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Seventh Edition

CHAPTER VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

1 DYNAMICS

7
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies:
Energy and Momentum Methods
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Contents
Introduction Systems of Rigid Bodies
Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body Conservation of Angular Momentum
Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body Sample Problem 17.6
Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion Sample Problem 17.7
Systems of Rigid Bodies Sample Problem 17.8
Conservation of Energy
Eccentric Impact
Power
Sample Problem 17.9
Sample Problem 17.1
Sample Problem 17.2 Sample Problem 17.10
Sample Problem 17.3 Sample Problem 17.11
Sample Problem 17.4
Sample Problem 17.5
Principle of Impulse and Momentum

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Introduction
• Method of work and energy and the method of impulse and
momentum will be used to analyze the plane motion of rigid
bodies and systems of rigid bodies.

• Principle of work and energy is well suited to the solution of


problems involving displacements and velocities.
T1 + U1→2 = T2

• Principle of impulse and momentum is appropriate for


problems involving velocities and time.
 t2    t2  
L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 ( H O )1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = ( H O ) 2
t1 t1

• Problems involving eccentric impact are solved by supplementing


the principle of impulse and momentum with the application of
the coefficient of restitution.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body


• Method of work and energy is well adapted to
problems involving velocities and displacements.
Main advantage is that the work and kinetic
energy are scalar quantities.
• Assume that the rigid body is made of a large
number of particles.
T1 + U1→2 = T2
T1 , T2 = initial and final total kinetic energy of
particles forming body
U1→2 = total work of internal and external forces
acting on particles of body.
• Internal forces between particles A and B are equal
and opposite.
• In general, small displacements of the particles A
and B are not equal but the components of the
displacements along AB are equal.
• Therefore, the net work of internal forces is zero.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body


• Work of a force during a displacement of its
point of application,
A2  s
 2
U1→2 = ∫ F ⋅ dr = ∫ ( F cos α ) ds
A1 s1
 
• Consider the net work of two forces
 F and − F
forming a couple of moment M during a
displacement of their points of application.
     
dU = F ⋅ dr1 − F ⋅ dr1 + F ⋅ dr2
= F ds 2 = Fr dθ
= M dθ
θ2
U1→2 = ∫ M dθ
θ1
= M (θ 2 − θ1 ) if M is constant.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body


Forces acting on rigid bodies which do no work:
• Forces applied to fixed points:
- reactions at a frictionless pin when the supported body
rotates about the pin.

• Forces acting in a direction perpendicular to the displacement


of their point of application:
- reaction at a frictionless surface to a body moving along
the surface
- weight of a body when its center of gravity moves
horizontally

• Friction force at the point of contact of a body rolling without


sliding on a fixed surface.
dU = F dsC = F ( vc dt ) = 0

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Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion


• Consider a rigid body of mass m in plane motion.
T = 12 mv 2 + 12 ∑ Δmi vi′ 2
= 12 mv 2 + 12 (∑ ri′2Δmi )ω 2
= 12 mv 2 + 12 I ω 2

• Kinetic energy of a rigid body can be separated into:


- the kinetic energy associated with the motion of
the mass center G and
- the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of
the body about G.

• Consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis


through O.
T = 12 ∑ Δmi vi2 + 12 ∑ Δmi ( riω ) 2 + 12 (∑ ri2Δmi )ω 2
= 12 I Oω 2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Systems of Rigid Bodies


• For problems involving systems consisting of several rigid bodies, the
principle of work and energy can be applied to each body.

• We may also apply the principle of work and energy to the entire system,
T1 + U1→2 = T2 T1 ,T2 = arithmetic sum of the kinetic energies of
all bodies forming the system
U1→2 = work of all forces acting on the various
bodies, whether these forces are internal
or external to the system as a whole.

