes on a
per packet basis

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.26


Connectionless service
• Network layer at sender simply puts
the packet on the outgoing link
without connection setup
• Intermediate nodes use routing
tables to deliver the packet to
destination
• Avoids connection setup delays

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.27


Example: Internet Protocol
(IP)
• Provides connectionless packet
delivery and “best-effort” quality of
service
• No assurance that the packet will
reach intended destination

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.28


IP addresses
• Logical address at network layer
• 32 bit address space
– Network number, Host number
• Machines on the same "network"
have same network number
• One address per interface

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.29


IP address notation
• Dotted decimal notation
– 144.16.111.2 (Class B)
– 202.54.44.120 (Class C)
– Special Conventions
• All 0s -- this host
• All 1s -- limited broadcast (localnet)

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.30


IP address issues
• Inefficient: wasted addresses
• Inflexible: fixed interpretation
• Not scalable:
– Number of networks is growing
– Not enough network numbers

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.31


IP addressing schemes

• Sub-netting: Create sub


networks within an address
space
• CIDR: Variable interpretations for
the network number
• Ipv6: 128 bit address space

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.32


Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) [RFC 1010]
• ARP request - Broadcast ``who is
a.b.c.d?''
• ARP reply - Target alone fills
<IP,Physical>

• ARP cache “arp –a”

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.33


IP forwarding at a Host
• Destination on my net?
• If yes,
– use ARP and deliver directly
• If not,
– give to default gateway

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.34


IP forwarding at a Gateway
• Am I the destination IP?
• If yes,
– deliver packet to higher layer
• If not,
– which interface to forward on?
– consult Routing Tables to decide

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.35


Network Layer –
Building routing tables
• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
[RFC 2453]
• Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) [RFC
2328]
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) [RFC
1771]

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.36


Example: RIP

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.37


Network Layer –
Congestion Control

• Congestion:
– Performance degradation due
to too many packets present in
the subnet
• Causes:
– Packets from several input lines
needing the same output line
– Bursty traffic, slow processors
– Insufficient bandwidth/buffering
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.38
Congestion control
strategies
• Packet discarding
• Flow control at higher layers Choke
the input
• Allocate resources in advance

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.39


Transport Layer
• Lowest end-to-end service

• Main Issues:
– Reliable end-to-end delivery
– Flow control
– Congestion control

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.40


User Datagram Protocol
(UDP)

• Datagram oriented
• Doesn't guarantee any
reliability
• Useful for Applications such as
voice and video, where
– retransmission should be
avoided
– the loss of a few packets does
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.41
not greatly affect performance
Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)
• Guaranteed service protocol
– ensures that a packet has been
received by the destination by using
acknowledgements and
retransmission
– applications need to establish a TCP
connection prior to transfer

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.42


TCP features
• Connection Oriented
• Reliable
• Byte Stream
• Flow Control
• Congestion Control

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.43


Different Network Devices

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.44


Interconnection devices
(switch)

Basic idea: Transfer data from


input to output

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.45


Generic Switch

Latency: Time a switch takes to


figure out where to forward a
data unit
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.46
Repeater
• Amplifies the signal received on input
and transmits it on output
• Enables the extension of a signal
over a distance

• More widely deployed in wireless


networks

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.47


Repeaters

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.48


Modem
• Accepts a serial stream of bits as
input and produces a modulated
carrier as output (or vice versa)
• Typically between (digital) computer
and (analog) telephones

• ISDN adapter: 128 Kbps v/s 56 Kbps

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.49


Modems

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.50


Hub
• Connect nodes/segments of a LAN.
– Contains multiple ports.
– When a packet arrives at one port, it
is copied to the other ports so that all
segments of the LAN can see all
packets.
– A multiple port repeater
• Intelligent/Manageable Hub

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.51


Hubs

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.52


Switch
• Reads destination address of each packet
and forwards appropriately
– Does not re-broadcast every packet to
every port
• Layer 3 switches (IP switches) also perform
routing functions
– “Route once, switch many”
– Initially packets are routed
– Cache entry for next hop for source and
dest pair is made
Prof . –
Packets are then switched
Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay
using the cache1.53
Introduction
Switches

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.54


Bridge
• Connects two LANs or two segments of the
same LAN
– The two LANs may be alike or dissimilar
– e.g., a bridge can connect an Ethernet with
a Token-Ring LAN
• May be needed due to the physical
distance between two LANs
• May be because providing so many hosts
may not be possible on one LAN.
• Provides security against promiscuous
mode
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.55
Bridge
• Examines each message on a LAN
– “ignores” same LAN destinations
– forwards ones for interconnected
LANs
• messages are accepted only by the
intended destination

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.56


Bridges

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.57


Router
• Connects at least two networks
– decides routes for packets, based on
destination address and network
topology
• Exchanges information with other
routers
– to learn network topology

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.58


Router
• Maintains a table of
– available routes and their conditions
• uses table along with path cost
algorithms to
– determine the best route for a given
packet

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.59


Routers

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.60


Gateway
• A network point that acts as an
entrance to another network
• Often associated with a router
• Often acts as a proxy server and a
firewall server

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.61


Satellites
• Geo-Stationary: 35,680 km
– Footprint (30% of Earth's surface)
• Functions:
– Accept uplink signals
– Translate signals to downlink
frequency
– Transmit downlink signals

Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay Introduction 1.62


Satellites
• Characteristics
– Transmission cost independent of
distance
– Propagation delay (0.28 seconds!)
– Broadcast medium (Security
problem!)
• Master Earth Station
• Transponders
– Listens to some portion of the
spectrum, amplifies the
Prof . Aniruddha sahoo, KReSIT, IIT Bombay
incoming
Introduction 1.63
signal and rebroadcast at another