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Welcome

Dry Running Non-


Contacting Gas
Seals
3-6 November 2003
John Crane EAA Training Centre, Manchester, England

© 2003 John Crane EAA 1


Introductions

■ Your name?

■ Where do you work?

■ How many years with your company?

■ What do you do?

■ Knowledge of Mechanical Seals?

■ Any expectations or requirements?


2
International Customer Training
Manager

John Blaber

3
Tuesday Evening

Mini-bus will pick us up from hotel


at
6.10 pm - 18.10
Wednesday Evening

Free, but pleased to


organise something if
required

5
Programme
■ Smiths & John Crane ■ Installation, Operation
■ Wet Seal Design & and Maintenance
Principles Manual
■ Dry Gas Principles ■ Fitting Procedure
■ Control and Monitoring ■ Commissioning
■ Seal Operation
■ Installing the Seal
■ Seal Configurations
■ Assembly / Dismantling
■ Transportation and
Storage ■ Assessment / Test
■ Seal Refurbishment Paper
■ Remedial work 6
Smiths Group
plc

© 2003 John Crane EAA 7


■ Smiths Group established 4th December
2000 from merger of TI Group (1919)
and Smiths Industries (1851)
■ Over 26,000 employees world-wide
■ Over 450 manufacturing and customer
facilities in 47 countries
■ Annual sales of £2.629 billion
■ Market Capitalisation Approx. £4.3
billion
All quoted figures are from 2003 Financial Report
8
- Core
Businesses
Aerospace Medical

£998 M £486 M
Over 12,000 employees Over 2,500 employees

26,000+ Employees
Speciality Detection
Engineering Systems

£872 M £273 M
Over 10,000 employees Over 1,500 employees
John Crane International

Mechanical Seals
£445 M
Sealant Supply
Over 6,000 employees
Systems
Flexible Couplings
Bearing Protectors
3D Modelling
John Crane International

■ 9000 employees

■ Operating in 47 countries

■ Over 1400 Sales & Application

Engineers

■ Manufacturing in 17 countries

■ 30 manufacturing sites

■ Over 200 Service Centres. 11


John Crane: Product Size
Range

Automotive Process Industries Marine Technology


3/8” - 5/8” : 9 - 16 mm 1” - 9” : 25 - 230 mm 8” - 56” / 200 - 1450 mm

12
History
John Crane founded in 1917 – Chicago, Illinois, USA

Crane Packing Limited established in Slough,


England, UK, in 1923, by Frank Payne - the
Company President.

Enlarged Berwick Avenue Works


Slough 1936
Frank Payne

13
Major Historical Events
■ 1917 - John Crane founded in USA

■ 1923 - John Crane UK subsidiary established

■ 1947 - John Crane UK acquired by TI Group, UK

■ 1987 - John Crane USA acquired by TI Group,


UK

■ 1988 - Ropac join John Crane Group

■ 1998 - Safematic join John Crane Group

■ 1998 - Sealol join John Crane Group


14
■ 1998 - Flexibox join John Crane Group.
Manufacturing Sites

= Dry Gas Seal Manufacturing


and Reconditioning
15
Sales & Wet Seal Service Sites

16
Sales and Service Sites

= New & Planned Dry Gas Seal Repair Centres

17
Mechanical Seals Market
*BW/IP 6%

Eagle/NOK 9%

John Crane 29% *Durametallic 8%

Burgmann 6% 'Others' include:-


John Crane Asia M Exacta Seal Merkel
Beldam Freudenburg Metax
Other 14% Sealol 6% Bestobel Garlock Nash

Technologies Chesterton 4% Canning


BT George Angus
GPM
NDA
Safematic
John Crane Cartriseal Hecker Pac-seal
Other 14% Le Carbone Hoftland Petriseal
Flexibox 4% Chetra Huhnseal Roplan
Dae Sung James Walker Sepco
Dantec Klinger Simrax
Depac Korean Seal Sealtec
Dickow Latty Tekhniseal
*Flowserve Group = 14% Erving Lowener Vulcan