• For problems involving pin connected members, blocks and pulleys


connected by inextensible cords, and meshed gears,
- internal forces occur in pairs of equal and opposite forces
- points of application of each pair move through equal distances
- net work of the internal forces is zero
- work on the system reduces to the work of the external forces

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Conservation of Energy
• Expressing the work of conservative forces as a
change in potential energy, the principle of work
and energy becomes
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
• Consider the slender rod of mass m.
T1 = 0, V1 = 0
T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22

( )
2
(
= 12 m 12 lω ) 2
+ 12 2
1 ml ω =
12
1 ml
2
2 3
ω 2

V2 = − 12 Wl sin θ = − 12 mgl sin θ

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
1 ml 2 2 1
0= ω − mgl sin θ
• mass m 2 3 2
ω =  sin θ 
• released with zero velocity 3g
• determine ω at θ  l 
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Power

• Power = rate at which work is done


 
• For a body acted upon by force F and moving with velocity v ,
dU  
Power = = F ⋅v
dt

• For a rigid body rotating with an
 angular velocity ω and acted
upon by a couple of moment M parallel to the axis of rotation,
dU M dθ
Power = = = Mω
dt dt

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 17.1


SOLUTION:
• Consider the system of the
flywheel and block. The work
done by the internal forces exerted
by the cable cancels.

• Note that the velocity of the block


and the angular velocity of the
drum and flywheel are related by
v = rω
2 • Apply the principle of work and
For the drum and flywheel, I = 10.5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s .
The bearing friction is equivalent to a kinetic energy to develop an
couple of 60 lb ⋅ ft. At the instant shown, expression for the final velocity.
the block is moving downward at 6 ft/s.
Determine the velocity of the block after
it has moved 4 ft downward.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.1


SOLUTION:
• Consider the system of the flywheel and block. The work
done by the internal forces exerted by the cable cancels.
• Note that the velocity of the block and the angular velocity of
the drum and flywheel are related by
v 6 ft s v v
v = rω ω1 = 1 = = 4.80 rad s ω2 = 2 = 2
r 1.25 ft r 1.25
• Apply the principle of work and kinetic energy to develop an
expression for the final velocity.
T1 = 12 mv12 + 12 I ω12
1 240 lb 2 1
= ( 6 ft s ) + ( 10 . 5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s )( 4 . 80 rad s ) 2
2 32.2 ft s 2 2
= 255 ft ⋅ lb

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22
2
1 240 2 1  v 
= v2 + 10.5 2  = 7.09v22
2 32.2 2  1.25 
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 17.1


T1 = 12 mv12 + 12 I ω12 = 255 ft ⋅ lb

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22 = 7.09v22

• Note that the block displacement and pulley


rotation are related by
s 4 ft
θ2 = 2 = = 3.20 rad
r 1.25 ft
Then,
U1→ 2 = W ( s2 − s1 ) − M (θ 2 − θ1 )
= ( 240 lb )( 4 ft ) − ( 60 lb ⋅ ft )( 3.20 rad )
= 768 ft ⋅ lb

• Principle of work and energy:


T1 + U1→ 2 = T2
255 ft ⋅ lb + 768 ft ⋅ lb = 7.09 v22
v2 = 12.01ft s v2 = 12.01ft s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 17.2


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting of the two
gears. Noting that the gear rotational
speeds are related, evaluate the final
kinetic energy of the system.
• Apply the principle of work and energy.
Calculate the number of revolutions
m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm required for the work of the applied
mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm moment to equal the final kinetic energy
of the system.
The system is at rest when a moment
• Apply the principle of work and energy to
of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B.
a system consisting of gear A. With the
Neglecting friction, a) determine the final kinetic energy and number of
number of revolutions of gear B before revolutions known, calculate the moment
its angular velocity reaches 600 rpm, and tangential force required for the
and b) tangential force exerted by gear indicated work.
B on gear A.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.2


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting of the two gears. Noting
that the gear rotational speeds are related, evaluate the
final kinetic energy of the system.

