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A directional growth movement made by a part of a stationary plant response to unilateral stimulus

Types of Tropism
stimulus
tropism response shoot root gravity
geotropism

unilateral light
phototropism

water
hydrotropism

negative positive

positive negative

no response positive

Importance of Geotropism
provide firm anchorage for roots ensure the plant can get adequate supply of water & mineral salts

To show Geotropism in Seedlings

in complete darkness plumule P Q R radicle after 2 days

in complete darkness

P Q R

(a) Beginning of experiment

(b) End of experiment

What has happened to the radicles and plumules ? Ans: The radicles grow downwards, while the plumules grow upwards.

in complete darkness plumule P Q R radicle after 2 days

in complete darkness

P Q R

(a) Beginning of experiment

(b) End of experiment

Why is it necessary to leave the apparatus in darkness ? Ans: To avoid any stimulus from light.

in complete darkness plumule P Q R radicle after 2 days

in complete darkness

P Q R

(a) Beginning of experiment

(b) End of experiment

Do the radicles show positive geotropism or negative geotropism ? Ans: Positive geotropism.

in complete darkness plumule P Q R radicle after 2 days

in complete darkness

P Q R

(a) Beginning of experiment

(b) End of experiment

What advantage do the seedlings have by showing such geotropism ? Ans: Roots grow downwards deep into the soil to provide a firm anchorage underground and absorb water and mineral salts in the soil.

Clinostat
for control experiments contains a cork disc which can be set to rotate

in a vertical or horizontal plane by a motor to make factors uniform (evenly distributed)

To show the effect of Gravity by using a Clinostat

plastic cover lined with moist blotting paper

seedling in X

X in complete darkness

seedling in Y Y

What is the purpose of marking the radicles at equal intervals ? Ans: To find out which region of the radicle grows faster.

plastic cover lined with moist blotting paper

seedling in X

X in complete darkness

seedling in Y Y

Does the direction of growth of the seedlings in clinostats X and Y change ? Ans: The radicle of the seedlings in clinostat X bends downwards in response to the pull of gravity

plastic cover lined with moist blotting paper

seedling in X

X in complete darkness

seedling in Y Y

Does the direction of growth of the seedlings in clinostats X and Y change ? Ans: since every side of the radicle of the seedling in clinostat Y is acted on by gravity, the radicle will grow straight horizontally.

plastic cover lined with moist blotting paper

seedling in X

X in complete darkness

seedling in Y Y

What is the purpose of setting up clinostat Y ? Ans: Serve as a control for comparison.

Importance of Phototropism
enables leaves to be in a position

to receive as much sunlight as possible for photosynthesis

To show Phototropism in Shoots

unilateral light

unilateral light

light-proof box

clinostat

in complete darkness

What has happened to the shoots of plants A, B and C ? Ans: The shoots in pot A respond by growing towards the light source. The shoot in pot B do not show any curvature but grow vertically upwards...

unilateral light

unilateral light

light-proof box

clinostat

in complete darkness

What has happened to the shoots of plants A, B and C ?

Ans: the shoots in pot C grow vertically upwards with slender and longer nodes, and carries smaller leaves which are yellow in colour.

unilateral light

unilateral light

light-proof box

clinostat

in complete darkness

What is the effect of the clinostat on the shoot of plant B ? Ans: The revolving clinostat cancel out the effect of unilateral light on the shoot of plant B.

unilateral light

unilateral light

light-proof box

clinostat

in complete darkness

What is the significance of phototropism to plants ?

Ans: This tropism ensures that a plant gets enough light energy for photosynthesis.

Importance of Hydrotropism
ensures that a plant gets enough

water as a raw material for photosynthesis & enough mineral salts to maintain normal growth

Experiments on Oat Coleoptiles


cut & replaced tip dark box few days later

decapitated Conclusions : The tip is responsible for growth

no growth

grows

Experiments on Oat Coleoptiles


unilateral light

few days later


black covers

Conclusion : the tip is the place responsible for bending

Experiments on Oat Coleoptiles


dark box

agar plate

few days later

Conclusions : the head must have produced a diffusible chemical substance which stimulates growth

Experiments on Oat Coleoptiles


bending directions bending directions mica plate

Can the explanation still work ?


the tip is put aside
Explanation of results : The side with the tip has a higher concentration of that particular chemical, the growth rate is faster than the other side

Auxins
commonest plant hormones regulate growth & other physiological

processes in plants produced by root tip / shoot tip they affect the elongation region of the tip

Effect on Plant Parts


positive growth shoot Growth of plant negative growth low conc. root auxin concentration high conc. low conc. positive no effect

high conc.

auxin concentration

plant growth shoot

root

negative

positive

Phototropism in Shoot

The shoot tip produces auxins which diffuse downward


The auxins diffuse to the shaded side due to the presence of unilateral light stimulates growth in shoot

High auxin concentration The shaded side grows faster

than the lighted side

The shoot bends towards the light

Geotropism in Root

The root tip produces auxins which diffuse to the elongation region

The auxins diffuse to the lower side due to gravity

High auxin concentration inhibits growth in root The lower side grows slower than the upper side

The root bends downward

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