18
Centrifugal Gas Compressor

19
Centrifugal Pumps

20
Typical Pump

21
Typical Pump - Sectioned

22
Typical Pump - Sectioned

23
Shaft Turning

■ Turn shafts of stored & standby

equipment

➤ Bearings - false Brinelling

➤ Shaft sag - permanent set

➤ Seal face wringing

24
Wringing

25
Basic Operation

Conventional “Wet”
Mechanical Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA 26


Basic Mechanical Seal

Loose ring set screwed to the shaft


27
Basic Mechanical Seal
Wear here will create leakage

O-ring prevents leakage through the bore


28
Basic Mechanical Seal
Heat generated here Large component
Leak path

Spring ensures automatic adjustment


29
Basic Mechanical Seal
Gasket or O-ring

Inserted stationary component API Plan 2


30
Basic Mechanical Seal

API Plan 2
31
Basic Mechanical Seal

API Plan 2
32
Basic Mechanical Seal

API Plan 2
33
Basic Mechanical Seal
Recirculation
for cooling

API Plan 11
34
Seal Failure Analysis

35
Seal Failure Analysis

36
Basic Mechanical Seal

Secondary Seal Tertiary Seal


Primary Seal
37
Basic Mechanical Seal
Spring or Spring Force Mating Ring or Seat

Primary Ring or Face


38
Spring Drive

Left hand or right hand spring?

39
Mechanical Seal
Theory
Primary Seal

© 2003 John Crane EAA 40


Primary Seal

Primary Mating
Ring Ring

Springs

Higher pressure on outside diameter


Higher pressure holds faces closed
Fluid is forced between faces to lubricate
Springs keep faces closed when no pressure
41
Primary Seal

Faces lapped flat to within 1 - 3 light bands


42
Primary Seal
■ Fluid film thickness is very important
➤ too thin - wear, causing early seal failure
➤ too thick - visible leakage

■ Must be:
➤ present - beware dry running
➤ stable

➤ clean - beware abrasive wear symptoms

➤ reasonable viscosity

➤ temperature controlled

➤ acceptable pressure.

43
Abrasive Wear

44
Is this abrasive wear?

45
Primary Seal - Abrasives

46
Primary Seal - Abrasives

47
Cyclone Separator

To mechanical seal

From pump discharge

To pump suction

48
Stable Fluid Film

49
Coning Out – Positive Rotation

50
Coning Out – Positive Rotation

51
Coning In – Negative Rotation

52
Positive & Negative Rotation
CStedy

Type 48 Refinery Seal


CStedy simulation.

Click here
to run… Type48.aas

54
Type 48 Primary Rings

Type 48MP
48LP

55
Type 48 / Type 28 Primary
Rings

56
Primary Seal

If faces are not flat, contact generates heat


Excessive wear = short life

1 light band = 0.00001181 inch or 0.0003 mm


57
Lapping

58
Lapping

59
Lapping

60
Flatness Checking - Tools

61
Flatness Checking

62
Flatness Checking

63
Flatness Checking

Distance between dark


bands only affected by angle
of Optical Flat

64
Flatness Checking

65
Flatness Checking

66
Flatness Checking

■ Dry Gas Seal faces are not lapped flat

■ Primary Ring / Face is convex

■ Mating Ring / Seat is grooved

67
Flatness Checking

68
Primary Seal – Wet Seals
■ Primary Ring (Narrow - Softer) Materials
➤ Carbon-graphite
◆ resin impregnated
◆ antimony impregnated

➤ Carbon converted to Silicon Carbide


◆ resin impregnated

69
Primary Seal – Wet Seals

Carbon converted to
Silicon Carbide

70
Primary Seal – Wet Seals
■ Primary Ring (Narrow - Softer) Materials
➤ Carbon-graphite
◆ resin impregnated
◆ antimony impregnated

➤ Carbon converted to Silicon Carbide


◆ resin impregnated
➤ Solid Silicon Carbide
◆ pure sintered

◆ reaction bonded

➤ Tungsten Carbide
◆ nickel or cobalt

bonded 71
Primary Seal – Wet Seals
■ Mating Ring (Wide - Harder) Materials
➤ Ceramic
◆ 99.5% aluminium oxide

