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Research has been recognized as a vital tool for solving mans multifarious problems and in making his life richer and fuller. The Meaning of Research The word research is derived from the prefix re, which means to repeat or redo, and the root word search, which means to find or look for. From the etymology of this word, research literally means to repeat looking for something, which had been existence before. Let us examine how research has been defined by experts.

Research is concerned with finding answers (Mason & Bramble, 1989). It is a systematic, organized search for knowledge or answers to questions.
It is a systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing. Schumacher (1989) It is the process of obtaining knowledge through techniques, where truth, accuracy, validity, reliability, and other criteria can be ascertained (Genato, et al, 1993)

It is critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts or the practical application of such conclusions, theories or laws (leedy, 1993) It is systematic inquiry aimed at providing information to solve problems (Emory, 1995) It is a systematic and empirical approach to answering questions (Bieger and Gail, 1996). It is concerned with understanding a phenomenon, within the context our theories and experiences regarding the phenomenon. It is the continuous discovery and exploration of the unknown. It entails an investigation of new facts, leading to the discovery of new ideas, new methods, or improvements.

Characteristics of Research
1. SYSTEMATIC It is systematic as there are interrelated steps or procedures a researcher has to observe in solving a problem.


It is not based on guesswork. This is because empirical data have to be gathered by the researcher before making any conclusion or proposing any solution to an identified difficulty or problem.

3. COMPREHENSIVEIf a researcher is serious about understanding a phenomenon, he has to examine and analyze all its aspects or angles before making a generalization or conclusion. 4. CRITICAL This means that procedures employed by the researcher must be able to withstand critical security by other researchers. -


It is rigorous as procedures to be followed in solving a problem should be relevant, appropriate, justified, and strictly observed. Whenever a researcher formulates conclusions, these are based on actual findings.



Research is said to be verifiable as other researchers can check on the correctness of its results by replicating the study, based on the methods and procedures employed by the researcher. Research is empirical as generalization drawn by a researcher is rooted upon hard evidence gathered from information collected from real life experiences or observations.


The Types of Research

There are different ways of classifying research. On the basis of who undertakes research, research can be either academic research or a research project.

Academic research

is one conducted by an individual in fulfilling the requirements for the conferment of an academic title or degree. Baby theses masters theses, feasibility studies, and doctoral dissertation fall under this type of research.

Research project is type of research undertaken by an individual or group

of individuals as part of their professional work or assignment.

When methodology or research design is used as basis for categorizing research, research can take any of the following types: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH this type of research endeavors to describe
systematically, factually, accurately and objectively a situation, problem or phenomenon.


the investigator tries to probe the significance of relationship between two or more factors or characteristics.

EXPLANATORY RESEARCH In this type of inquiry, the researcher seeks to

clarify why and how a relationship exists between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon.

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH This kind of study is undertaken when the

investigator is after probing or exploring areas where little is known about the research problem.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH In this type of research, the researcher probes

into the cause of an effect by exposing one or more experimental groups to one or more treatments or conditions.


Is this type when the investigator delves on analyzing the possible effect of a factor which cannot be manipulated and controlled.

HISTORICAL RESEARCH In historical research, the research attempts to

reconstruct the past objectively and accurately or to explain an incident that happened in the past with the use of data taken from the past.


This type of research is done when the researcher is concerned with explaining or describing a phenomenon holistically, with the use of multiple data collection techniques.

The Research Process

Research begins with an idea in which the researching has interest. It is in this phase wherein the researcher has to identify topics that interest him most.


As the ideas generated in the first phase are very general or vague, the researcher has to refine them. This is the problem definition phase.


After identifying the problems and hypothesis, the researcher has to decide on the methods and procedures he will use in the collection and analysis of data.


After preparing the research plan, the researcher has to proceed gathering the data from the subjects of the study. It is in this phase where the procedures, devised in the previous step, are implemented by the researcher rigorously.

DATA-ANALYSIS PHASE In this particular phase, the researcher analyzes the

collected data from the previous step, based on his data analysis plan.


Having analyzed the data, the researcher continues to make sense out of them by interpreting the results in terms of how they aid in responding to the research problem posed at the beginning of the study, and how this answer contributes to knowledge in the field.


