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1 DYNAMICS

7

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Plane Motion of Rigid Bodies:

Energy and Momentum Methods

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Contents

Introduction Systems of Rigid Bodies

Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body Conservation of Angular Momentum

Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body Sample Problem 17.6

Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion Sample Problem 17.7

Systems of Rigid Bodies Sample Problem 17.8

Conservation of Energy

Eccentric Impact

Power

Sample Problem 17.9

Sample Problem 17.1

Sample Problem 17.2 Sample Problem 17.10

Sample Problem 17.3 Sample Problem 17.11

Sample Problem 17.4

Sample Problem 17.5

Principle of Impulse and Momentum

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Introduction

• Method of work and energy and the method of impulse and

momentum will be used to analyze the plane motion of rigid

bodies and systems of rigid bodies.

problems involving displacements and velocities.

T1 + U1→2 = T2

problems involving velocities and time.

t2 t2

L1 + ∑ ∫ Fdt = L2 ( H O )1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = ( H O ) 2

t1 t1

the principle of impulse and momentum with the application of

the coefficient of restitution.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Method of work and energy is well adapted to

problems involving velocities and displacements.

Main advantage is that the work and kinetic

energy are scalar quantities.

• Assume that the rigid body is made of a large

number of particles.

T1 + U1→2 = T2

T1 , T2 = initial and final total kinetic energy of

particles forming body

U1→2 = total work of internal and external forces

acting on particles of body.

• Internal forces between particles A and B are equal

and opposite.

• In general, small displacements of the particles A

and B are not equal but the components of the

displacements along AB are equal.

• Therefore, the net work of internal forces is zero.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 4

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Work of a force during a displacement of its

point of application,

A2 s

2

U1→2 = ∫ F ⋅ dr = ∫ ( F cos α ) ds

A1 s1

• Consider the net work of two forces

F and − F

forming a couple of moment M during a

displacement of their points of application.

dU = F ⋅ dr1 − F ⋅ dr1 + F ⋅ dr2

= F ds 2 = Fr dθ

= M dθ

θ2

U1→2 = ∫ M dθ

θ1

= M (θ 2 − θ1 ) if M is constant.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Forces acting on rigid bodies which do no work:

• Forces applied to fixed points:

- reactions at a frictionless pin when the supported body

rotates about the pin.

of their point of application:

- reaction at a frictionless surface to a body moving along

the surface

- weight of a body when its center of gravity moves

horizontally

sliding on a fixed surface.

dU = F dsC = F ( vc dt ) = 0

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Consider a rigid body of mass m in plane motion.

T = 12 mv 2 + 12 ∑ Δmi vi′ 2

= 12 mv 2 + 12 (∑ ri′2Δmi )ω 2

= 12 mv 2 + 12 I ω 2

- the kinetic energy associated with the motion of

the mass center G and

- the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of

the body about G.

through O.

T = 12 ∑ Δmi vi2 + 12 ∑ Δmi ( riω ) 2 + 12 (∑ ri2Δmi )ω 2

= 12 I Oω 2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• For problems involving systems consisting of several rigid bodies, the

principle of work and energy can be applied to each body.

• We may also apply the principle of work and energy to the entire system,

T1 + U1→2 = T2 T1 ,T2 = arithmetic sum of the kinetic energies of

all bodies forming the system

U1→2 = work of all forces acting on the various

bodies, whether these forces are internal

or external to the system as a whole.

connected by inextensible cords, and meshed gears,

- internal forces occur in pairs of equal and opposite forces

- points of application of each pair move through equal distances

- net work of the internal forces is zero

- work on the system reduces to the work of the external forces

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Conservation of Energy

• Expressing the work of conservative forces as a

change in potential energy, the principle of work

and energy becomes

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

• Consider the slender rod of mass m.

T1 = 0, V1 = 0

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22

( )

2

(

= 12 m 12 lω ) 2

+ 12 2

1 ml ω =

12

1 ml

2

2 3

ω 2

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

1 ml 2 2 1

0= ω − mgl sin θ

• mass m 2 3 2

ω = sin θ

• released with zero velocity 3g

• determine ω at θ l

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 9

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Power

• For a body acted upon by force F and moving with velocity v ,

dU

Power = = F ⋅v

dt

• For a rigid body rotating with an

angular velocity ω and acted

upon by a couple of moment M parallel to the axis of rotation,

dU M dθ

Power = = = Mω

dt dt

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider the system of the

flywheel and block. The work

done by the internal forces exerted

by the cable cancels.

and the angular velocity of the

drum and flywheel are related by

v = rω

2 • Apply the principle of work and

For the drum and flywheel, I = 10.5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s .