ωB =
( 600 rpm )( 2π rad rev )
= 62.8 rad s
60 s min
r 0.100
ω A = ω B B = 62.8 = 25.1rad s
rA 0.250

I A = m Ak A2 = (10kg )( 0.200m ) 2 = 0.400 kg ⋅ m 2


I B = mB k B2 = ( 3kg )( 0.080m ) 2 = 0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2

T2 = 12 I Aω A2 + 12 I Bω B2

= 12 ( 0.400 )( 25.1 ) 2 + 12 ( 0.0192 )( 62.8) 2


= 163.9 J

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.2


• Apply the principle of work and energy. Calculate
the number of revolutions required for the work.
T1 + U1→ 2 = T2
0 + ( 6θ B ) J = 163.9J
27.32
θ B = 27.32 rad θB = = 4.35 rev

• Apply the principle of work and energy to a system
consisting of gear A. Calculate the moment and
tangential force required for the indicated work.
r 0.100
θ A = θ B B = 27.32 = 10.93 rad
rA 0.250
T2 = 12 I Aω A2 = 12 ( 0.400 )( 25.1 ) 2 = 126.0 J

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2
0 + M A (10.93 rad ) = 126.0J
11.52
M A = rA F = 11.52 N ⋅ m F= = 46.2 N
0.250

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 17.3


SOLUTION:
• The work done by the weight of the
bodies is the same. From the principle
of work and energy, it follows that each
body will have the same kinetic energy
after the change of elevation.
• Because each of the bodies has a
different centroidal moment of inertia,
the distribution of the total kinetic
A sphere, cylinder, and hoop, each energy between the linear and rotational
having the same mass and radius, are components will be different as well.
released from rest on an incline.
Determine the velocity of each body
after it has rolled through a distance
corresponding to a change of elevation
h.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.3


SOLUTION:
• The work done by the weight of the bodies is the
same. From the principle of work and energy, it
follows that each body will have the same kinetic
energy after the change of elevation.
v
With ω =
r
2
2 2 2 v 
T2 = 12 mv + 12 I ω = 12 mv + 12 I  
r
 I 
= 12  m + 2 v 2
 r 

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2
 I 
0 + Wh = 12  m + 2 v 2
 r 
2Wh 2 gh
v2 = =
m + I r 2 1 + I mr 2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Sample Problem 17.3


• Because each of the bodies has a different
centroidal moment of inertia, the distribution of the
total kinetic energy between the linear and
rotational components will be different as well.
2 gh
v2 =
1 + I mr 2
Sphere : I = 52 mr 2 v = 0.845 2 gh
Cylinder : I = 12 mr 2 v = 0.816 2 gh
Hoop : I = mr 2 v = 0.707 2 gh
NOTE:
• For a frictionless block sliding through the same
distance, ω = 0, v = 2 gh
• The velocity of the body is independent of its mass
and radius.
• The velocity of the body does depend on
I = k2
mr 2 r2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.4


SOLUTION:
• The weight and spring forces are
conservative. The principle of work and
energy can be expressed as
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
• Evaluate the initial and final potential
energy.
A 30-lb slender rod pivots about the
point O. The other end is pressed • Express the final kinetic energy in terms
against a spring (k = 1800 lb/in) until of the final angular velocity of the rod.
the spring is compressed one inch and • Based on the free-body-diagram
the rod is in a horizontal position. equation, solve for the reactions at the
If the rod is released from this position, pivot.
determine its angular velocity and the
reaction at the pivot as the rod passes
through a vertical position.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.4


SOLUTION:
• The weight and spring forces are conservative. The
principle of work and energy can be expressed as
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

• Evaluate the initial and final potential energy.


V1 = Vg + Ve = 0 + 12 kx12 = 12 (1800 lb in.)(1in.) 2
= 900 in ⋅ lb = 75 ft ⋅ lb
V2 = Vg + Ve = Wh + 0 = ( 30 lb )(1.5 ft )
1 ml 2
I = 12 = 45 ft ⋅ lb
1  30 lb  • Express the final kinetic energy in terms of the angular
=  ( 5 ft ) 2
12  32.2 ft s 2  velocity of the rod.