After completing the data analysis and interpretation phases, the researcher has to prepare a written or oral report of the study conducted, either for publication or presentation to colleagues or a panel of experts. This report has to include a description of all the above steps in the research process.


Purpose of the Review

The review of literature and studies involves the critiquing or looking over again what other researchers have done in relation to the problem to be studied. Conducting the review serves numerous purposes.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The review of literature can broaden the researchers knowledge base research area.
It is means of ensuring originality in the conduct of ones research. It is a way of ensuring clarity and focus on ones study. It can help the researcher in designing his proposed research. It can also provide the researcher insights on the weaknesses and strengths of previous studies.

in the


It can provide findings and conclusions of past studies, which a researcher can use in relating to his findings and conclusions.
It can help the researcher in formulating the theoretical and conceptual framework for his research problem.

Requisites for Reviewing the Literature

Reviewing the literature is not an easy task. It involves a systematic identification, search, and critical analysis of existing conceptual and research literature related to the researchers topic or problem.

Conceptual literature

refers to idea, concepts and theories propounded by experts as contained in books, periodicals, and other references.

Research literature consists of the results of empirical studies conducted by

individuals and professionals on a given research problem or topic.

Presenting the Review

There are three ways of presenting the review, namely:
Chronological approach Thematic variable/factor approach Country of origin approach


The problem is the heart of any research project. research problem, there is no research. Without focused

These factors are briefly discussed below: 1. NOVEL

- When considering a research topic, the research has to focus on one which has not been investigated before. - The results of the study on a given problems should be of practical value to the researcher and the significant others in the field.



- The research needs to consider his interest in the choice of a research problem.


- This means that a problem that a investigator is going to work on can be completed without undue amount of time, money or effort.

5. RESEARCHABLE - Data can be collected to answer the problem posed by the researcher. 6. ETHICAL - A problem is said be ethical when it does not involve physical or psychological harm or damage to human beings or organizations.


Identifying Variables
To ensure objectivity in the study of an identified problem, the researcher has to be clear as what variables are to be examined or investigated.

The most commonly used classifications of variables include independent, dependent, intervening and moderating variables. Independent Variable
- The cause supposed to be responsible for bringing about changes/s in a phenomenon or situation. - The outcome of the changes/s brought about by changes in the independent variable. - a variable whose existence is inferred but that cannot be manipulated or controlled. - a variable that may or may not be controlled but has an effect on the research situation.

Dependent Variable Intervening Variable Moderator Variable

How to delimit a study is illustrated below.

This study analyzed the most commonly used strategies in developing cognitive skills among preparatory pupils in the Makati City, during the academic year 1997 1998. It involved 70 or 100% of the preparatory teachers in the public pre-schools in the venue of the study. Frequently used strategies were determined with the use of the Teaching Strategies Inventory 9TSI) which has developed and validated by Salasac in 1997. Strategies employed by the respondents were reckoned in terms of following domains of cognitive objectives; knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. (Decano, 1998).

Stating the Hypothesis of the Study

Formulation of the hypothesis of the study is another important consideration in making ones manageable. A hypothesis is but a predictive statement that represents the researchers tentative answer to the problem statement. Aside from ensuring clarity, the hypothesis serves the following functions in research: - Provides focus to the study; Tells the researcher what data to gather; Enhances objectivity in the study; and Enables the researcher to contribute to the formulation of a theory and bridge the gaps in the body of knowledge.

When constructing hypothesis, the researcher must remember that it should:

Be simple and specific; Be stated in an empirically testable form; Be related to the existing body of knowledge, and Indicate the specific nature of connection (difference relationship).

As already pointed out, the hypothesis is specific, testable prediction, It can be stated either in the null or alternative form.

A null hypothesis is a statement indicating the non-existence of difference,

relationship, or association between two or more variables or factors.

Alternative hypothesis states the nature of the connection between or

among the variables that the researcher expects.


Formulating the Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework of a study is the structure that can hold or support the theory of a research work (Leveriza, 1997). It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study exists. Thus, the theoretical framework is but a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.

Formulating the Conceptual Framework

After formulating the theoretical framework, the researcher has to develop the conceptual framework of his study. While the theoretical framework is the theory on which the study is based, the conceptual framework is the operationalization of this


Research design is basically a plan or strategy for conducting research. As a blueprint or plan, it deals with matters such as selecting the participants in the study, preparing for data collection, and planning for data analysis.

