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Diploma in Civil Engineering


TERM WORK : SKETCHES FOR : Foundations - various types, layout plan, timbering in trenches Brick and stone masonry work. Scaffolding works and centering. Form work Doors, Windows, Ventilators, Wardrobe. Floors including wooden floor. Roofs, false-ceiling Stairs and ramps - Drawings of earthquake prone masonry building FIELD WORK : - Exercise for giving layout using foundation plan of a given building on site. - Exercise for pre-casting the P.C.C. & R.C.C. simple units. - Exercise for carrying out different types of masonry. FIELD VISITS : - Arrange field visits at construction site where following works are in progress: (a) Excavation for foundations (b) Concreting (c) Masonry (d) Plastering, pointing - Visit to site where special machineries are used in construction work and prepare report. REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION : 1.1 History and the scope of the course. 1.2 Technical terms given as below: Fluid-Fluid Mechanics-HydraulicsHydrostatics-Hydro kinematics Hydro Dynamics-Ideal and Real Fluid. 1.3 Properties of liquid such as: Viscosity-Density-Specific GravitySurface Tension-Capilarity Vapour Pressure-Elasticity. 1.4 S.I. units Used in Hydraulics 2. LIQUID PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT: 2.1 Various Types of Pressure Such as: Atmospheric Pressure-Gauge PressureAbsolute Pressure Vacuum Pressure-Separation Pressure 2.2 Measurement of Pressure. 2.3 Various types of pressure such as --Atmospheric pressure--Gauge pressure---Absolute pressure ---Vacuum pressure --separation pressure 2.4 Measurement of pressure 2.4.1 Measurement of light pressure by Pizometer tube 2.4.2 Measurement of moderate pressure by U tube manometer (Positive and Negative pressure) 2.4.3 Measurement of Gauge pressure and Vacuum pressure 2.4.4 Measurement of difference pressure using U tube Manometer and inverted U tube Manometer 3. HYDROSTATICS: 3.1 Relation between pressure and depth of liquid 3.1.1 Establish above relationship 3.1.2 Pressure diagram for different conditions 3.1.3 Total pressure and center of pressure from pressure diagram 3.1.4 Conversion of one pressure to another pressure (using S.I.units) 3.2 Total Pressure and Center of Pressure for ---Horizontally immersed Surface-vertically immersed surface inclined immersed surface 3.2.1 Compute these Pressures for the above three conditions and also for practical l field situations. 3.3 Use of Transducer for measuring pressure in practical field 4. HYDRO KINEMATICS: 4.1 Reynolds number Definition --Computation --Importance in determining type of flow 4.2 Types of flow Laminar --Turbulent --Uniform --Non- uniform --Steady Un-steady --One, Two and Three Dimensional flow 4.2.1 Practical situations where above types and their Combination occurs 4.3 Continuity Equation 4.3.1 Concept of Mean Velocity 4.3.2 Derivation and applications of Continuity Equation in solving field problems (for one & two dimensional flow only) 5. ENERGY AND MOMENTUM EQUATION: 5.1 Water energy and its form such as ---Potential---Kinematic--Pressure 5.1.1 Expression of above energy and conversion of them in linear measurement 5.1.2 Conversion of energies from one to another form 5.2 Concept of total energy 5.2.1 Bernoullis theorem ---statement-- -derivation---limitations-- applications in solving problems 5.3 Applications of Bernoullis theorem --venturi meter---Orifice meter ---Pitot tube---Prandtls tube --venturi flume and Numerical problems related to above 5.4 Momentum Equation 5.4.1 Statement 5.4.2 Newtons second law of motionits derivation 5.4.3 Application for computing force on bend of same and varying diameter (two directions only) 6. HYDRAULIC CO-EFFICIENTS: 6.1 Coefficient contraction, velocity and discharge 6.1.1 Definitions relation, expression (derivation and application) 6.2 Calibration curve-computation of discharge from curve, Interpolation and extrapolation. 6.3 Computation of total volume of water supply to field and preparation of bill for calculating water charges 7. FLOW THROUGH PIPES: 7.1 Characteristics of flow through pipes 7.2 Energy (head) losses in flow through pipes 7.2.1 Major losses such as --loss of head due to friction- Darcy Wisbach formula 7.2.2 Minor losses such as --loss of head at entry, change in diameter, bend etc. 7.2.3 Problems on head losses 7.3 Hydraulic Gradient Line (H.G.L.) & Total Energy Line (T.E.L.) 7.3.1 Effect of entry at pipe, change in diameter, bend etc. on H.G.L. & T.E.L. 7.3.2 Plotting of H.G.L. & T.E.L. 7.4 Design of pipeline for given flow -- using formulae ---using nomograms 7.4.1 Computation of height of reservoir 7.5 Compound pipe and equivalent sizes 8. FLOW THROUGH OPEN CHANNEL: 8.1 Characteristics of open channel flow 8.1.1 Comparison of pipe flow and open channel flow 8.1.2 Field examples of open channel flow 8.2 Analyse uniform flow in open channel 8.2.1 Froudes Number and classification of flow on Froudes number 8.2.2 Hydraulic Mean Depth---concept and computation 8.2.3 Chezys formula, Basins formula, Mannings formula ---use of above formulae 8.2.4 Most economical sections of channels for rectangular, trapezoidal & circular shapes 8.3 Specific Energy Diagram 8.3.1 Expression and sketch of specific energy diagram with explanation of critical and super-critical flow, critical depth hydraulic flow 8.3.2 Computation of critical depth 8.3.3 Hydraulic jump ---conditions and uses 8.4 River Gauging 8.4.1 Velocity distribution in channel flow. 8.4.2 Mean velocity Concept Computation by --Surface float -velocity rod --Current meter 9. FLOW OVER NOTCHES AND WEIRS: 9.1 Types of notches and weirs 9.2 Computation of discharge 9.2.1 Discharge using rectangular and V notch 9.2.2 Derivation of formula and its use 9.2.3 Discharge using various types of weirs 9.2.4 Derivation of formula and its use 9.2.5 End contraction and velocity of approach - their effects on computation of discharge 10. PUMPS: 10.1 Reciprocating and centrifugal pumps---their construction--their comparison 10.2 Suitable use of each type of pump 10.3 Selection of pump 10.4 Verification of efficiency of pump