72
Mating Rings: Ceramic

73
Mating Rings: Ceramic

74
Primary Seal – Wet Seals
■ Mating Ring (Wide - Harder) Materials
➤ Ceramic
◆ 99.5% aluminium oxide

➤ Silicon Carbide
◆ pure sintered or reaction bonded
➤ Tungsten Carbide
◆ cobalt or nickel bonded

75
Primary Seal - Dry Gas Seals
■ Primary Ring Materials
➤ Carbon-graphite
◆ antimony impregnated

◆ resin impregnated (e.g., H2S > 1%)

◆ Cranite 2000 (e.g., high pressure – T28EXP)


❖ Carbon-graphite/silicon carbide composite material

Note: In Type 28 Series Dry Gas Seals the


Primary Ring is always the stationary component

76
Primary Seal - Dry Gas Seals
■ Mating Ring Materials (Rotating in Type 28)
➤ Tungsten Carbide
◆ Cobalt bonded
◆ Nickel bonded (Optional)
➤ Silicon Carbide
◆ Pure sintered
◆ Liquid phase sintered - high pressure (XP/EXP)
➤ “Ductile” Mating Ring
◆ Tungsten carbide plating on stainless steel

77
Mating Ring Material Selection
■ Tungsten Carbide (Cobalt bonded)
➤ Tough
➤ High strength
➤ Best slow roll performance
➤ Cobalt binder can be chemically attacked
➤ Nickel bonded is available - better
resistance
■ Silicon Carbide
➤ Highly corrosion resistance
➤ Good slow roll performance
➤ Very brittle – easily chipped 78
Mating Rings

Chloride attack on
Tungsten Carbide

79
Mating Ring Material Selection

■ Ductile Mating Ring Material


➤ Ni/Cr tungsten carbide on stainless steel
◆ E.g., 410 SS; 17/4 PH; Duplex SS
➤ Ideal for outboard seal
➤ Virtually indestructible – will not shatter

➤ Lower cost

➤ Low thermal conductivity

➤ Maximum differential pressure 50 bar

➤ Higher leakage due to distortion

➤ Minimum ΔP of 1 bar required – note O/B

80
Materials
JC Vickers Thermal Expansion Thermal Density
Material Code Hardness Conductivity Coefficient Shock 000’s kg/m3
-6
W/m°C@20°C X 10 /°C 000’s W/m
Silicon Carbide
277 2500 125 4.0 24 3.1
Pure Alpha Sintered
Silicon Carbide +10% 2500
088 150 4.6 35 3.1
Si. Reaction Bonded + softer Silicon
Converted Silicon 2500
121 50 4.0 30 2.0
Carbide/ Carbon + softer carbon
Tungsten Carbide
025 1500-1600 100 5.2 48 14.7
+6% Cobalt
Tungsten Carbide
005 1300-1500 80 5.6 43 14.7
+6% Nickel
Aluminium Oxide
059 1500+ 26 6.9 6 3.9
99.5% Alumina
Austenitic Cast I ron
007 200 40 19.3 - 7.3
13% Ni, 6% Cu
Carbon-Graphite 90
171 12 3.7 10 1.8
Resin I mpregnated (estimated)

81
Mechanical Seal
Theory
Secondary Seal

© 2003 John Crane EAA 82


Secondary Seal

83
Secondary Seal
■ Three basic forms ■ Two groups
➤ O-rings ➤ Pusher
➤ PTFE sealing rings ◆ Sliding o-rings
◆ Wedges ◆ PTFE sealing rings
◆ Chevrons
➤ Non-pusher
◆ ‘C’ rings
◆ Sleeved o-rings
◆ Bellows
➤ Bellows
◆ Elastomer
◆ Metal
❖ formed
❖ edge welded
◆ PTFE

84
Secondary Seal: Pusher

Primary ring moves forward to take up wear


O-ring moves forward with the primary ring
Pushed by the hydraulic and spring pressures
85
Secondary Seal: Pusher
■ Advantages
➤ sudden failure very unlikely
➤ higher pressure capability - primary ring not
stressed
➤ wide choice of materials for all components
➤ field repairable

■ Disadvantages
➤ hang-up (not likely where o-ring is well isolated)
➤ permanent set / pressure problems (cause hang-
up)
➤ excellent shaft surface finish required
86
Pusher Seal: Hang-up