= 1.941lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22 = 12 m( rω 2 ) 2 + 12 I ω 22
1 30
= (1.5ω 2 ) 2 + 12 (1.941)ω 22 = 2.019ω 22
2 32.2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.4


From the principle of work and
energy,
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
0 + 75 ft ⋅ lb = 2.019ω 22 + 45 ft ⋅ lb ω 2 = 3.86 rad s

• Based on the free-body-diagram equation, solve for the


reactions at the pivot.

an = r ω 2 = (1.5 ft )( 3.86 rad s ) = 22.3 ft s
2 2 2 an = 22.3 ft s 2

at = rα at = rα

∑ M O = ∑ ( M O ) eff 0 = I α + m( r α ) r α =0
∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff Rx = m ( r α ) Rx = 0

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy )eff R y − 30 lb = − man

=−
30 lb
32.2 ft s 2
( 22 . 3 ft s 2
)
R y = 9.22 lb 
R = 9.22
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.5


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting of the two
rods. With the conservative weight force,
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
• Evaluate the initial and final potential
energy.
• Express the final kinetic energy of the
Each of the two slender rods has a system in terms of the angular velocities of
mass of 6 kg. The system is released the rods.
from rest with β = 60o.
• Solve the energy equation for the angular
Determine a) the angular velocity of velocity, then evaluate the velocity of the
rod AB when β = 20 , and b) the
o
point D.
velocity of the point D at the same
instant.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.5


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting of the two rods. With
the conservative weight force,
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

• Evaluate the initial and final potential energy.


V1 = 2Wy1 = 2( 58.86 N )( 0.325 m )
= 38.26 J

V2 = 2Wy2 = 2( 58.86 N )( 0.1283 m )


= 15.10 J

(
W = mg = ( 6 kg ) 9.81m s 2 )
= 58.86 N

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.5


• Express the final kinetic energy of the system in terms
of the angular velocities of the rods.

v AB = ( 0.375 m )ω
 
Since vB is perpendicular to AB and vD is horizontal,
the instantaneous center of rotation for rod BD is C.
BC = 0.75 m CD = 2( 0.75 m ) sin 20° = 0.513 m
and applying the law of cosines to CDE, EC = 0.522 m
Consider the velocity of point B

vB = ( AB )ω = ( BC )ω AB ω BD = ω

vBD = ( 0.522 m )ω

For the final kinetic energy,


1 ml 2 = 1 ( 6 kg )( 0.75 m ) 2 = 0.281kg ⋅ m 2
I AB = I BD = 12 12
1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 + 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2
T2 = 12 AB 2 AB AB 12 BD 2 BD BD
1 ( 6 )( 0.375ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2 + 1 ( 6 )( 0.522ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2
= 12 2 12 2
= 1.520ω 2
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.5


• Solve the energy equation for the angular velocity,
then evaluate the velocity of the point D.
T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
0 + 38.26 J = 1.520ω 2 + 15.10 J
ω = 3.90 rad s

ω AB = 3.90 rad s

vD = ( CD )ω
= ( 0.513 m )( 3.90 rad s )
= 2.00 m s

vD = 2.00 m s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Principle of Impulse and Momentum


• Method of impulse and momentum:
- well suited to the solution of problems involving time and velocity
- the only practicable method for problems involving impulsive
motion and impact.

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

• The momenta of the particles of a system may be reduced to a vector


attached to the mass center equal to their sum,
  
L = ∑ vi Δmi = mv

and a couple equal to the sum of their moments about the mass center,
  
H G = ∑ ri′ × vi Δmi
• For the plane motion of a rigid slab or of a rigid body symmetrical with
respect to the reference plane,

H G = Iω

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Principle of Impulse and Momentum


• Principle of impulse and momentum for the plane motion of a rigid slab
or of a rigid body symmetrical with respect to the reference plane
expressed as a free-body-diagram equation,

• Leads to three equations of motion:


- summing and equating momenta and impulses in the x and y
directions
- summing and equating the moments of the momenta and impulses
with respect to any given point

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Principle of Impulse and Momentum


• Noncentroidal rotation:
- The angular momentum about O
I Oω = I ω + ( mv ) r
= I ω + ( mr ω ) r
(
= I + mr 2 ω )
- Equating the moments of the momenta and
impulses about O,
t2
I Oω1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = I Oω 2
t1

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Systems of Rigid Bodies


• Motion of several rigid bodies can be analyzed by applying
the principle of impulse and momentum to each body
separately.