Four factors to consider in selecting the appropriate research design:

1. 2. 3. 4. Type of data to be collected Nature of data to analyzed Research questions to be answered Research goal or objective.

Five types of data:

- These are observations that a researcher makes directly at the sense of the occurrence and then relays as facts.


2. HISTORICAL DATA - These are written records of past happenings and

events. - These are observations that are quantified and exist in the form of numerical concepts.


4. CRITICAL DATA - These literary productions and are sometimes called

literary data.

5. EXPERIMENTAL DATA - These are observations of certain difference and

likenesses that arise from comparison or contrast of one set observations with another set of similar observations.


Basic Concepts in Sampling Sampling is the process of choosing a portion of a target population that can
be the source of data for ones research. It is the drawing out of samples from the universe or population of interest. Population of universe refers to the group from which the samples shall be drawn. Sample refers to the group from which data have to be collected.
The Primary advantages of sampling, rather than studying the whole population, are feasibility and convenience. In cases where the target population is quite small and also accessible, it may be preferable to conduct research using the entire population.

Essential Steps in Sampling

According to Rebullida and her colleages (1993), sampling involves the following sequential steps: Determination of the population of individual, items or cases where the data needed can be found; Determination of the sample that shall be drawn or selected from the identified population;

Finding the appropriate sample size; and

Drawing the desired sample size based on a specified sampling method.

Methods of Drawing A Random Sample

A random sample can be drawn through any of the following methods:
Simple Random Sampling- this method is the best known method in drawing out a random sample.
Systematic Random Sampling- this sampling by regular interval or according to a predetermined sequence, such that every nth of the population becomes part of the sample. Stratified Random Sampling- this sampling by stratum by stratum or layer. This method of drawing sample is used when the researcher wants to ensure that the different groups comprising the population are adequately represented in the sample. Cluster Random Sampling- the method of drawing random samples is similar to stratified random sampling in that groups of individuals are selected from the population and the subjects are drawn from these groups. Multi-Stage Random Sampling- this design is used for national, regional, provincial or country level studies( Rebullida etal., 1993). Involves several stages in drawing the sample from population.

Non-probability samples can be done through any of the following methods: Purpose Sampling the researcher selects the sampling units based on his subjective judgment. Those who meet the purpose or objective of the study are those deliberately by the researcher in his sample. Convenience Sampling- the researcher selects is respondent who are conveniently available. The process is continued until the desired until the desired sample size is obtained. This is also called accidental sampling. Quota Sampling- this non-probability sampling method is used to improve representative ness. The logic behind quota sampling is that certain characteristics describe the dimensions of the population Snowball Sampling- is used where respondents are difficult to identify and are best located through referral network

Factors to Consider in Determining Sample Size

The Type of Research Research Hypothesis

Financial Constraints
Importance of the Results Number of Variables Studied Methods of Data Collection Accuracy Needed Size of the Population

Descriptions Scores Measurement Opinions Statement Analyses

Procedures in Data Collection

a. NOTATION is a process of making very brief, written notes, tally marks, or evaluation symbols about people, objects, settings, or events being observed? b. DESCRIPTION is the process of putting observations into verbal form conveying the complete picture replete with details.

c. ANALYSIS is a process of obtaining data from objects, settings, and procedures, which involves a careful scrutiny to discover traits, meanings, and relationship. d. QUESTIONING - is a prompting process used in eliciting and probing responses from participants and information. e. TESTING is the process of obtaining data by having respondents answer written or oral examination. f. MEASUREMENT - this method of data collection assesses traits and abilities through non-testing techniques or schemes.


A. QUESTIONNAIRE is simply a set of questions which, when answered properly by a required number of property selected respondents, will supply the necessary information to complete research study.