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS : (A) Laboratory tests : (i) Bricks : * Field tests for size, shape and soundness * Compressive strength of bricks * Water absorption test for bricks (ii) Course aggregrates : * Abrasion test on aggregate * Impact test on aggregate (iii) Fine aggregrates : * Sieve analysis of aggregrate and Grading of sand * Bulking of sand, silt and clay content (iv) Steel : * Tensile strength of M.S bar * Tensile strength of H.T.steel (v) Cement : * Initial setting time of cement * Soundness test of cement Note : Prepare comprehensive test reports for the above laboratory tests by giving justifications for acceptance or rejection of the material. (B) Local Market survey : Conduct local market survey for different materials/ products available for the given job regarding cost, quality, suitability, availability and finally selection of best suitable material for the job/item. List of materials for market survey : * Clay products * Plastics/PVC * Lime/cement * Paints/varnishes/ adhesives * Timber/timber products * Glass/porcelene * Steel and iron * Fire proofing/accoustics/ insulating products (Atleast one material/product from each of the above list) Note : * Make preliminary preparations prior to visit/ market survey * Prepare a Questionnaire for the planned visit/market survey for students & give a copy of the same to each student after the visit or market survey.

Laboratory Experiments : 1. To determine Modulus of Elasticity for different wires made from copper and aluminum 2. Tension test on mild steel specimen 3. Tension test on cast iron specimen 4. Compression test on concrete cube, brick, mild steel, cast iron, aluminum, wood, etc. 5. Single shear and double shear test on material 6. Izod impact test on mild steel, cast iron, aluminum, etc. 7. Charpy impact test on mild steel, cast iron, aluminum, etc. 8. Bending on wood specimen of different size 9. To determine forces developed in the members of simple truss by Graphical Method

Course content 1. Introduction and scales 2. Chain & tape survey 3. Compass survey 4. Leveling and Contouring 5. Plane table survey 6. Introduction to theodolite, types, its uses, least count, settings,permanent and temporary adjustments methods, errors, error resolving REFERENCE BOOKS : 1. Plane

A. Practices and projects in the field for -Chain and tape survey -Chain and compass survey -Leveling survey -Plain table survey -Use of theodolite in traverse and tachemetry B. For all Projects, there is compulsion in presence for Students -Filling of appropriate tables -Calculations, -Finding errors -Error resolving using Graphical and Analytical methods -Preparation of drawing -Presentation -Binding of all sheets C. Practical Examination before term end exam