The bearing friction is equivalent to a kinetic energy to develop an

couple of 60 lb ⋅ ft. At the instant shown, expression for the final velocity.

the block is moving downward at 6 ft/s.

Determine the velocity of the block after

it has moved 4 ft downward.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 11

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider the system of the flywheel and block. The work

done by the internal forces exerted by the cable cancels.

• Note that the velocity of the block and the angular velocity of

the drum and flywheel are related by

v 6 ft s v v

v = rω ω1 = 1 = = 4.80 rad s ω2 = 2 = 2

r 1.25 ft r 1.25

• Apply the principle of work and kinetic energy to develop an

expression for the final velocity.

T1 = 12 mv12 + 12 I ω12

1 240 lb 2 1

= ( 6 ft s ) + ( 10 . 5 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s )( 4 . 80 rad s ) 2

2 32.2 ft s 2 2

= 255 ft ⋅ lb

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22

2

1 240 2 1 v

= v2 + 10.5 2 = 7.09v22

2 32.2 2 1.25

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 12

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

T1 = 12 mv12 + 12 I ω12 = 255 ft ⋅ lb

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22 = 7.09v22

rotation are related by

s 4 ft

θ2 = 2 = = 3.20 rad

r 1.25 ft

Then,

U1→ 2 = W ( s2 − s1 ) − M (θ 2 − θ1 )

= ( 240 lb )( 4 ft ) − ( 60 lb ⋅ ft )( 3.20 rad )

= 768 ft ⋅ lb

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2

255 ft ⋅ lb + 768 ft ⋅ lb = 7.09 v22

v2 = 12.01ft s v2 = 12.01ft s

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting of the two

gears. Noting that the gear rotational

speeds are related, evaluate the final

kinetic energy of the system.

• Apply the principle of work and energy.

Calculate the number of revolutions

m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm required for the work of the applied

mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm moment to equal the final kinetic energy

of the system.

The system is at rest when a moment

• Apply the principle of work and energy to

of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B.

a system consisting of gear A. With the

Neglecting friction, a) determine the final kinetic energy and number of

number of revolutions of gear B before revolutions known, calculate the moment

its angular velocity reaches 600 rpm, and tangential force required for the

and b) tangential force exerted by gear indicated work.

B on gear A.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 14

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting of the two gears. Noting

that the gear rotational speeds are related, evaluate the

final kinetic energy of the system.

ωB =

( 600 rpm )( 2π rad rev )

= 62.8 rad s

60 s min

r 0.100

ω A = ω B B = 62.8 = 25.1rad s

rA 0.250

I B = mB k B2 = ( 3kg )( 0.080m ) 2 = 0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2

T2 = 12 I Aω A2 + 12 I Bω B2

= 163.9 J

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Apply the principle of work and energy. Calculate

the number of revolutions required for the work.

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2

0 + ( 6θ B ) J = 163.9J

27.32

θ B = 27.32 rad θB = = 4.35 rev

2π

• Apply the principle of work and energy to a system

consisting of gear A. Calculate the moment and

tangential force required for the indicated work.

r 0.100

θ A = θ B B = 27.32 = 10.93 rad

rA 0.250

T2 = 12 I Aω A2 = 12 ( 0.400 )( 25.1 ) 2 = 126.0 J

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2

0 + M A (10.93 rad ) = 126.0J

11.52

M A = rA F = 11.52 N ⋅ m F= = 46.2 N

0.250

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• The work done by the weight of the

bodies is the same. From the principle

of work and energy, it follows that each

body will have the same kinetic energy

after the change of elevation.

• Because each of the bodies has a

different centroidal moment of inertia,

the distribution of the total kinetic

A sphere, cylinder, and hoop, each energy between the linear and rotational

having the same mass and radius, are components will be different as well.

released from rest on an incline.