Advantages of the questionnaire

1. By personal distribution besides, a small staff can be employed in the distribution even if the research project is a big one. 2. Responses are easy to tabulate. Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and make tabulation easy. 3. The respondents replies are free. The respondents replies are of the own free will because there is no interviews to influence him. 4. Confidential information may be given freely. Confidential information which the respondent may not reveal to an interviewer may be given freely if the respondent can be made anonymous. 5. The respondent can fill out the questionnaire at will. Because nobody is pressing him to answer the questionnaire immediately, the respondent can accomplish the questionnaire any where at his own convenience. 6. The respondent has time enough to think reflectively of his replies making then more

It is defined as a purposeful face relationship between two person, one of whom called the interviewer who asks questions to gather information and the other called the interviewer or respondent who supplies the information asker for.

Proposes and Uses of the Interview

1. The researcher may approach and interview knowledgeable people to enable him to gain insight into his problem. 2. The researcher may also interview knowledgeable people about the proper construction and valuation of a questionnaire. Or who can make any contribution to the enrichment of his study. 3. In case when the subject of the study is a person with some signs of abnormality, the interviewer may wish to gain information from the overt. Oral, physical. And emotional reactions of the subject towards certain questions to be used for a possible remedy of the abnormality. 4. The researcher may also interview as the principal tool in gathering data for his study or just to supplement data collected by other techniques.

Advantages of the Interview

1. It yields a more complete and valid information. The respondent is usually pressed for an answer to a question which the interviewer can validate at one. 2. The interview can be used with all kinds of people, whether literate or illiterate, rich or poor. Laborer or capitalist, etc. 3. The interviewer can always clarify point or questions which are vague to the interviewee. 4. Only interviewee respondent can make replies to questions of the interviewer, unlike in the case of a questionnaire in which filling up a questionnaire may be delegated to another person or the respondent may be aided by another person in making replies. 5. The interviewer can observe the nonverbal reactions or behavior of the respondent which may reveal rich pertinent information. 6. Greater complex questions can be asked with the interviewer around to emplaning things greater complex data which are vital to the study can be acquired. 7. There is flexibility. The interview can effect a modification of the interview or any question if there is a need that the desired information can be gathered.

C. OBSERVATION Observation - as a means of gathering information for research, may be

defined as perceiving data through the senses; hearing, taste, touch. And smell. The sense of sight is the most important and the most used among the sense. Observation is the most direct way and the most widely used in studying behavior. 1. To enables the research to gather empirical data which are difficult to obtain by other means. 2. To enable the research to gather sufficient data to supplement or verify information gathered by other means. 3. To enable the research to gather information or data needed to describe the aspect of a variable being studied which cannot be described accurately without observation. 4. To enable the research to gather directly primary data or first hand information for his study for a more accurate description and interpretation. 5. To enable the researcher to gather data from the laboratory or else where through experimentation.

Types of Observation
The types of observation are the following: 1. Participant and no participant observation
A. In participant observation takes active part in the activities of the group being observed. The observer lives and works with the group for a certain length of time until he learns all the ins and outs of the aspect or aspects he is studying about. B. In non-participant observation, the observer is a mere by stander observing the group he is studying about.

2. Structured and unstructured observation

A. Structured observation concentrates on a particular aspect or aspects of the variable being observed, be it a thing behavior, conditioner or situation.
B. In unstructured observation. The observer does not hold any list of the items to be observed.

3. Controlled and uncontrolled observation

A. Controlled observation is usually utilized in experimental studies in which the experimental as well as the non experimental variables are controlled by the researcher.

B. Uncontrolled observation is usually utilized in natural settings. No control whatsoever is placed upon any variable within the observation area.

Advantages of Observation
The Advantages of Observation are:
1. The investigator is able to gather directly, first hand information about the subject of his study. 2. The researcher can observe his subjects for a long as he needs the time and as many time as he can for greater accuracy and validity in description and interpretation. 3. Observation is superior technique of collecting information from nonverbal behavior and inanimate objects. The observer is in a good position to discern the significance of an inanimate object or anon-verbal behavior. 4. The subject of the inquiry can be observed in their natural settings and this will exclude artificiality in description and interpretation. This is especially true in participant and uncontrolled and unstructured observation.