• For problems involving no more than three unknowns, it may


be convenient to apply the principle of impulse and
momentum to the system as a whole.

• For each moving part of the system, the diagrams of momenta


should include a momentum vector and/or a momentum couple.

• Internal forces occur in equal and opposite pairs of vectors and


do not generate nonzero net impulses.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Conservation of Angular Momentum


• When no external force acts on a rigid body or a system of rigid
bodies, the system of momenta at t1 is equipollent to the system
at t2. The total linear momentum and angular momentum about
any point are conserved,
 
L1 = L2 ( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2

• When the sum of the angular impulses pass through O, the


linear momentum may not be conserved, yet the angular
momentum about O is conserved,
( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2

• Two additional equations may be written by summing x and


y components of momenta and may be used to determine
two unknown linear impulses, such as the impulses of the
reaction components at a fixed point.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.6


SOLUTION:
• Considering each gear separately, apply
the method of impulse and momentum.

• Solve the angular momentum equations


for the two gears simultaneously for the
unknown time and tangential force.
m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm
mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm

The system is at rest when a moment


of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B.
Neglecting friction, a) determine the
time required for gear B to reach an
angular velocity of 600 rpm, and b)
the tangential force exerted by gear B
on gear A.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.6


SOLUTION:
• Considering each gear separately, apply the method of impulse
and momentum.

moments about A:
0 − FtrA = − I A ( ω A ) 2
Ft ( 0.250 m ) = ( 0.400 kg ⋅ m )( 25.1rad s )
Ft = 40.2 N ⋅ s

moments about B:
0 + Mt − FtrB = I B ( ω B ) 2
( 6 N ⋅ m ) t − Ft ( 0.100 m )
= (0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2 )( 62.8 rad s )

• Solve the angular momentum equations for the two gears simultaneously
for the unknown time and tangential force.
t = 0.871 s F = 46.2 N

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.7


SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of impulse and momentum
to find variation of linear and angular
velocities with time.
• Relate the linear and angular velocities
when the sphere stops sliding by noting
Uniform sphere of mass m and that the velocity of the point of contact is
radius r is projected along a rough zero at that instant.
horizontal surface with a linear
• Substitute for the linear and angular
velocity v1 and no angular velocity.
velocities and solve for the time at which
The coefficient of kinetic friction is
µk . sliding stops.
• Evaluate the linear and angular velocities
at that instant.
Determine a) the time t2 at which
the sphere will start rolling without
sliding and b) the linear and angular
velocities of the sphere
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. reserved. 17 - 35
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.7


SOLUTION:
• Apply principle of impulse and momentum
to find variation of linear and angular
velocities with time.
• Relate linear and angular velocities when
sphere stops sliding by noting that velocity
Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 of point of contact is zero at that instant.

y components: • Substitute for the linear and angular


velocities and solve for the time at which
Nt − Wt = 0 N = W = mg
sliding stops.
x components: v2 = rω 2
mv1 − Ft = mv2
 5 µk g 
mv1 − µ k mgt = mv2 v2 = v1 − µ k gt v1 − µ k gt = r  t
 2 r 
moments about G: 2 v1
t=
Ftr = I ω 2 7 µk g
( µ k mg ) tr = ( 52 mr 2 )ω 2 ω2 =
5 µk g
t
2 r
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Seventh

Sample Problem 17.7


• Evaluate the linear and angular velocities
at that instant.
 2 v1 
v2 = v1 − µ k g  
 7 µk g 
5
v2 = v1
7
Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2
y components: N = W = mg 5 µ k g  2 v1 
ω2 =  
2 r  7 µ k g 
x components: v2 = v1 − µ k gt
5 v1
ω2 =
5 µk g 7r
moments about G: ω2 = t
2 r

v2 = rω 2
 5 µk g  2 v1
v1 − µ k gt = r  t t=
 2 r  7 µk g

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 37


Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.8


SOLUTION:
• Observing that none of the external
forces produce a moment about the y
axis, the angular momentum is
conserved.
• Equate the initial and final angular
momenta. Solve for the final angular
Two solid spheres (radius = 3 in., velocity.
W = 2 lb) are mounted on a spinning • The energy lost due to the plastic impact
horizontal rod ( I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 , is equal to the change in kinetic energy
ω = 6 rad/sec) as shown. The balls are of the system.
held together by a string which is
suddenly cut. Determine a) angular
velocity of the rod after the balls have
moved to A’ and B’, and b) the energy
lost due to the plastic impact of the
spheres and stops.
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 38
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.8