Determine the velocity of each body

after it has rolled through a distance

corresponding to a change of elevation

h.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• The work done by the weight of the bodies is the

same. From the principle of work and energy, it

follows that each body will have the same kinetic

energy after the change of elevation.

v

With ω =

r

2

2 2 2 v

T2 = 12 mv + 12 I ω = 12 mv + 12 I

r

I

= 12 m + 2 v 2

r

T1 + U1→ 2 = T2

I

0 + Wh = 12 m + 2 v 2

r

2Wh 2 gh

v2 = =

m + I r 2 1 + I mr 2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Because each of the bodies has a different

centroidal moment of inertia, the distribution of the

total kinetic energy between the linear and

rotational components will be different as well.

2 gh

v2 =

1 + I mr 2

Sphere : I = 52 mr 2 v = 0.845 2 gh

Cylinder : I = 12 mr 2 v = 0.816 2 gh

Hoop : I = mr 2 v = 0.707 2 gh

NOTE:

• For a frictionless block sliding through the same

distance, ω = 0, v = 2 gh

• The velocity of the body is independent of its mass

and radius.

• The velocity of the body does depend on

I = k2

mr 2 r2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 19

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• The weight and spring forces are

conservative. The principle of work and

energy can be expressed as

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

• Evaluate the initial and final potential

energy.

A 30-lb slender rod pivots about the

point O. The other end is pressed • Express the final kinetic energy in terms

against a spring (k = 1800 lb/in) until of the final angular velocity of the rod.

the spring is compressed one inch and • Based on the free-body-diagram

the rod is in a horizontal position. equation, solve for the reactions at the

If the rod is released from this position, pivot.

determine its angular velocity and the

reaction at the pivot as the rod passes

through a vertical position.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• The weight and spring forces are conservative. The

principle of work and energy can be expressed as

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

V1 = Vg + Ve = 0 + 12 kx12 = 12 (1800 lb in.)(1in.) 2

= 900 in ⋅ lb = 75 ft ⋅ lb

V2 = Vg + Ve = Wh + 0 = ( 30 lb )(1.5 ft )

1 ml 2

I = 12 = 45 ft ⋅ lb

1 30 lb • Express the final kinetic energy in terms of the angular

= ( 5 ft ) 2

12 32.2 ft s 2 velocity of the rod.

= 1.941lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22 = 12 m( rω 2 ) 2 + 12 I ω 22

1 30

= (1.5ω 2 ) 2 + 12 (1.941)ω 22 = 2.019ω 22

2 32.2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

From the principle of work and

energy,

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

0 + 75 ft ⋅ lb = 2.019ω 22 + 45 ft ⋅ lb ω 2 = 3.86 rad s

reactions at the pivot.

an = r ω 2 = (1.5 ft )( 3.86 rad s ) = 22.3 ft s

2 2 2 an = 22.3 ft s 2

at = rα at = rα

∑ M O = ∑ ( M O ) eff 0 = I α + m( r α ) r α =0

∑ Fx = ∑ ( Fx ) eff Rx = m ( r α ) Rx = 0

∑ Fy = ∑ ( Fy )eff R y − 30 lb = − man

=−

30 lb

32.2 ft s 2

( 22 . 3 ft s 2

)

R y = 9.22 lb

R = 9.22

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 22

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting of the two

rods. With the conservative weight force,

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

• Evaluate the initial and final potential

energy.

• Express the final kinetic energy of the

Each of the two slender rods has a system in terms of the angular velocities of

mass of 6 kg. The system is released the rods.

from rest with β = 60o.

• Solve the energy equation for the angular

Determine a) the angular velocity of velocity, then evaluate the velocity of the

rod AB when β = 20 , and b) the

o

point D.

velocity of the point D at the same

instant.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting of the two rods. With

the conservative weight force,

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

V1 = 2Wy1 = 2( 58.86 N )( 0.325 m )

= 38.26 J

= 15.10 J

(

W = mg = ( 6 kg ) 9.81m s 2 )

= 58.86 N

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Express the final kinetic energy of the system in terms

of the angular velocities of the rods.

v AB = ( 0.375 m )ω

Since vB is perpendicular to AB and vD is horizontal,

the instantaneous center of rotation for rod BD is C.