Title Page Chapter I- THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND -Introduction -Background of the study -Theoretical framework -Research Paradigm -Statement of the Problem -Hypothesis -Significance of the study -Scope and Delimitation of the study -Definition of Terms Chapter 2-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES -Review of related Literature -Review of related studies -Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies Chapter 3- Methodology -Research Design -Samples and Sampling Technique -Instrument s and Techniques -Data Collection Procedures -Statistical Treatment of Data -Bibliography

2.1 CHAPTER 1- THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This Chapter consist of the introduction, background of the study, Theoretical framework, research paradigm, statement of the problem, Hypothesis , Significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the Study, and definition of terms 2.1.1 Introduction The text ordinarily begins with an introduction . In the opening Paragraph, your goal is to introduce the reader to the particular question. Your thesis is seeking to answer This section contextualizes the question and supplies the history and terminology so that the reader will be better able to follow the pages to come.

Background of the Study

This is a brief statement of the origin of the problem . It is an account describing The circumstances which suggested the research. It may include a justification of the selection of choice of the study. The background will clearly identify gaps in existing knowledge as well as outline Why the research is important and it should be conducted. Guide questions in writing a good background include: What is the identified research problem? Why is there a need to do the study about the said problem? What made the researcher decide to study?
Theoretical Framework

This section describes the theories of concepts covered or address in the research. A theory (kerlinger 1979 ) is defined as a set of interrelated construct ( variable ) Definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by Specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining natural phenomena.
Research Paradigm

A cognitive map of research , specifying the key variables showing their interrelations clarifying the relationships between and among the variables in the study And further illustrated in a research paradigm.

Statement of the Problem

Gives the general objective or purpose of the study This statement captures , in a single sentence or paragraph the essence of a study. Include a series of questions that should be stated precisely, accurately and Clearly.

Hypothesis are tentative statements about a given population. They serve as a Tentative answer to one or more of the research questions and are subject et to Statistical test. The hypothesis should be stated in the null form. The level of significance to be used should be indicated.
Significance of the study

This is a statement of why it is important to undertake this research, in term s of the field of study involved and anticipated benefits to specific individuals, organizations, and to the wider community It should include a statement on relevance to felt needs, the potential contribution of the research to new knowledge, and policy implications and other possible uses for its results. What is the potential of the research to produce knowledge for some useful Application? This section is linked to the background.

Scope and delimitation of the study

Limits of the study need to properly defined. The scope should indicate a reasonable area of study which is large enough to be significant but narrow enough to permit careful treatment. The scope of the problem should be stated specifically. The nature of any subject Treated.,their number, the treatments they received, any limitation that exist in the Reference population. Instruments or research design should be stated and time frame/ duration of the study.
Definition of Terms

Clearly definitions should be stated for all important variables especially if these are to be measured by means of specific instruments or combination of devices. Include conceptual and operational definition of important terms used in the study. Arranged in alphabetical order
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter consists of review of related literature and studies and synthesis Of the reviewed literature and studies.
Review of Related Literature

Presented in topical form, irrespective of whether it is local or foreign and not Necessarily in chronological order. Cite recent related literature written in the last ten years except for seminar literature

Review of Related Studies

Presented in topical form, irrespective of whether it is local or foreign and not necessarily in chronological order..Only studies which are related in purpose, method or Findings to the current study should be included in the review. The discussion of such studies should be in the form of a critical analysis of the purposes, method of the study , principal findings and conclusions. Include only recent related studies conducted in the last five years. Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies This is a summary emphasizing the relevance of the literature and studies To the current study. Citing among others how the reviewed studies are similar or different from previous studies.

Chapter 3- Research Methodology

This chapter includes the research design, the samples and sampling technique to be used , instruments and techniques, data collection procedures and Statistical treatment of data.
Research Design

This section describes a brief description of the research method used and Justification on the method used for the study.
Samples and Sampling Technique Used

This section describes the sample profile, sample size and sampling procedure

Samples and Sampling Technique Used This section describes the sample profile, sample size and sampling procedure Instruments and techniques A description of the adoption , construction, validation, and administration Of instruments should be included such as tests, questionnaire, interview Guidelines , observation checklist etc. Description of instrument should indicate whether it is original, adapted or Standardized test. The explanation of the content , how norms are developed or Interpreted, and the validity and reliability of test should be included. Data Collection Procedures This includes details on the gathering of data, duration and time frame In case of experiments , this section should include instruction given To participants, the formation of groups, the experimental manipulations And control features in the design. Statistical Treatment of Data This include descriptive or inferential statistics to be used in consonance With specific problems/ hypothesis to be tested.