SOLUTION:
• Observing that none of the
external forces produce a
moment about the y axis, the
angular momentum is
conserved.
• Equate the initial and final
Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 angular momenta. Solve for
the final angular velocity.
2[ ( ms r1ω1 ) r1 + I S ω1 ] + I Rω1 = 2[ ( ms r2ω 2 ) r2 + I S ω 2 ] + I Rω 2
ms r12 + I S + I R
ω 2 = ω1
ms r22 + I S + I R
ω1 = 6 rad s I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

2 ma 2
  2  2
2 lb
IS = = 2  ft  = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2
5 5 2
 32.2 ft s  12 
2 2
2  2  5  2  2  25  ω 2 = 2.08 rad s
mS r1 =    = 0.0108 mS r2 =    = 0.2696
 32.2  12   32.2  12 
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 39
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.8


• The energy lost due to the
plastic impact is equal to the
change in kinetic energy of the
system.

ω1 = 6 rad s ω 2 = 2.08 rad s


I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 I S = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

mS r12 = 0.0108 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 mS r22 = 0.2696 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

( ) (
T = 2 12 mS v 2 + 12 I S ω 2 + 12 I Rω 2 = 12 2mS r 2 + 2 I S + I R ω 2 )
T1 = 12 ( 0.275)( 6 ) 2 = 4.95 ft ⋅ lb
T2 = 12 ( 0.792)( 2.08) 2 = 1.71ft ⋅ lb
ΔT = T2 − T1 = 1.71 − 4.95 ∆T = −3.24 ft ⋅ lb
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 40
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Eccentric Impact

( uA ) n = ( uB ) n
Period of deformation Period of restitution


Impulse = ∫ Rdt Impulse = ∫ Pdt

• Principle of impulse and momentum is supplemented by




e = coefficient of restitution = 
Rdt
∫ Pdt
( v′B ) n − ( v′A ) n
=
( v A ) n − ( vB ) n
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 41
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.9


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting of the
bullet and panel. Apply the principle of
impulse and momentum.
• The final angular velocity is found
from the moments of the momenta and
impulses about A.
• The reaction at A is found from the
A 0.05-lb bullet is fired into the side of horizontal and vertical momenta and
a 20-lb square panel which is initially at impulses.
rest.
Determine a) the angular velocity of the
panel immediately after the bullet
becomes embedded and b) the impulsive
reaction at A, assuming that the bullet
becomes embedded in 0.0006 s.
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 42
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.9


SOLUTION:
• Consider a system consisting
of the bullet and panel. Apply
the principle of impulse and
momentum.
• The final angular velocity is
found from the moments of
moments about A: the momenta and impulses
about A.
mB v B (1412 ft ) + 0 =m P v2 (129 ft ) + I Pω2
2
v2 = (129 ft )ω2 1  20  18 
I P = 16 mPb 2 =    = 0.2329 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s
2
6  32.2  12 
 0.05 
 (1500 ) (1412 ) =  3220.2 (129 ω2 )(129 ) + 0.2329ω2
 32 . 2   

ω 2 = 4.67 rad s ω 2 = 4.67 rad s


v2 = (129 )ω2 = 3.50 ft s
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 43
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.9

• The reactions at A are found


from the horizontal and
vertical momenta and
impulses.