BC = 0.75 m CD = 2( 0.75 m ) sin 20° = 0.513 m

and applying the law of cosines to CDE, EC = 0.522 m

Consider the velocity of point B

vB = ( AB )ω = ( BC )ω AB ω BD = ω

vBD = ( 0.522 m )ω

1 ml 2 = 1 ( 6 kg )( 0.75 m ) 2 = 0.281kg ⋅ m 2

I AB = I BD = 12 12

1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2 + 1 mv 2 + 1 I ω 2

T2 = 12 AB 2 AB AB 12 BD 2 BD BD

1 ( 6 )( 0.375ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2 + 1 ( 6 )( 0.522ω ) 2 + 1 ( 0.281)ω 2

= 12 2 12 2

= 1.520ω 2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 25

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Solve the energy equation for the angular velocity,

then evaluate the velocity of the point D.

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2

0 + 38.26 J = 1.520ω 2 + 15.10 J

ω = 3.90 rad s

ω AB = 3.90 rad s

vD = ( CD )ω

= ( 0.513 m )( 3.90 rad s )

= 2.00 m s

vD = 2.00 m s

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Method of impulse and momentum:

- well suited to the solution of problems involving time and velocity

- the only practicable method for problems involving impulsive

motion and impact.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

attached to the mass center equal to their sum,

L = ∑ vi Δmi = mv

and a couple equal to the sum of their moments about the mass center,

H G = ∑ ri′ × vi Δmi

• For the plane motion of a rigid slab or of a rigid body symmetrical with

respect to the reference plane,

H G = Iω

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Principle of impulse and momentum for the plane motion of a rigid slab

or of a rigid body symmetrical with respect to the reference plane

expressed as a free-body-diagram equation,

- summing and equating momenta and impulses in the x and y

directions

- summing and equating the moments of the momenta and impulses

with respect to any given point

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Noncentroidal rotation:

- The angular momentum about O

I Oω = I ω + ( mv ) r

= I ω + ( mr ω ) r

(

= I + mr 2 ω )

- Equating the moments of the momenta and

impulses about O,

t2

I Oω1 + ∑ ∫ M O dt = I Oω 2

t1

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Motion of several rigid bodies can be analyzed by applying

the principle of impulse and momentum to each body

separately.

be convenient to apply the principle of impulse and

momentum to the system as a whole.

should include a momentum vector and/or a momentum couple.

do not generate nonzero net impulses.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• When no external force acts on a rigid body or a system of rigid

bodies, the system of momenta at t1 is equipollent to the system

at t2. The total linear momentum and angular momentum about

any point are conserved,

L1 = L2 ( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2

linear momentum may not be conserved, yet the angular

momentum about O is conserved,

( H 0 )1 = ( H 0 ) 2

y components of momenta and may be used to determine

two unknown linear impulses, such as the impulses of the

reaction components at a fixed point.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Considering each gear separately, apply

the method of impulse and momentum.

for the two gears simultaneously for the

unknown time and tangential force.

m A = 10 kg k A = 200 mm

mB = 3 kg k B = 80 mm

of M = 6 N ⋅ m is applied to gear B.

Neglecting friction, a) determine the

time required for gear B to reach an

angular velocity of 600 rpm, and b)

the tangential force exerted by gear B

on gear A.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 33

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Considering each gear separately, apply the method of impulse

and momentum.

moments about A:

0 − FtrA = − I A ( ω A ) 2

Ft ( 0.250 m ) = ( 0.400 kg ⋅ m )( 25.1rad s )

Ft = 40.2 N ⋅ s

moments about B:

0 + Mt − FtrB = I B ( ω B ) 2

( 6 N ⋅ m ) t − Ft ( 0.100 m )

= (0.0192 kg ⋅ m 2 )( 62.8 rad s )

• Solve the angular momentum equations for the two gears simultaneously

for the unknown time and tangential force.

t = 0.871 s F = 46.2 N

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of impulse and momentum

to find variation of linear and angular

velocities with time.

• Relate the linear and angular velocities

when the sphere stops sliding by noting

Uniform sphere of mass m and that the velocity of the point of contact is

radius r is projected along a rough zero at that instant.

horizontal surface with a linear

• Substitute for the linear and angular

velocity v1 and no angular velocity.

velocities and solve for the time at which

The coefficient of kinetic friction is

µk . sliding stops.

• Evaluate the linear and angular velocities

at that instant.

Determine a) the time t2 at which

the sphere will start rolling without

sliding and b) the linear and angular

velocities of the sphere

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill at time

Companies, Inc. Allt rights

. reserved. 17 - 35

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Apply principle of impulse and momentum

to find variation of linear and angular

velocities with time.