An
external
quench
will
prevent
hang-up

Product leakage solidifies / crystallises / polymerises


Prevents o-ring pushing forward - leakage increases
87
Pusher Seal: Hang-up

Or, ensure
minimum
clearance here

Excessive pressure and / or heat:


permanent set or extrusion
88
Secondary Seal: O-Rings

Typical Trade/ Minimum Maximum


Material ISO/DIN/ temperaturetemperature Comments
Common names in seals in seals
NBR General purpose material.
Medium Nitrile -40°C 100°C
Buna N Up to 120°C in hydrocarbons
CR Ideal for refrigeration duties.
Chloroprene -40°C 100°C
Neoprene Some specialist applications.
EP; EPR; EPDM Ideal for water up to 150°C.
Ethylene Propylene -40°C 135°C
Nordel™ Avoid oil/hydrocarbons.
FPM Maximum 135°C in water.
Fluorocarbon* -30°C 200°C
Viton A™ Hardens in high temp steam.
Perfluoroelastomer* FFKM; Isolast™ Wide range of chemical
-20°C 215°C
(Low temp. grades) Kalrez™ compatibility.
Perfluoroelastomer* Isolast HT™ Wide range of chemical
-20°C 315°C
(High temp. grades) Kalrez™ compatibility.

* Note: Health and Safety warning!

89
Secondary Seal: O-rings
Fluorocarbon

* > 275°C - Hydrogen Fluoride gas is a


possibility
> 316°C - Hydrogen Fluoride gas is a certainty
Open system - Hydrogen Fluoride vapour
Closed system (e.g., o-ring groove) condenses
to form liquid Hydrofluoric Acid
Wear Neoprene or PVC gloves
Protect eyes
Wash parts in Calcium Hydroxide solution

90
Secondary Seal: O-rings
Perfluoroelastomer

* > 400°C - Hydrogen Fluoride gas is likely


Open system - Hydrogen Fluoride vapour
Closed system (e.g., o-ring groove) condenses
to form liquid Hydrofluoric Acid

Wear Neoprene or PVC gloves


Protect eyes
Wash parts in Calcium Hydroxide solution

91
Stainless Steel Colour Chart

■ Straw yellow 370 – 425°C

■ Brown 480 – 540°C

■ Blue 600°C

■ Black 650°C

ALL of these are above the danger level for


Fluorocarbon and Perfluoroelastomer materials

92
Heat /
Temperature
Control
Maintaining a stable
fluid film

© 2003 John Crane EAA 93


Heat in Stuffing Box

■ Two sources of heat


➤ heat soak from the product
➤ heat generated by the seal

94
Heat generation - the causes
■ size
■ speed
■ temperature
➤ cooling
■ product properties
➤ flush or multiple
Too much heat
generated
■ surface finish -
• dry-running faces
• excessive wear
• very short seal life
■ materials of faces
■ hydraulic pressure 95
Hydraulic Balance

96
Hydraulic Balance

97
Hydraulic Balance

98
Hydraulic Balance

99
Hydraulic Balance - Actual

100
Hydraulic Balance - Actual
Hydraulic Balance - Actual

102
Hydraulic Balance - Benefits
■ Reduced heat generation
➤ Less thermal distortion of the running faces
➤ less heat to be dissipated - less cooling
required
■ Reduced wear rate
➤ longer life
■ Reduced power required to drive the seal
➤ lower running costs
■ Increased pressure range for pusher seals
➤ this simple modification allows much higher
pressures to be sealed. 103
Environment of a
Mechanical Seal
Multiple Seals