ω 2 = 4.67 rad s v2 = (129 )ω2 = 3.50 ft s


x components:
mB vB + Ax ∆ t = m p v2
 0.05   20 
  ( 1500 ) + Ax ( 0 . 0006 ) =  ( 3.50 )
 32.2   32.2 
Ax = −259 lb Ax = 259 lb
y components:
0 + Ay ∆ t = 0 Ay = 0

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 44


Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.10


SOLUTION:
• Consider the sphere and rod as a single
system. Apply the principle of impulse
and momentum.
• The moments about A of the momenta
and impulses provide a relation between
the final angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the sphere.
A 2-kg sphere with an initial velocity
of 5 m/s strikes the lower end of an 8- • The definition of the coefficient of
kg rod AB. The rod is hinged at A and restitution provides a second
initially at rest. The coefficient of relationship between the final angular
restitution between the rod and sphere velocity of the rod and velocity of the
is 0.8. sphere.

Determine the angular velocity of the • Solve the two relations simultaneously
rod and the velocity of the sphere for the angular velocity of the rod and
immediately after impact. velocity of the sphere.
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 45
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.10


SOLUTION:
• Consider the sphere and rod as a
single system. Apply the
principle of impulse and
momentum.
• The moments about A of the
momenta and impulses provide a
relation between the final
moments about A: angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the rod.
ms vs (1.2 m ) = ms v′s (1.2 m ) + mR vR′ ( 0.6 m ) + I ω ′
vR′ = r ω ′ = ( 0.6 m ) ω ′
1 mL2 = 1 ( 8 kg )( 1.2 m ) 2 = 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2
I = 12 12

( 2 kg )( 5 m s )(1.2 m ) = ( 2 kg ) v′s (1.2 m ) + ( 8 kg )( 0.6 m )ω ′( 0.6 m )


(
+ 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2 ω ′)
12 = 2.4 v′s + 3.84ω ′

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 46


Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.10

• The definition of the coefficient


of restitution provides a second
relationship between the final
angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the sphere.
• Solve the two relations
Moments about A: simultaneously for the angular
12 = 2.4 v′s + 3.84ω ′ velocity of the rod and velocity
of the sphere.
Relative velocities:
v′B − v′s = e( vB − vs )
(1.2 m )ω ′ − v′s = 0.8( 5 m s )
Solving,
ω ′ = 3.21rad/s ω ′ = 3.21rad/s

v′s = −0.143 m s v′s = 0.143 m s


© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 47
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.11


SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum to relate the velocity of the
package on conveyor belt A before the
impact at B to the angular velocity about
B after impact.
A square package of mass m moves • Apply the principle of conservation of
down conveyor belt A with constant energy to determine the minimum initial
velocity. At the end of the conveyor, angular velocity such that the mass
the corner of the package strikes a center of the package will reach a
rigid support at B. The impact is position directly above B.
perfectly plastic.
• Relate the required angular velocity to
Derive an expression for the minimum the velocity of conveyor belt A.
velocity of conveyor belt A for which
the package will rotate about B and
reach conveyor belt C.
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 48
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.11


SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to relate the velocity of the package on
conveyor belt A before the impact at B to angular velocity about B after impact.

Moments about B:

( mv1 ) ( 12 a ) + 0 = ( mv2 ) (
) + Iω 2
2
a 2 v2 = ( a )ω
2
2
2 I = 16 m a 2

( mv ) ( a ) + 0 = m( aω )( a ) + (
1
1 2 2
2
2 2
2 1 ma 2
6
)ω2
v1 = 43 aω 2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 49


Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Edition
Seventh

Sample Problem 17.11


• Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine
the minimum initial angular velocity such that the mass
center of the package will reach a position directly above B.
T2 + V2 = T3 + V3

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22

h2 = ( GB ) sin ( 45° + 15°)


= 2
(
1 m 2 aω
2 2 ) 2
+ 12 ( 16 ma2 )ω22 = 13 ma2ω22
= ( a ) sin 60° = 0.612a
2
2 V2 = Wh2

T3 = 0 (solving for the minimum ω2)


V3 = Wh3
1 ma 2ω 2 + Wh2 = 0 + Wh3
3 2
3W 3g
ω 22 = (
2 3
h − h2 ) = 2
( 0.707a − 0.612a ) = 0.285 g a
ma a

h3 = 2
a = 0.707 a v1 = 43 aω 2 = 43 a 0.285 g a v1 = 0.712 ga
2
© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 50