• Relate linear and angular velocities when

sphere stops sliding by noting that velocity

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 of point of contact is zero at that instant.

velocities and solve for the time at which

Nt − Wt = 0 N = W = mg

sliding stops.

x components: v2 = rω 2

mv1 − Ft = mv2

5 µk g

mv1 − µ k mgt = mv2 v2 = v1 − µ k gt v1 − µ k gt = r t

2 r

moments about G: 2 v1

t=

Ftr = I ω 2 7 µk g

( µ k mg ) tr = ( 52 mr 2 )ω 2 ω2 =

5 µk g

t

2 r

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 36

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Evaluate the linear and angular velocities

at that instant.

2 v1

v2 = v1 − µ k g

7 µk g

5

v2 = v1

7

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2

y components: N = W = mg 5 µ k g 2 v1

ω2 =

2 r 7 µ k g

x components: v2 = v1 − µ k gt

5 v1

ω2 =

5 µk g 7r

moments about G: ω2 = t

2 r

v2 = rω 2

5 µk g 2 v1

v1 − µ k gt = r t t=

2 r 7 µk g

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Observing that none of the external

forces produce a moment about the y

axis, the angular momentum is

conserved.

• Equate the initial and final angular

momenta. Solve for the final angular

Two solid spheres (radius = 3 in., velocity.

W = 2 lb) are mounted on a spinning • The energy lost due to the plastic impact

horizontal rod ( I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 , is equal to the change in kinetic energy

ω = 6 rad/sec) as shown. The balls are of the system.

held together by a string which is

suddenly cut. Determine a) angular

velocity of the rod after the balls have

moved to A’ and B’, and b) the energy

lost due to the plastic impact of the

spheres and stops.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 38

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Observing that none of the

external forces produce a

moment about the y axis, the

angular momentum is

conserved.

• Equate the initial and final

Sys Momenta1 + Sys Ext Imp1-2 = Sys Momenta2 angular momenta. Solve for

the final angular velocity.

2[ ( ms r1ω1 ) r1 + I S ω1 ] + I Rω1 = 2[ ( ms r2ω 2 ) r2 + I S ω 2 ] + I Rω 2

ms r12 + I S + I R

ω 2 = ω1

ms r22 + I S + I R

ω1 = 6 rad s I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

2 ma 2

2 2

2 lb

IS = = 2 ft = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

5 5 2

32.2 ft s 12

2 2

2 2 5 2 2 25 ω 2 = 2.08 rad s

mS r1 = = 0.0108 mS r2 = = 0.2696

32.2 12 32.2 12

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 39

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• The energy lost due to the

plastic impact is equal to the

change in kinetic energy of the

system.

I R = 0.25 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2 I S = 0.00155 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s 2

( ) (

T = 2 12 mS v 2 + 12 I S ω 2 + 12 I Rω 2 = 12 2mS r 2 + 2 I S + I R ω 2 )

T1 = 12 ( 0.275)( 6 ) 2 = 4.95 ft ⋅ lb

T2 = 12 ( 0.792)( 2.08) 2 = 1.71ft ⋅ lb

ΔT = T2 − T1 = 1.71 − 4.95 ∆T = −3.24 ft ⋅ lb

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 40

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

Eccentric Impact

( uA ) n = ( uB ) n

Period of deformation Period of restitution

Impulse = ∫ Rdt Impulse = ∫ Pdt

∫

e = coefficient of restitution =

Rdt

∫ Pdt

( v′B ) n − ( v′A ) n

=

( v A ) n − ( vB ) n

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 41

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting of the

bullet and panel. Apply the principle of

impulse and momentum.

• The final angular velocity is found

from the moments of the momenta and

impulses about A.

• The reaction at A is found from the

A 0.05-lb bullet is fired into the side of horizontal and vertical momenta and

a 20-lb square panel which is initially at impulses.

rest.

Determine a) the angular velocity of the

panel immediately after the bullet

becomes embedded and b) the impulsive

reaction at A, assuming that the bullet

becomes embedded in 0.0006 s.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 42

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider a system consisting

of the bullet and panel. Apply

the principle of impulse and

momentum.