© 2003 John Crane EAA 104


Single seal is not enough
■ Use multiple seals if:
➤ product is toxic
➤ product is flammable
➤ environmental
➤ isolation required
➤ product changes state
Single seals utilise ➤ product is not a good
process gas or fluid to lubricant or is
provide the abrasive
lubricating interface ➤ suction pressure is low
film ➤ expensive product
➤ critical machine 105
Single seal is not enough
■ Use multiple seals if:
➤ product is toxic
➤ product is flammable
➤ environmental
➤ isolation required
➤ product changes state
Single seals utilise ➤ product is not a good
process gas or fluid to lubricant or is
provide the abrasive
lubricating interface ➤ suction pressure is low
film ➤ expensive product
➤ critical machine 106
Multiple Seals
■ Two common arrangements
➤ Tandem
◆ low pressure buffer between seals
◆ high integrity secondary containment
◆ inboard seal lubricated by process
➤ Double (pressurised)
◆ pressurised barrier supply required
◆ inboard seal lubricated by the barrier
medium
107
Multiple Seals: Tandem
Inboard Seal
Product
lubricates
this seal
This seal is
under full
product
pressure
Note possible
contaminatio
Use API Plan 52 n of buffer
Basic tandem non-pressurised double fluid
108
Multiple Seals: Tandem
Outboard Seal

Clean buffer
fluid
lubricates
this seal
Buffer fluid
is at low
(atmospheri
c) pressure

Use API Plan 52


Basic tandem non-pressurised double
109
Multiple Seals: Tandem
Inboard seal
most likely to
fail first
Buffer fluid
level/pressure
will rise
Outboard seal
acts as
secondary
containment
Process can
Use API Plan 52 continue until
Basic tandem non-pressurised double completed
110
Multiple Seals: Tandem

Low
pressure
fluid supply

111
Multiple Seals: Tandem

112
Double Seals: Back-to-Back
Pressurised
barrier fluid
is circulated
round the
seals

This
lubricates
both sets of
seal faces

Use API Plan 53


Basic back-to-back pressurised double seal
113
Double Seals: Back-to-Back
If outboard
seal fails,
barrier
pressure will
fail and
pump must
be switched
off as
product will
leak out

Use API Plan 53


Basic back-to-back pressurised double seal
114
Double Seals: Face-to-Face

Rotating
Mating Stationar
Ring y seals

Similar in operation to back-to-back double seal


Much shorter - only one mating ring
Simple rotating components
115
Typical Sealant Systems

116
Cartridge Seals

Advantages

© 2003 John Crane EAA 117


Cartridge Seals
Seal fully
assembled in its
own housing at
factory
All screws accessible
from outside
Fully pressure tested
before despatch
Pre-set to working
length - no
measuring
Seal and seat
square to shaft axis
Lapped faces cannot
be damaged.

Cartridge seals - designed to make installation simple


118
Conventional Seals
Fitting Conventional Mechanical Seals
Mark position of face of stuffing box on shaft
Dismantle pump
Lubricate tertiary seal
Fit seat in end cover - ensure fully home and square
Check seat is correctly located on anti-rotation pin
Measure distance from front of end cover gasket to seat ('X') taking care not to scratch lapped face
Look up seal working length in fitting instructions (L3)
Add 'X' to L3 (or subtract depending on pump design) and note dimension ('Y')
Measure 'Y' from mark on shaft towards impeller
Mark shaft in this position
Measure from this mark to end of shaft, or nearest step towards impeller and note dimension ('Z')
Carefully wipe lapped face of seat perfectly clean
Place end cover on shaft taking care not to damage seat
Lightly lubricate shaft and secondary seal
Slide seal unit on to shaft, ensuring it is the right way round
Wipe lapped face of seal perfectly clean, taking care not to damage the surface
Fit seal 'Z' from end of shaft or shaft step, ensuring it is perfectly square to axis of shaft
Evenly tighten grubscrews
Assemble pump taking care not to damage rotating seal unit
Offer end cover to face of stuffing box. Check gap before compressing seal with 'A' dimension in fitting instructions
If incorrect, dismantle pump and start again
If correct, tighten nuts on gland studs
Cross fingers