• The final angular velocity is

found from the moments of

moments about A: the momenta and impulses

about A.

mB v B (1412 ft ) + 0 =m P v2 (129 ft ) + I Pω2

2

v2 = (129 ft )ω2 1 20 18

I P = 16 mPb 2 = = 0.2329 lb ⋅ ft ⋅ s

2

6 32.2 12

0.05

(1500 ) (1412 ) = 3220.2 (129 ω2 )(129 ) + 0.2329ω2

32 . 2

v2 = (129 )ω2 = 3.50 ft s

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 43

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

from the horizontal and

vertical momenta and

impulses.

x components:

mB vB + Ax ∆ t = m p v2

0.05 20

( 1500 ) + Ax ( 0 . 0006 ) = ( 3.50 )

32.2 32.2

Ax = −259 lb Ax = 259 lb

y components:

0 + Ay ∆ t = 0 Ay = 0

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider the sphere and rod as a single

system. Apply the principle of impulse

and momentum.

• The moments about A of the momenta

and impulses provide a relation between

the final angular velocity of the rod and

velocity of the sphere.

A 2-kg sphere with an initial velocity

of 5 m/s strikes the lower end of an 8- • The definition of the coefficient of

kg rod AB. The rod is hinged at A and restitution provides a second

initially at rest. The coefficient of relationship between the final angular

restitution between the rod and sphere velocity of the rod and velocity of the

is 0.8. sphere.

Determine the angular velocity of the • Solve the two relations simultaneously

rod and the velocity of the sphere for the angular velocity of the rod and

immediately after impact. velocity of the sphere.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 45

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Consider the sphere and rod as a

single system. Apply the

principle of impulse and

momentum.

• The moments about A of the

momenta and impulses provide a

relation between the final

moments about A: angular velocity of the rod and

velocity of the rod.

ms vs (1.2 m ) = ms v′s (1.2 m ) + mR vR′ ( 0.6 m ) + I ω ′

vR′ = r ω ′ = ( 0.6 m ) ω ′

1 mL2 = 1 ( 8 kg )( 1.2 m ) 2 = 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2

I = 12 12

(

+ 0.96 kg ⋅ m 2 ω ′)

12 = 2.4 v′s + 3.84ω ′

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

of restitution provides a second

relationship between the final

angular velocity of the rod and

velocity of the sphere.

• Solve the two relations

Moments about A: simultaneously for the angular

12 = 2.4 v′s + 3.84ω ′ velocity of the rod and velocity

of the sphere.

Relative velocities:

v′B − v′s = e( vB − vs )

(1.2 m )ω ′ − v′s = 0.8( 5 m s )

Solving,

ω ′ = 3.21rad/s ω ′ = 3.21rad/s

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 47

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and

momentum to relate the velocity of the

package on conveyor belt A before the

impact at B to the angular velocity about

B after impact.

A square package of mass m moves • Apply the principle of conservation of

down conveyor belt A with constant energy to determine the minimum initial

velocity. At the end of the conveyor, angular velocity such that the mass

the corner of the package strikes a center of the package will reach a

rigid support at B. The impact is position directly above B.

perfectly plastic.

• Relate the required angular velocity to

Derive an expression for the minimum the velocity of conveyor belt A.

velocity of conveyor belt A for which

the package will rotate about B and

reach conveyor belt C.

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 48

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

SOLUTION:

• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to relate the velocity of the package on

conveyor belt A before the impact at B to angular velocity about B after impact.

Moments about B:

( mv1 ) ( 12 a ) + 0 = ( mv2 ) (

) + Iω 2

2

a 2 v2 = ( a )ω

2

2

2 I = 16 m a 2

( mv ) ( a ) + 0 = m( aω )( a ) + (

1

1 2 2

2

2 2

2 1 ma 2

6

)ω2

v1 = 43 aω 2

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Edition

Seventh

• Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine

the minimum initial angular velocity such that the mass

center of the package will reach a position directly above B.

T2 + V2 = T3 + V3

T2 = 12 mv22 + 12 I ω 22

= 2

(

1 m 2 aω

2 2 ) 2

+ 12 ( 16 ma2 )ω22 = 13 ma2ω22

= ( a ) sin 60° = 0.612a

2

2 V2 = Wh2

V3 = Wh3

1 ma 2ω 2 + Wh2 = 0 + Wh3

3 2

3W 3g

ω 22 = (

2 3

h − h2 ) = 2

( 0.707a − 0.612a ) = 0.285 g a

ma a

h3 = 2

a = 0.707 a v1 = 43 aω 2 = 43 a 0.285 g a v1 = 0.712 ga

2

© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 - 50

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