119
Conventional Seals
Fitting Conventional Mechanical Seals
Mark position of face of stuffing box on shaft
Dismantle
Common questions:
■ pump
Lubricate tertiary seal
Fit seat in end cover - ensure fully home and square
Check seat➤ was it clean?
is correctly located on anti-rotation pin
Measure distance from front of end cover gasket to seat ('X') taking care not to scratch lapped face
Look up seal did I look up the correct seal?
➤working length in fitting instructions (L3)
Add 'X' to L3 (or subtract depending on pump design) and note dimension ('Y')
Measure 'Y'➤
did I look up the correct size?
from mark on shaft towards impeller
Mark shaft in this position
Measure from this mark to end of shaft, or nearest step towards impeller and note dimension ('Z')
Carefully wipe is the seat square?
➤ lapped face of seat perfectly clean
Place end cover on shaft taking care not to damage seat
did I measure accurately and correctly?
➤ shaft and secondary seal
Lightly lubricate
Slide seal unit on to shaft, ensuring it is the right way round
➤will it work?
Wipe lapped face of seal perfectly clean, taking care not to damage the surface
Fit seal 'Z' from end of shaft or shaft step, ensuring it is perfectly square to axis of shaft
Evenly tighten grubscrews
Assemble pump for how long?
➤ taking care not to damage rotating seal unit .
Offer end cover to face of stuffing box. Check gap before compressing seal with 'A' dimension in fitting instructions
If incorrect, dismantle pump and start again
If correct, tighten nuts on gland studs
Cross fingers

120
Cartridge Seals
Fitting Conventional Mechanical Seals
Mark position of face of stuffing box on shaft
Dismantle pump
Lubricate tertiary seal
Fit seat in end cover - ensure fully home and square
Check seat is correctly located on anti-rotation pin

Fitting Cartridge Seals


Measure distance from front of end cover gasket to seat ('X') taking care not to scratch lapped face
Look up seal working length in fitting instructions (L3)
Add 'X' to L3 (or subtract depending on pump design) and note dimension ('Y')
Measure 'Y' from mark on shaft towards impeller
Mark shaft in this position
Measure from this mark to end of shaft, or nearest step towards impeller and note dimension ('Z')
Carefully wipe lapped face of seat perfectly clean
Place end cover on shaft taking care not to damage seat
Lightly lubricate shaft and secondary seal

Lubricate the sleeve o-ring


Slide seal unit on to shaft, ensuring it is the right way round
Wipe lapped face of seal perfectly clean, taking care not to damage the surface
Fit seal 'Z' from end of shaft or shaft step, ensuring it is perfectly square to axis of shaft
Evenly tighten grubscrews

Slide cartridge onto shaft


Assemble pump taking care not to damage rotating seal unit
Offer end cover to face of stuffing box. Check gap before compressing seal with 'A' dimension in fitting instructions
If incorrect, dismantle pump and start again
If correct, tighten nuts on gland studs

Assemble the pump


Cross fingers

Tighten nuts on gland studs


Tighten set screws
Remove setting clip screws.

121
Cartridge Seals
Fitting Conventional Mechanical Seals

Common knowledge:
Mark position of face of stuffing box on shaft


Dismantle pump
Lubricate tertiary seal
Fit seat in end cover - ensure fully home and square
Check seat is correctly located on anti-rotation pin
Measure distance from front of end cover gasket to seat ('X') taking care not to scratch lapped face

Fitting
the faces Cartridge
are perfectly Seals
clean
Look up seal working length in fitting instructions (L3)

Add 'X' to L3 (or subtract depending on pump design) and note dimension ('Y')
Measure 'Y' from mark on shaft towards impeller
Mark shaft in this position
Measure from this mark to end of shaft, or nearest step towards impeller and note dimension ('Z')

the seal is set to the correct working length


Carefully wipe lapped face of seat perfectly clean

Place end cover on shaft taking care not to damage seat
Lightly lubricate shaft and secondary seal

Lubricate the sleeve o-ring


Slide seal unit on to shaft, ensuring it is the right way round
Wipe lapped face of seal perfectly clean, taking care not to damage the surface

the seal is square on the shaft


Fit seal 'Z' from end of shaft or shaft step, ensuring it is perfectly square to axis of shaft

Evenly tighten grubscrews

Slide cartridge onto shaft


Assemble pump taking care not to damage rotating seal unit
Offer end cover to face of stuffing box. Check gap before compressing seal with 'A' dimension in fitting instructions
If incorrect, dismantle pump and start again

➤ the seat is correctly fitted and located on


If correct, tighten nuts on gland studs

Assemble the pump


Cross fingers

pin Tighten nuts on gland studs


➤ the sealTighten
has been set fully
screwspressure tested, so
➤ you knowRemove
it will setting
work clips.
➤ no premature failures due to installation
problems
■ Fitted faster than any conventional seal. 122